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Luke Chapter Twenty-two


I. Content of the Chapter


The Days before the Suffering of the Son of Man the Savior

I. Men planed to kill Him (v.1-6).

II. The preparation of the Passover (v.7-13).

III. The last supper (v.14-23).

IV. There was also a dispute among the disciples, as to which of them should be considered the greatest (v.24-30).

V. He predicted that Peter would deny Him three times (v.31-34).

VI. He told the disciples that they should learn to protect themselves (v.35-38).

VII. The prayer in the garden of Gethsemane (v.39-40).

VIII. His being betrayed and arrested (v.47-53).

IX. Peter denied Him three times (v.54-62).

X. His being mocked and judged (v.63-71).


II. Verse by Verse commentary


Luke. 22:1 “Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread drew near, which is called Passover.

   YLT: “And the feast of the unleavened food was coming nigh, that is called Passover,”

   The Background: the Passover”, one of the three great feasts of the Jews every year, was purposed to remember that God delivered their patriarchs out of Egypt. It was held in the first month (the month Nisan) on the fourteenth day in the evening according to the Jewish calendar. And they would eat unleavened bread among the subsequent seven days, i.e. the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Exod. 12:15-19).

   Literal Meaning: “Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread drew near, which is called Passover.” In the time of the Lord Jesus, the common Jews had confused the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread. And they called the Passover the Feast of Unleavened Bread and they also called the Feast of Unleavened Bread the Passover.

   Enlightenment in the Word: the Lord Jesus is the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world (See John. 1:29) and was killed on the Passover.


Luke. 22:2 “And the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might kill Him, for they feared the people.

   YLT: “and the chief priests and the scribes were seeking how they may take him up, for they were afraid of the people.”

   Literal Meaning: And the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might kill Him” “The chief priests” were the Sadducees and most of “the scribes” were the Pharisees. The two religious parties were hostile to each other, however, they joined together to resist the Lord Jesus unexpectedly.

  “For they feared the people” During the period of the Passover every year, thousands upon thousands Jews in all parts went to Jerusalem to have the feast. Then, the population might multiply suddenly so that it would be difficult to keep the order. They feared the people, showing that they admitted the Lord Jesus was fully endorsed by the people.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) The chief priests and the elders of the people were actually utilized by Satan that they wanted to kill the Lord Jesus. Satan utilized not only sinners in the world but also clergymen. It shows that the whole world lies under the sway of the wicked one (1John. 5:19).

2) Without the participation of men, the type of the lamb of the Passover could not be fulfilled in the Lord. Those who rejected the Lord were actually used by God to help Him to accomplish His plan.


Luke. 22:3 “Then Satan entered Judas, surnamed Iscariot, who was numbered among the twelve.

   YLT: “And the Adversary entered into Judas, who is surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve,”

   Literal Meaning: Then Satan entered Judas, surnamed Iscariot” Judas had a wrong thought and opened his heart to wickedness and therefore he let Satan get a chance to step in.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) Though it was of the work of Satan that Judas betrayed the Lord, Judas himself was responsible for this because he did not resist the devil from his heart (See 1Pet. 5:9) and let it come to his heart easily.

2) Barclay said that the reason why Satan entered Judas is that Judas had opened the door of his heart. Whether men’s hearts are opened does not depend on the outward force but one the innermost motive.


Luke. 22:4 “So he went his way and conferred with the chief priests and captains, how he might betray Him to them.

   YLT: “and he, having gone away, spake with the chief priests and the magistrates, how he might deliver him up to them,”

   Literal Meaning: “captains” were those who were selected from the tribe of Levi and took charge of the order of the temple.

  “How he might betray Him to them.” It indicates that he wanted to find a chance that the multitudes were not at present to inform them to take Jesus, lest there would be an uproar among the people.


Luke. 22:5 “And they were glad, and agreed to give him money.

   YLT: “and they rejoiced, and covenanted to give him money,”

   Literal Meaning: “And they were glad” The chief priests and others were thinking hard to take Jesus and not to make an uproar from the people (See v.2). The advice of Judas certainly made them glad.

  “And agreed to give him money” “Thirty pieces of silver” is clearly recorded in another scripture (See Matt. 26:15). Every piece of silver weighs one shekel and the whole is thirty shekel which is equal to an evaluation of a slave (See Exod. 21:32).

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) Mary did not stint the fragrant oil which costs thirty denari because she loved the Lord. Judas betrayed the Lord for thirty pieces of sliver because he loved money. Whether one acts as Mary or Judas depends on whether he “loves the Lord” or “money” (See John. 12:4-6).

2) In the eyes of Judas and the chief priests the Lord Jesus was only like a slave who was worthy of thirty pieces of silver. If our evaluation towards the Lord is the same with them and we regard the Lord as usual, we may sell Him out in some circumstances (for example: someone denies the Lord in order to save his own life and someone sells truth and witness for status, fame, gain and etc).

3) Apparently, Judas sold the Lord out for thirty pieces of silver. But actually, he sold out his own soul for thirty pieces of silver (See Matt. 27:3-5; Acts. 1:18).

4) Judas sold himself out to the devil for thirty pieces of silver; Mary dedicated herself to the Lord in the fragrant oil which is worthy of thirty denarii.

5) Judas made merchandise of Christ. He whoever supposes that gain is godliness (1Tim. 6:5) and barters Christ’s grace for his own gain falls in the principle of Judas.


Luke. 22:6 “So he promised and sought opportunity to betray Him to them in the absence of the multitude.

   YLT: “and he agreed, and was seeking a favourable season to deliver him up to them without tumult.”

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) Mary “seized an opportunity” to give herself to the Lord. Judas “sought opportunity” to deliver the Lord to the power of darkness.

2) “Seize the opportunity” is to cherish the time (See Eph. 5:16). However, “sought opportunity” is to waste time.


Luke. 22:7 “Then came the Day of Unleavened Bread, when the Passover must be killed.

   YLT: “And the day of the unleavened food came, in which it was behoving the passover to be sacrificed,”

   The Background: there were seven days in the Day of the Unleavened Bread which starts from the sunset of the fourteenth day of the first month according to the Jewish calendar (the month Nisan) to the sunset of the twenty-first day (See Exod. 12:15-20). “When the Passover must be killed” The Passover must be killed in the afternoon of the fourteenth day of the first month (See Exod. 12:6). According to the informal way of counting among the Jews, the fourteenth day of the first month was also counted in the Feast of the Unleavened Bread. Therefore, the whole feast turned into eight days.

   Spiritual Meaning: “the Unleavened Bread” typifies that Christ is the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth and He makes those who believe in Him be a new lump and live a holy life (See 1Cor. 5:7-8).


Luke. 22:8 “And He sent Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat.’”

   YLT: “and he sent Peter and John, saying, ‘Having gone on, prepare to us the passover, that we may eat;’”

   The Background: “the Passover” Every household of the Jews, in the afternoon of the fourteenth day of the first month, ate the Feast of the Passover together at nightfall.

   Spiritual Meaning: “The Passover” typifies that Christ is our enjoyment of life who gives us strength to walk in the heavenly way (See Ex. 12:8-11).

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) On one hand, we must cleanse ourselves (“the Day of the Unleavened Bread” See v.7) and then we are able to come to the Lord (See Heb. 12:14) and enjoy Him as the provision of our life.

2)  On the other hand, we must enjoy the Lord as the provision of our life (“the Passover”) in order to live a holy life before God (“the Unleavened Bread” lasts seven days).


Luke. 22:9 “So they said to Him, Where do You want us to prepare?’”

   YLT: “and they said to him, ‘Where wilt thou that we might prepare?’”

   Meaning of Words: “prepare”: make ready, provide.


Luke. 22:10 “And He said to them, Behold, when you have entered the city, a man will meet you carrying a pitcher of water; follow him into the house which he enters.

   YLT: “And he said to them, ‘Lo, in your entering into the city, there shall meet you a man, bearing a pitcher of water, follow him to the house where he doth go in,”

Literal Meaning: “a man will meet you carrying a pitcher of water” According to the Jewish custom, only women could carry the pitcher of water (See Gen. 24:14-15). Therefore, if it was a man carrying the pitcher of water, it would be easy to distinguish him.

   Spiritual Meaning: “a man…carrying a pitcher of water” It symbolizes that the Holy Spirit that provides the water of life will lead the hearts that seek the Lord to the place where they could have communion with the Lord. 


Luke. 22:11 “Then you shall say to the master of the house, The Teacher says to you, Where is the guest room where I may eat the Passover with My disciples?’”

   YLT: “and ye shall say to the master of the house, The Teacher saith to thee, Where is the guest-chamber where the passover with my disciples I may eat?”

Literal Meaning: “the master of the house” according to the research of the Bible scholars, “the master of the house” might be the father or mother of the author of the Gospel of Mark. However, the Bible did not directly show us who it was, indicating that we had to know that everything was arranged by God and God Himself had prepared the Passover.

“Where is the guest room” Please note that “the guest room” here and “the inn” in the time of the birth of the Lord Jesus (See 2:7) are the same word in the original. The world does not have a room for the Lord. However, in the hearts of those who believe in Him and love Him, there is a large, furnished upper room (See v.12).

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) The Lord, the lord of all, can dominate everything to work for Him (See 19:30-35; Matt. 17:27).

2) The Lord had prepared for Himself many people who loved and served Him (See Rom. 11:4) in secret, so we should not see the outward appearance of things but trust the Lord absolutely------He Himself must have prepared everything.

3) The master of the house prepared “the Passover” for the Lord. Today, the leading brothers also prepare the “feast of the Lord” for the Lord. The owner of the feast is the Lord Jesus, so we do not have the right to refuse to allow believers to be assembled to break bread (i.e. the so-called Holy Communion).


Luke. 22:12 “Then he will show you a large, furnished upper room; there make ready.’”

   YLT: “and he shall show you a large upper room furnished, there make ready;’”

Literal Meaning: “a large, furnished upper room” it might be the upper chamber where the disciples, about a hundred and twenty, were gathered to pray before the day of Pentecost (See Acts. 1:13-15). It was called “the house of Mark” afterwards.


Luke. 22:13 “So they went and found it just as He had said to them, and they prepared the Passover.

   YLT: “and they, having gone away, found as he hath said to them, and they made ready the passover.”

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) “So they went and found it just as He had said to them.” The Lord’s word is faithful and is not Yes and No (See 2Cor. 1:19-20).

2) “So they went and found it just as He had said to them.” The Lord certainly has secretly prepared everything that He has clearly instructed to men. This is the confidence by which we serve the Lord.

3) As long as we obey the Lord’s “commandments”, we can enjoy Him as “the Passover”------the spiritual provision of life.


Luke. 22:14 “When the hour had come, He sat down, and the twelve apostles with Him.

   YLT: “And when the hour come, he reclined (at meat), and the twelve apostles with him,”

Spiritual Meaning: the Lord “sat down” with the disciples, symbolizing that the Lord had fellowship with the disciples and shared Himself with them (See 1Cor. 10:16-22).


Luke. 22:15 “Then He said to them, With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer;

   YLT: “and he said unto them, ‘With desire I did desire to eat this passover with you before my suffering,”

   Literal Meaning: “With fervent desire” The original text shows the strong and fervent desire. The Lord Jesus expressed that how urgent He was to have fellowship with those who are of Him.

   Spiritual Meaning: the Lord Jesus connected His suffering with the Feast of the Passover, implying that the crucified Christ was the Lamb of the Passover (See 1Cor. 5:7) who had been sacrificed for us so as to take away the sin of the world (See John. 1:29).

   Enlightenment in the Word: the Lamb of the Passover typifies Christ, in like manner, all the ceremonies of the Old Testament are the shadow of Christ (See Col. 2:16-17). Christ is the reality and meaning of all sacred things.


Luke. 22:16 “for I say to you, I will no longer eat of it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.’”

   YLT: “for I say to you, that no more may I eat of it till it may be fulfilled in the reign of God.’”

  Literal Meaning: “until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God” The words show that there will be abundant, real and everlasting feast in the kingdom of God for both God and men to enjoy (See v.30).

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) Though the Lord no longer drinks with us in the flesh, He will share the unlimited and abundant blessings with us in the eternal age. Therefore we break the bread, drink the cup today, and they are only a foretaste of the feast of “the kingdom of God”. The blessing (feast) we enjoy will never cease in the eternal age.

2) The hope of our breaking the bread and drinking the cup is to drink new with the Lord in the kingdom of God the Father. The way for believers to enter into the kingdom and enjoy the blessings forever is to have habitual fellowship with Christ’s death on the cross today------through many tribulations, we must enter into the kingdom of God (Acts. 14:22).


Luke. 22:17 “Then He took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this and divide it among yourselves;

   YLT: “And having taken a cup, having given thanks, he said, ‘Take this and divide to yourselves,”

   The Background: according to the Jewish customs of the Passover, they took the cup for four times. They ate bitter herbs before the unleavened bread and also passed the cup to each other to drink the wine and this cup symbolized “the cup of pain”. When they ate the unleavened bread and mutton, they passed the cup to each other again and this cup symbolized “the cup of blessing”.

   Spiritual Meaning: cup” symbolizes the “portion” that we deserve before God. In Adam, what a sinner deserves is “the cup of God’s wrath” (See Rev. 14:10). However, the Lord Jesus had drunk that cup on the cross for us (See John. 18:11). Therefore the nature of the cup had changed from “the cup of pain” to “the cup of blessing” (See 1Cor. 10:16; Ps. 23:5). The blood of the Lord shed on the cross made the sins of those who believe in Him be remitted. All blessing of God and even Himself become the portion of our cup (See Ps. 16:5). Therefore it is called “the cup of salvation” (See Ps. 116:13).

  Believers share the cup of salvation, showing that it is the communion of the blood of Christ (See 1Cor. 10:16), i.e. partaking in the fellowship of the blood of Christ.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) “The curse endured He, the blessing enjoy we.” He bore the punishment of sins for us and made us enjoy the good blessing.

2)    “He took the cup and gave thanks.” The Lord received the cross with thanksgiving, which was different from our usual complaints in similar situations.


Luke. 22:18 “for I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.’”

   YLT: “for I say to you that I may not drink of the produce of the vine till the reign of God may come.’”


Luke. 22:19 “And He took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, This is My body which is given for you; do this in remembrance of Me.’”

   YLT: “And having taken bread, having given thanks, he brake and gave to them, saying, ‘This is my body, that for you is being given, this do ye to remembrance of me.’”

   The Background: in the Feast of the Passover, it was customary for the householder to break the bread. When breaking the bread, the householder took the bread in his hand and said, “This is the bread of affliction that our ancestors had eaten in Egypt------“the bread in the hand” represented “the bread of that day”.

   Literal Meaning: “And He took bread, gave thanks” V.19 and v.20 should be another paragraph. The Lord here transformed the Feast into the Supper of the Lord (See 1Cor. 11:23-27).

“This is My body” Here “this is” refers to “this represents” or “this means”.

  “Which is given for you” The Lord predicted that He would be sacrificed for all believers.

   Spiritual Meaning: “bread” symbolizes the body of the Lord Jesus. “Broke it” symbolizes that His body was broken for us on the cross.

  Concerning the spiritual meaning of the bread and the cup, there are following several different kinds of opinions in Christianity in the two thousand years:

  1) The “Transubstantiation” of the Roman Catholic Church: they held that after thanks the bread and the cup change into the body and blood of Christ.

  2) The “Consubstantiation” of Luther, Martin: he held that after thanks Christ hides and exists in the constitution of the bread and the cup.

  3) The “Dynamic Presence” of Calvin: he held that after thanks, there are spiritual power and blessing in the bread and the cup and men could obtain them only through eating the bread and drinking the cup.

  4) The “Symbolic” of Zwingli: he held that after thanks, the bread and the cup are only the symbolic signs. The faith, love and hope in believers are stirred up through eating the bread, drinking the cup and remembering the Lord.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) Christ was “broken” for us and delivered His holy life to us so that we are able to share His life by this, thus becoming a mysterious body of Christ (See 1Cor. 12:17, 27).

2)  The Lord gives Himself to us and what do we give to Him?

3) Since it is the communion of the blood of Christ and the body of Christ (See 1Cor. 10:16-17), we should be bound up with each other and take care of each other (See 1Cor. 12:12-27).


Luke. 22:20 “Likewise He also took the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new covenant in My blood, which is shed for you.

   YLT: “In like manner, also, the cup after the supping, saying, ‘This cup [is] the new covenant in my blood, that for you is being poured forth.”

   Literal Meaning: “This cup is the new covenant in My blood” “Covenant” refers to contract or will. The Lord meant that His blood which is shed for us is the proof to set up the New Testament (See Heb. 9:14-15).

  “Which is shed for you” The word “you” represent “all believers of the New Testament”.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) The body of the Lord which is broken for us and His blood which is shed for us become the proof of the new covenant------the crucified Christ is the foundation of all blessing of the New Testament.

2) Believers break the bread and drink the cup to announce the death of the Lord. We do so in remembrance of Him (See 1Cor. 11:24-26).


Luke. 22:21 “But behold, the hand of My betrayer is with Me on the table.

   YLT: “`But, lo, the hand of him delivering me up [is] with me on the table,”

The Background: According to customs at that time, when someone had dinner with others, it indicated that he was stating, “you are my friend and I will never do anything that hurts you.”

Literal Meaning: the hand of My betrayer is with Me on the table.” The Lord said so for the purpose of expecting that Judas could pull back before it was too late and He did not want to see him perish. Actually, the council could also take Jesus without the help of Judas and they merely wanted to find an “opportunity” when the multitudes were absent.

Please note that according to the Gospel of John, Judas who betrayed the Lord had left the room and gone out (See John. 13:30) after the Lord dipped the morsel to him in the Feast (v.15-18) and it took place before the Lord set the Supper in v.19-20. Here Luke went back and recorded the dialogue of the Feast and he did not record it according to the order of time.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) The Lord obviously knew that Judas was about to betray Him. But He still sat and ate with him, showing that how tolerant and merciful He was.

2) Today in the church, those with whom we have the closest fellowship may become drastic opponents.


Luke. 22:22 “And truly the Son of Man goes as it has been determined, but woe to that man by whom He is betrayed!’”

   YLT: “and indeed the Son of Man doth go according to what hath been determined; but wo to that man through whom he is being delivered up.’”

Literal Meaning: “And truly the Son of Man goes as it has been determined” “It has been determined” refers to the plan that God has determined in the eternal age, i.e. the way of redemption. The prophecies in the book of Psalm chapter 22 and the book of Isaiah chapter 53 may possibly rise in the mind of the Lord Jesus at that time.

“But woe to that man by whom He is betrayed” Though the death of the Lord Jesus has been determined by God, Judas could not shirk his own responsibility because he was utilized by the devil willingly.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) God can use positive man to fulfill His will and He can also use negative man (Judas) to facilitate His will. However, we would rather be “vessels” made by firewood than the firewood which were used to make vessels.

2) What the Lord is concerned about is not His own safety but the soul of the one who betrayed Him.

3) The significance of men’s life lies in Christ. If we do not love Christ wholeheartedly, or even betray Christ for the sake of benefits------no matter it is worldly or earthly, or spiritual or heavenly. How meaningless such life is and how miserable and vain the end is! It is truly that “woe to that man”. 


Luke. 22:23 “Then they began to question among themselves, which of them it was who would do this thing.

   YLT: “And they began to reason among themselves, who then of them it may be, who is about to do this thing.”


Luke. 22:24 “Now there was also a dispute among them, as to which of them should be considered the greatest.

   YLT: “And there happened also a strife among them who of them is accounted to be greater.”

   Literal Meaning: “now there was also a dispute among them” is translated as “there happened also a strife among them” in the original. The “also” shows that their dispute was caused by their argument about the order of seats.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) Not only the world dispute which of them should be the greatest but also this trouble happened among Believers in the church.

2) The inclination to be the greatest is of the life of the old Adam. Only when men live in the spiritual life of the new man could they solve this problem.


Luke. 22:25 “And He said to them, The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them, and those who exercise authority over them are called benefactors.'

   YLT: “And he said to them, ‘The kings of the nations do exercise lordship over them, and those exercising authority upon them are called benefactors;”

   The Background: “benefactors” are used by the rulers in the Middle East or Rome to proclaim themselves. The common people vote and give the title “benefactors” to the rulers in order to show the honor of the kings. However, their names always fall short of the reality.

   Literal Meaning: “those who exercise authority over them are called ‘benefactors’” The kings of the Gentiles are imperious and brutal. However, they still hope that the people call them “benefactors”.

   Enlightenment in the Word: in the earthly kingdom, all positions are set so as to exercise authority over others. The spirit of the world loves to be the greatest and reign and dominate others.


Luke. 22:26 “But not so among you; on the contrary, he who is greatest among you, let him be as the younger, and he who governs as he who serves.

   YLT: “but ye [are] not so, but he who is greater among you let him be as the younger; and he who is leading, as he who is ministering;”

   Literal Meaning: “But not so among you” It does not mean that believers should not respect the authority on the earth, but that believers should have different view towards the spiritual authority.

  “On the contrary, he who is greatest among you, let him be as the younger” “Who is greatest” refers to being honorable than the common people. “The younger” should be inferior to the elder according to the convention.

  “And he who governs as he who serves” “He who governs” refers to leaders. According to the convention, leaders should be served by others.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) “But not so among you” Men in the world lust for high status to exercise authority over others. This spirit should never be infiltrated into the church.

2) The way to “be greatest” in the church is totally different from that in the world. “He who governs” in the church does not exercise authority over others (v.25) but serves others.

3) In the heavenly kingdom, all the positions are set to serve, look after, perfect and shepherd others (1Pet. 5:1-3, Acts. 20:28, Eph. 4:11).

4) Seriously speaking, in the kingdom (church), there is not difference in positions, but differences in gifts, administrations and operations (Rom. 12:4, 1Cor. 12:4-6).

5) In the kingdom, the one who is greater may have less freedom. On the contrary, the more one humbles himself and suffers, the less the free will he has, the greater he will be manifested.


Luke. 22:27 “For who is greater, he who sits at the table, or he who serves? Is it not he who sits at the table? Yet I am among you as the One who serves.

   YLT: “for who is greater? he who is reclining (at meat), or he who is ministering? is it not he who is reclining (at meat)? and I I am in your midst as he who is ministering.”

   Literal Meaning: “he who sits at the table” It shows the insight and view of the common people.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) “Yet I am among you as the One who serves.” it showed that the Lord did not just say it in vain------in demanding so He did not exclude Himself. The Lord set a good example with His conduct. The spiritual leaders in the church have to match their words with deeds.

2) “Yet I am among you as the One who serves.” Today the Lord, who is in us, still serves us day by day so that we could walk in the spiritual way.

3) The Lord is the greatest, but He did not come to be served, but to serve and even gave His life to others (Pill. 2:8) so that many would be redeemed.

4) The greater one is, the easier it is for him to serve others. The younger one is, the more difficult it is for him to serve others. The youngest one may be unable to serve one person. The Lord is the infinite and therefore He could serve men without any limitation.

5) We may think that we serve the Lord. But actually, it is the Lord that serves us. He whoever cannot enjoy the service of the Lord is unable to serve the Lord well.

6) The Lord wanted us to learn from His example: do not mind status and serve men with whole heart. And our highest and greatest service is to let our “selves” be crucified.


Luke. 22:28But you are those who have continued with Me in My trials.

   YLT: “`And ye ye are those who have remained with me in my temptations,”

   Literal Meaning: “in My trials” It refers to His hard life and being detested and rejected by men that He had experienced from the time when the Lord Jesus was tempted by the devil to the time when He was crucified on the cross.


Luke. 22:29 “And I bestow upon you a kingdom, just as My Father bestowed one upon Me,

   YLT: “and I appoint to you, as my Father did appoint to me, a kingdom,”

   Meaning of Words: “bestow”: appoint, dispose by compact.

   Literal Meaning: “And it bestow upon you a kingdom” “Kingdom” here specially indicates that during the kingdom of a thousand years, the overcoming saints partake in the reward of the kingdom (See Rev. 20:4-6).

   Enlightenment in the Word: if indeed we suffer with Him (See v.28), that we may also be glorified together (Rom. 8:17).


Luke. 22:30 “that you may eat and drink at My table in My kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.’”

   YLT: “that ye may eat and may drink at my table, in my kingdom, and may sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.’”

   Literal Meaning: “that you may eat and drink at My table in My kingdom” “Eating and drinking at the table” is the sign of rejoice and blessing. It refers to partaking in the enjoyment of the reward and preparation of God’s kingdom.

  “And sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.” “Sitting on the thrones” is the sign of reigning and gaining the glory. “Judging” not only refers to judging right and wrong but also means managing and dominating the people. “The twelve tribes of Israel” refers to the people of Israel in a narrow sense and all the people in a broad sense.

When the Lord comes back, He brings in the kingdom of a thousand years. At that time, the Lord shall reign on the throne (Rev. 11:15) and thrones shall be given to the overcomers who have followed Him, including the twelve apostles who will judge Israel and the peoples (Rev. 20:4).

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) Since God is righteous, He will never disregard our intention and deeds to leave all things to follow Him and we will gain reward assuredly.

2) We are saved by God’s grace (Eph. 2:8) and we gain the reward of the kingdom by men’s deeds (Rev. 22:12).


Luke. 22:31 “And the Lord said, Simon, Simon! Indeed, Satan has asked for you, that he may sift you as wheat.

   YLT: “And the Lord said, `Simon, Simon, lo, the Adversary did ask you for himself to sift as the wheat,”

   The Background: “a sifter” is a kind of tool which is used to separate the wheat and other things. One puts the wheat which has not been sifted (including chaff and sand) in the sifter and holds the two edges of the sifter with two hands. And he sifts the sifter up and down and all around so that the chaff and sand would leak from the apertures of the sifter and the wheat still stays in the sifter.

   Literal Meaning: “Satan has asked for you” means that “Satan has asked to gain you”. It is allowed to tempt those who are of God (See Job. 1:12; 2:6).

  “That he may sift you as wheat.” The “sift” here does not refer to the positive function of sifting away the useless things. The procedure of the upheaval of sifting the wheat is used to describe how Satan uses violent ways to lure and tempt disciples by gain or threaten and attack disciples by threats and disasters in order to make their faith fail. In sum, the sifting denotes the great test.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) Obviously the Lord did not ask God to remove the temptation because temptations are the inevitable phenomenon in the world and He did not cease the sifting of the wheat. Though the temptations are unavoidable, there will be the merciful hand of the Mighty God.

2) There is no doubt that all that we encounter is arranged by God. However, many attacks are from Satan.

3) The Lord Jesus wants to remove the chaff with fan (See 3:17) and Satan wants to sift away the wheat.


Luke. 22:32 “But I have prayed for you, that your faith should not fail; and when you have returned to Me, strengthen your brethren.’”

   YLT: “and I besought for thee, that thy faith may not fail; and thou, when thou didst turn, strengthen thy brethren.’”

   Literal Meaning: “and when you have returned to Me, strengthen your brethren” “Have returned” does not mean being saved, but standing up again after falling.

  The Lord predicted that Peter would become the leader of all disciples again after Peter had fallen (See John 21:15-17; Acts. 2:14).

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) The aim that the Lord “prayed” for us is not to let us be delivered from the test but that “our faith should not fail” in the test.

2) The reason why believers could hold fast faith is that the Lord makes intercession for us (See Heb. 7:25). If we feel that we are weak in faith, please remember that the Lord is praying for us.

3) It is the Lord that has “prayed” for us to strengthen us and “make our faith not fail” so that we could “return…strengthen brethren”. When Satan is sifting us, we do need the intercession of the Lord.

4) Many times, God allows us to experience some dreadful and urgent things in order to see whether our faith weakens in the test. The true faith won’t be weakened at all.

5) Christians, you should pay attention to your faith because only faith could make you receive the blessing from above. One could not make one gain something from the throne of God through prayer unless he prays by faith. Faith is the wire which connects the heaven and the earth. By faith we could convey our request to God and God could communicate His answer of love with us.

6) Will you be defeated by Satan today? We could hide us behind the back of the Lord by faith. Without faith, we cannot call upon God. Faith is the only way to reach unto the heaven and if this way is blocked up, how could we have communion with God? Faith enables us to contact with the heaven.

7) Faith enables us to put on the power of Jehovah. Faith enables “God to be for us” (Rom. 8:31). Faith enables us to consume the power of the Hades and bruise the head of the serpent and the dragon. Oh, how miserable our states would be without faith! And therefore, Christians, we should pay attention to our faith. “If you can believe, all things are possible to him who believes” (Mark. 9:23).

8) Tests try our characters and make us be exposed before others. It’s better for us to find out our weakness today than to regret before the judgment-seat that day. Since He has not held back the tests, He must pray for us and He asks that our faith should not fail at least.


Luke. 22:33 “But he said to Him, Lord, I am ready to go with You, both to prison and to death.’”

   YLT: “And he said to him, `Sir, with thee I am ready both to prison and to death to go;’”

   Literal Meaning: Peter did have the willingness to die with the Lord together, however, he did not know his weakness and he said the irresponsible words.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) The self-confidence is the root of the failure of believers (See v.34) because self-confidence makes us be neglectful in taking precautions.

2) Many times, the spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak. Therefore we should watch and pray (See Mark. 14:38).

3) “One is unable to do what he wants very much to do.”------one still cannot do something if he only has willingness and does not have power; believers should never work by the flesh.


Luke. 22:34 “Then He said, I tell you, Peter, the rooster shall not crow this day before you will deny three times that you know Me.’”

   YLT: “and he said, ‘I say to thee, Peter, a cock shall not crow to-day, before thrice thou mayest disown knowing me.’”

   Literal Meaning: “I tell you, Peter” “Peter” means “stone”. The Lord called him with this meaning name with the purpose of reminding him that the reason why one could stand does not lie in that he is stronger than others but the Lord Himself.

  “The rooster shall not crow this day” means before the depth of tonight (See Mark. 13:35).

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) Environment is the best tool of God to manifest our “selves”; sometimes the Lord arranges for us some dark environment (“the rooster shall not crow this day”) and permits us to experience frustrations and stumble (“you will deny three times that you know Me”) in order to make us know ourselves.

2) The experience of failure is still advantageous to us------it makes us no longer trust in ourselves but fully in Him (See 2Cor. 1:9).


Luke. 22:35 “And He said to them, When I sent you without money bag, knapsack, and sandals, did you lack anything? So they said, Nothing.’”

   YLT: “And he said to them, `When I sent you without bag, and scrip, and sandals, did ye lack anything?’ and they said, ‘Nothing.’”

   Meaning of Words: “knapsack”: it is used to keep foods.

   Literal Meaning: “without money bag, knapsack” “Money bag” denotes the preparation of money and “bag” refers to the preparation of bread. The Lord has ordained to those that announce to the glad tidings to live of the glad tidings (1Cor. 9:14). Therefore workers of the Lord, being sent out by the Lord to work among God’s people, should not superfluously prepare for the daily necessities.

  “Without sandals” It does not indicate that they do not have sandals but that they do not have the extra sandals.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) The Lord’s sending and presence ensure the need of the workers of the Lord.

2) The principle of the life of the Lord’s workers is neither to prepare, nor to plan, nor to consider for themselves, but to prove in him that God is able to feed us and He takes the responsibility for us all.

3) Workers of the Lord should have faith towards God and should not trust on the uncertainty of riches, but in the God who affords us all things richly for enjoyment (1Tim. 6:17).

4) Those who serve the Lord should not be distracted by material enjoyment on earth. Having sustenance and covering, we will be content with these (1Tim. 6:8).


Luke. 22:36 “Then He said to them, But now, he who has a money bag, let him take it, and likewise a knapsack; and he who has no sword, let him sell his garment and buy one.

   YLT: “Then said he to them, ‘But, now, he who is having a bag, let him take [it] up, and in like manner also a scrip; and he who is not having, let him sell his garment, and buy a sword,”

   The Background: “and he who has no sword, let him sell his garment and buy one” At that time, men have the sword on the journey just as they have the money bag and knapsack.

   Literal Meaning: But now, he who has a money bag, let him take it, and likewise a knapsack” “Now” shows that the times are different: 1) The conditions of the disciples are different------they have experienced the provision of the Lord; 2) the environments are different------the attitudes of men who they would contact have changed; 3) the tasks are different------the disciples will preach the glad tidings to the Gentiles.

  “And he who has no sword, let him sell his garment and buy one.” The Lord Jesus did not encourage His disciples to resort to violence. He used the metaphor to show the hardships and dangers of the current situation and encouraged them to learn to defend themselves.

   Spiritual Meaning: “the money bag and the knapsack” shows their determination of self-supporting. Those who go forth for the sake of the Lord’s name take nothing from the Gentiles (3John. 7).

  “And he who has no sword, let him sell his garment and buy one.” This sentence includes the following hidden meanings:

  a. The sword symbolizes the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God (Eph. 6:17). Selling the garment and buying the sword means that one does not rely on his works but the word of the Lord.

  b. The sword symbolizes the power of the authority (See Rom. 13:4). Selling the garment and buying the sword means that one does not rely on his own dignity but the authority that God has established. 

  c. The sword symbolizes the power of self-defense. Selling the garment and buying the sword means that one should learn to not maintain men’s face and should know how to beware of men (See Matt. 10:16-17).

  d. According to the literal meaning, the sword is used to defend the wild animals on the road.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) After believers have learnt how to live a faithful life by relying on the Lord (See v.35), they could still live a faithful life with the money bag and knapsack.

2) When dealing with the world, believers should see through all devices of Satan (2Cor. 2:11) and the silly loses do not have any spiritual value. However, if we know that it is the will of God, we should not withdraw even though we clearly know that it is a trap.

3) Believers should not suffer the useless loses or be hurt by others. However, we should not make others suffer loses to hurt them.


Luke. 22:37 “For I say to you that this which is written must still be accomplished in Me: And He was numbered with the transgressors.' For the things concerning Me have an end.’”

   YLT: “for I say to you, that yet this that hath been written it behoveth to be fulfilled in me: And with lawless ones he was reckoned, for also the things concerning me have an end.’”

   Literal Meaning: “And He was numbered with the transgressors” This sentence is quoted from Is. 53:12.


Luke. 22:38 “So they said, Lord, look, here are two swords. And He said to them, It is enough.’”

   YLT: “And they said, `Sir, lo, here [are] two swords;’ and he said to them, `It is sufficient.’”

   Literal Meaning: “Look, here are two swords” The disciples misunderstood the Lord and they thought that they could defend themselves and the Lord with “two swords”.

  “And He said to them, ‘It is enough’” It does not mean that the two swords are enough and it means that the Lord was misunderstood by them and therefore the talk was ceased and the Lord did not speak any more (See Deut. 3:26).


Luke. 22:39 “Coming out, He went to the Mount of Olives, as He was accustomed, and His disciples also followed Him.

   YLT: “And having gone forth, he went on, according to custom, to the mount of the Olives, and his disciples also followed him,”

   The Background: “He went to the Mount of Olives, as He was accustomed” There was a garden of olive on the hillside of the Mount Olives and it was called “Gethsemane”. It was on the other side of the valley of Kidron which was about one point two kilometer away from the city wall of Jerusalem. Jesus often restored with His disciples in that garden (See John. 18:1-2). It was said that the garden was the possession of the household of Mark.

Spiritual Meaning: the prayer of the Lord Jesus in the garden of Gethsemane typified that He was pressed and tortured alone there (the meaning of Gethsemane in the original) and spread the oil (which typifies the Holy Spirit) to be our Comforter (See John. 7:39; 16:7).


Luke. 22:40 “When He came to the place, He said to them, Pray that you may not enter into temptation.’”

   YLT: “and having come to the place, he said to them, `Pray ye not to enter into temptation.’”

   Literal Meaning: “When He came to the place”: they came to the garden of Gethsemane.

  “You may not enter into temptation” Temptation refers to the serious test which may lead to the failure of faith. Please note that this sentence does not indicate that prayer enables us to overcome temptation but that prayer keeps us away from falling into temptation.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) The only way to avoid the temptation of Satan is to “pray”.

2) We deal with the attacks of the enemy by praying instead of “two swords” (v.38).


Luke. 22:41 “And He was withdrawn from them about a stone's throw, and He knelt down and prayed,

   YLT: “And he was withdrawn from them, as it were a stone’s cast, and having fallen on the knees he was praying,”

   Enlightenment in the Word: The Lord’s disciples were unable to watch with Him and share the suffering because of their weakness. However, the Lord did not force them to pray with Him and He departed from them and prayed alone. This shows that though the corporate prayer is important, sometimes the individual prayer, on the contrary, touches the feeling of God more.


Luke. 22:42 “saying, Father, if it is Your will, take this cup away from Me; nevertheless not My will, but Yours, be done.’”

   YLT: “saying, ‘Father, if Thou be counselling to make this cup pass from me ; but, not my will, but Thine be done.’”

   Spiritual Meaning: “take this cup away from Me” “cup” means suffering and death (See 10:38). “This cup” is the cup of God’s wrath (See Rev. 14:10) and originally it is the portion that we deserve. However, God sent the Lord Jesus to the earth so as to let Him replace us to drink this cup, i.e. letting Him bear sins and die on the cross. Therefore the cup also denotes the death of the cross.

  The Lord there touched the heart of God the Father in order to make sure whether there is another way besides “the death of the cross” to fulfill God’s will.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) “Father” The Lord’s cry shows that all our environments and misfortune are measured to us by God the Father and He never treats us badly without reason.

2) “Nevertheless not My will, but Yours, be done.” The key for the Lord to overcome is to fully obey the will of the Father.

3) Without the obedience in the garden of Gethsemane, there won’t be the death of the cross in Golgotha. Obedience should be before the cross.

4) God’s will to believers is to let us deny ourselves, take up our crosses and follow the Lord (See 9:23).


Luke. 22:43 “Then an angel appeared to Him from heaven, strengthening Him.

   YLT: “And there appeared to him a messenger from heaven strengthening him;”

   Literal Meaning: here the angel ministered to Him (See Mark. 1:13) because Jesus was still restrained and limited by the flesh in His humanity and He needed the service of the angel (See Heb. 1:14).


Luke. 22:44 “And being in agony, He prayed more earnestly. Then His sweat became like great drops of blood falling down to the ground.

   YLT: “and having been in agony, he was more earnestly praying, and his sweat became, as it were, great drops of blood falling upon the ground.”

   Literal Meaning: “And being in agony” The Lord Jesus is both God and man. In His humanity, He was a man subject to like passions as we are (See James. 5:17) and therefore He would weep and be troubled (See John. 11:33, 35). However, the reason why the Lord was distressed is not the fear of death but that He feared to be forsaken by God because of bearing our sins (See Mark. 15:34).

  “Then His sweat became like great drops of blood” It may describe that the Lord Jesus was extremely painful and He sweated painfully as if He shed blood. It may also indicate that He shed the sweat and blood. When men are under extreme pain and pressure, the blood capillaries would burst and the blood would seep through the skin and shed with sweat.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) The true experience of the cross is to make one’s soul suffer agony in order to obey the will of God.

2) The Lord Jesus still obeyed the will of the Father when He was in agony. It shows the principle of the cross: one does not face the difficulty firmly by the fleshly bravery when he is strong; one still chooses the will of God the Father when he is extremely weak and hard and it seems that it has been beyond his ability. And therefore we should not lose our faithfulness towards the Lord on the excuse of “our weakness”. 

3) The Lord Himself has suffered being tempted and therefore He is able to be touched with the feeling of our infirmities (See Heb. 2:18; 4:15).


Luke. 22:45 “When He rose up from prayer, and had come to His disciples, He found them sleeping from sorrow.

   YLT: “And having risen up from the prayer, having come unto the disciples, he found them sleeping from the sorrow,”

   Literal Meaning: “He found them sleeping from sorrow” The reason why they slept was sorrow and the lack of prayer and therefore the Lord asked them to rise and pray (See v.46).

   Enlightenment in the Word: after the Lord has prayed, He came to “His disciples”. At that moment, He suffered the greatest pain, however, He was still concerned about the disciples. What His bowels!


Luke. 22:46 “Then He said to them, Why do you sleep? Rise and pray, lest you enter into temptation.’”

   YLT: “and he said to them, ‘Why do ye sleep? having risen, pray that ye may not enter into  temptation.’”


Luke. 22:47 “And while He was still speaking, behold, a multitude; and he who was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them and drew near to Jesus to kiss Him.

   YLT: “And while he is speaking, lo, a multitude, and he who is called Judas, one of the twelve, was coming before them, and he came nigh to Jesus to kiss him,”

   Literal Meaning: “behold, a multitude” These men include soldiers and officers (See John. 18:3), besides the chief priests, captains of the temple, and the elders (See v.52).

“And he who was called Judas, one of the twelve” Judas was usually called “one of the twelve” in the Bible (See v.3).

  “To kiss Him” In the Jewish society, “kiss” is the common way for the disciples to greet their teacher (rabbi).


Luke. 22:48 “But Jesus said to him, Judas, are you betraying the Son of Man with a kiss?’”

   YLT: “and Jesus said to him, `Judas, with a kiss the Son of Man dost thou deliver up?’”

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) According to the customs of the Jews, “kiss” was an expression of intimacy and honor. Unexpectedly, it was used as a secret sign of betraying the Lord. Many intimate expressions and sweat words are horrible and may even “betray” us.

2) Some leaders of the church like to be flattered by praise of his followers, however, they will be harmed seriously by flatterers sooner or later.


Luke. 22:49 “When those around Him saw what was going to happen, they said to Him, Lord, shall we strike with the sword?’”

   YLT: “And those about him, having seen what was about to be, said to him, `Sir, shall we smite with a sword?’”


Luke. 22:50 “And one of them struck the servant of the high priest and cut off his right ear.

   YLT: “And a certain one of them smote the servant of the chief priest, and took off his right ear,”

   Literal Meaning: “one of them” This man was Peter (See John. 18:10).

  “The servant of the high priest” The name of this man was Malchus (See John. 18:10).

   Spiritual Meaning: “sword” symbolizes the fleshly weapon (See 2Cor. 10:4).

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) Those who do not know the meaning of the cross always use the fleshly hand and the fleshly “sword” to attempt to protect the Lord and the things of the Lord. It is not only useless but also harmful.

2) The fleshly weapons could cut off one’s “ear” at most and contrarily make men not hear the word of God.


Luke. 22:51 “But Jesus answered and said, Permit even this. And He touched his ear and healed him.

   YLT: “and Jesus answering said, `Suffer ye thus far,’ and having touched his ear, he healed him.”

   Literal Meaning: “permit even this” means that “permit them to take Me”.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) “Permit even this” The Lord was not “unable” to save Himself but that He was unwilling to disobey the will of God and force God to protect Him. 

2) The Lord would rather not use any way to protect Himself for the accomplishment of the will of God the Father. It shows that what matters is not the peace and smoothness of things but whether things could be accomplished according to the will of God.


Luke. 22:52 “Then Jesus said to the chief priests, captains of the temple, and the elders who had come to Him, Have you come out, as against a robber, with swords and clubs?

   YLT: “And Jesus said to those having come upon him chief priests, and magistrates of the temple, and elders `As upon a robber have ye come forth, with swords and sticks?”

   Literal Meaning: “Have you come out, as against a robber with swords and clubs?” The words of the Lord exposed the unrighteousness of religious believers on one hand, on the other He also pointed out that He will be crucified with “robbers” (See Matt. 27:38). The word that “He was numbered with the transgressors” is fulfilled (See Is. 53:12).

   Enlightenment in the Word: the way of the word is “with swords and clubs”. However, our wrestle is not against the flesh and blood (See Eph. 6:12). And therefore he whoever wants to use the fleshly weapons has fallen in the worldly principle. Others probably think that they win but actually they suffer a crushing defeat.


Luke. 22:53 “When I was with you daily in the temple, you did not try to seize Me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness.’”

   YLT: “while daily I was with you in the temple, ye did stretch forth no hands against me; but this is your hour and the power of the darkness.’”

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) When men are presumptuous, it is the time of “the power of darkness”.

2) When the Lord was taken, “the darkness” was “in power”. When the Lord was released, the darkness is cleared up. Therefore if we want to clear up the power of the darkness and be filled with the light of God, we have to let the Lord have all the positions and let Him be freely released. Otherwise, the darkness must be in power wherever Christ is restrained and detained.


Luke. 22:54 “Having arrested Him, they led Him and brought Him into the high priest's house. But Peter followed at a distance.

   YLT: “And having taken him, they led and brought him to the house of the chief priest. And Peter was following afar off,”

   Literal Meaning: “they led Him and brought Him into the high priest’s house” The one was Caiaphas the high priest (See Matt. 26:57-58).

Spiritual Meaning: “they led Him and brought Him into the high priest’s house” It fulfills that the Lord Himself is the Lamb of the Passover and before He was sacrificed, He must be sent to the priests to be looked on and identified that whether He is the one without blemish and then He can be sacrificed unto God (See Exod. 12:5; Deut. 17:1).

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) The Lord Jesus did not know sin and was made be sin for us, that we might be made the righteousness of God in Him (See 2Cor. 5:21).

2) He whoever follows the Lord by natural strength all “follow Him at a distance” and finally his real condition will be manifested when being forced by the environment.

3) Today many believers seem to follow the Lord apparently. However, they actually “follow Jesus at a distance”, keep a distance, look on the situation and get ready to abandon the Lord and flee at any moment.


Luke. 22:55 “Now when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the courtyard and sat down together, Peter sat among them.

   YLT: “and they having kindled a fire in the midst of the court, and having sat down together, Peter was sitting in the midst of them,”

Literal Meaning: “now when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the courtyard” “They” refers to the servants of the high priest, and there might be security guarders who kept the order of the Holy Temple. The “courtyard” refers to the outdoor yard with buildings around.


Luke. 22:56 “And a certain servant girl, seeing him as he sat by the fire, looked intently at him and said, This man was also with Him.’”

   YLT: “and a certain maid having seen him sitting at the light, and having earnestly looked at him, she said, ‘And this one was with him!’”

   Literal Meaning: “a certain servant girl” indicates one of the maids in the house of the high priest (See John. 18:17).

Spiritual Meaning: “as he sat by the fire” it symbolizes that Peter could not bear the darkness and chillness of both the environment and the mental state, and therefore he came to seek the warmness of men and the world. However, neither the earthly fire warmed his spirit, nor the flame enlightened his conscience (See v.57-60).


Luke. 22:57 “But he denied Him, saying, Woman, I do not know Him.’”

   YLT: “and he disowned him, saying, `Woman, I have not known him.’”

Enlightenment in the Word: Peter, who thought he was strong and loved the Lord (See v.33), could not even bear a sentence of a weak servant girl. Wherefore let him that thinks he stands take heed lest he fall (See 1Cor. 10:12). 


Luke. 22:58 “And after a little while another saw him and said, You also are of them. But Peter said, Man, I am not!’”

   YLT: “And after a little, another having seen him, said, `And thou art of them!` and Peter said, `Man, I am not.’”


Luke. 22:59 “Then after about an hour had passed, another confidently affirmed, saying, Surely this fellow also was with Him, for he is a Galilean.’”

   YLT: “And one hour, as it were, having intervened, a certain other was confidently affirming, saying, ‘Of a truth this one also was with him, for he is also a Galilean;’”

The Background: “for he is a Galilean” The Galileans spoke Aramaic and they had a strong accent of Galilean, which was notably different from that of men in the land of Judah.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) When the Lord Jesus was questioned that “whether He is the Son of God Christ”, He answered openly that He “is” (See v.70). When Peter was questioned “surely this fellow also was with Him”, he denied the fact three times for the sake of his own gain. What a strong comparison! Shall we bear strong witness of Christ like the Lord who is willing to sacrifice his own gain?

2) The Lord did not debate for Himself, though He is true. However, Peter debated again and again, for he was false. Concerning true things, it is clear even though there is no debate. As regards false things, the more they are debated, the more obviously the Galilean “speech” is shown.

3) When men accused the Lord, He did not defend Himself at all. The truth shall be manifested naturally. However, the more Peter defended himself, the sooner he was exposed. When men misunderstand us, the best way is not defending ourselves but prayer.

4) One’s habitual practices, words and deeds throughout many years will naturally show the true state in him. And it is hard for him to disguise himself.

5)  God arranges our environment and makes us be tried again and again. The trial becomes hasher and harsher until we fully realize our weakness and no longer rely on ourselves.


Luke. 22:60 “But Peter said, ‘Man, I do not know what you are saying!’ Immediately, while he was still speaking, the rooster crowed.”

   YLT: “and Peter said, `Man, I have not known what thou sayest;’ and presently, while he is speaking, a cock crew.”


Luke. 22:61 “And the Lord turned and looked at Peter. Then Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how He had said to him, Before the rooster crows, you will deny Me three times.’”

   YLT: “And the Lord having turned did look on Peter, and Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he said to him ‘Before a cock shall crow, thou mayest disown me thrice;’”

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) The Lord, through the crows of the rooster, reminded Peter that he owed Him. We should notice that whether the Lord has spoken to us to remind us that we owe Him or we are unfaithful to Him through our experience or environment around.

2) The Lord’s words are the tool of Him to purify and renew us. As long as we have His words and let them work in us, though we may fail, we shall not be in darkness long without awareness.


Luke. 22:62 “So Peter went out and wept bitterly.

   YLT: “and Peter having gone without, wept bitterly.”

   Enlightenment in the Word: Believers may unavoidably fail or be offended. What’s the most important is that we should learn to know the word of the Lord (“remembered the word of the Lord, how He had said to him”) in the failing experience or environment (“crows of the rooster”) and be touched by the word of the Lord and feel broken and contrite from heart (“he went out and wept bitterly”). In this way, we can continue to go forth in the Lord.


Luke. 22:63 “Now the men who held Jesus mocked Him and beat Him.

   YLT: “And the men who were holding Jesus were mocking him, beating [him];”


Luke. 22:64 “And having blindfolded Him, they struck Him on the face and asked Him, saying, Prophesy! Who is the one who struck You?’”

   YLT: “and having blindfolded him, they were striking him on the face, and were questioning him, saying, `Prophesy who he is who smote thee?’”

   Literal Meaning: they struck Him on the face and asked Him, saying, Prophesy!’” means “you tell us who is the one who struck You?”

   Enlightenment in the Word: these words and deeds of religious believers completely expose their base, low, unreasonable and evil nature. At the same time, we could see that the Lord was willing to be humiliated in order to save us. Should not we be moved and go forth therefore unto Him without the camp, bearing His reproach (See Heb. 13:13).


Luke. 22:65 “And many other things they blasphemously spoke against Him.

   YLT: “and many other things, speaking evilly, they spake in regard to him.”


Luke. 22:66 “As soon as it was day, the elders of the people, both chief priests and scribes, came together and led Him into their council, saying,

   YLT: “And when it became day there was gathered together the eldership of the people, chief priests also, and scribes, and they led him up to their own sanhedrim,”

The Background: “council” The Jewish Sanhedrin was the supreme governing office of the Jews and the high priest was the chairman. In the age of Jesus, the Sanhedrin was the council of seventy-one members which was comprised of the high priest, the elders and scribes. The number of twenty-three is the effective and legal number of people.

   Literal Meaning: “As soon as it was day…and led Him into their council” According to the regulations, the council did not have the legal position to judge at night. The official condemnation could only be made when the council judged in the day.


Luke. 22:67If You are the Christ, tell us. But He said to them, If I tell you, you will by no means believe.

   YLT: “saying, `If thou be the Christ, tell us.’ And he said to them, `If I may tell you, ye will not believe;”

   Literal Meaning: “If You are the Christ, tell us.” “Christ” is Greek and it is the Hebrew word “the Messiah”. 


Luke. 22:68 “And if I also ask you, you will by no means answer Me or let Me go.

   YLT: “and if I also question [you], ye will not answer me or send me away;”


Luke. 22:69 “Hereafter the Son of Man will sit on the right hand of the power of God.’”

   YLT: “henceforth, there shall be the Son of Man sitting on the right hand of the power of God.’”

Literal Meaning: “hereafter the Son of Man will sit on the right hand of the power of God” “The Son of Man” is the position and identity of the incarnated Lord. The Lord presented Himself as the Son of Man in His answer because He suffered pain in Humanity, and He also overcame in the position of man, arose from the dead, was carried up into heaven and will come again.


Luke. 22:70 “Then they all said, Are You then the Son of God? So He said to them, You rightly say that I am.’”

   YLT: “And they all said, `Thou, then, art the Son of God?’ and he said unto them, `Ye say [it], because I am;’”

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) When men brought false charge against Him, He kept silent. Only when He was asked whether He is the Son of God, He had to declare His identity because He came into the world with the aim of bearing witness to the Son of Man.

2) Christ is “the Son of God”. This is the most fundamental witness of Christians and we should hold fast this witness. If we only make a concession, all truth will become in vain.

3) To other things, we should hold the tolerant and yielding attitude. However, we should never make a concession on the witness of Jesus Christ and contrarily we should be strong and of a good courage and we should not make a compromise at all.

4) We should learn from the apostle Paul who determined not to know any thing, except Jesus Christ, and Him crucified (1Cor. 2:2).


Luke. 22:71 “And they said, What further testimony do we need? For we have heard it ourselves from His own mouth.’”

   YLT: “and they said, `What need yet have we of testimony? for we ourselves did hear [it] from his mouth.’”

   The Background: “What further testimony do we need?” In the Judaic judicial procedure, the witness is in charge of accusation.

   Literal Meaning: Note that that the high priest and others condemned the Lord Jesus was not for the reason that He “is” the Son of God but that He “testified” that He is the Son of God. They did not want to prove whether He is the Son of God at all. They only desired to find an excuse for condemnation.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) Religionists dispute the words and names with others (See Acts. 18:15; 2Tim. 2:14) and yet neglect the spiritual reality, that the Son of God was condemned to death by them.

2) The members of the council purposed to take away Jesus. It was not because they cared about the things of God but the words and deeds of Jesus strictly threatened the rights and interests of the council. Today, if any person or group puts their own interest in a place higher than that of the will of God, they will play the role of those who kill the Lord.

3) Who first condemns the Lord to death was not the political power of the Gentiles but men of Judaism-----the elect of God. If believers do not have God’s revelation, even those who are fervent in serving the Lord may do things that hurt the Lord seriously.


III. Outlines of the Spiritual Lessons


Men’s Different Reactions to Christ Who Was about to Be Crucified

I. The chief priests and the scribes------they sought how they might kill Him (v.1-2).

II. Judas------he conferred with the chief priests and others, how he might betray Jesus to them (v.3-6).

III. A anonymous owner of the house------he prepared the Feast of the Passover for the Lord (v.7-13).


The Signs of the Suffering of the Son of Man the Savior

I. The Lamb of the Passover------the Son of Man the Savior was killed for men (v.7).

II. The Feast of the Passover------He was killed and became the enjoyment of those who believe in Him (v.15).

III. The bread------it symbolizes that His body was given for us (v.19).

IV. The cup------it symbolizes the new covenant in His blood, which is shed for us (v.20).


The Lord’s Desk (i.e. the So-called Eucharist)

I. Its typification in the narrow sense:

  A. The bread------the body of the Lord was given for us (v.19).

  B. The cup------the blood of the Lord was shed for us (v.20).

II. Its typification in the broad sense (See 1Cor. 10:16-17):

  A. The bread------all believers partake in the body of Christ through “eating” the bread.

  B. The cup------all believers partake in the blessing of Christ through “drinking” the cup.


The Knowledge that One should Have to Enjoy the Supper of the Lord

I. The Lord prepares it Himself (v.7-13).

II. The Lord sits with those who believe in Him (v.14-15).

III. It is the typification of the feast in the kingdom of God (v.16-18).

IV. The Lord becomes our enjoyment in His body and blood (v.19-20).

V. It is fulfilled by God’s predestinated plan and man’s (Judas) sin (v.21-23).

VI. Those who sit down should be humble to each other and serve each other (v.24-27).

VII. Those who sit down should hope in the reward in the kingdom of God (v.28-30).


The Knowledge and Attitude that Believers Should Have When Facing Dangerous Environment

I. The root of difficulties------Satan has asked for us, that it may sift us as wheat (v.31).

II. The support in the difficulties------the Lord has prayed for us (v.32a).

III. The strength in the difficulties------the holding fast of faith (v.32b).

IV. The experience in the difficulties------it could be helpful to strength our brothers in the future (v.32c).

V. Lessons in difficulties:

  A. One knows that the natural self is unworthy to be relied on (v.33-34).

  B. One knows that the Lord is responsible for all our provisions (v.35).

VI. The preparations one should have in facing the difficulties: 

  A. One should make preparations for life and work------have the money bag and knapsack (v.36a).

  B. One should learn to defend himself------sell the garment and buy the sword (v.36b).

  C. One should have the heavenly wisdom------know the will of God through rhema and the Lord’s words in season (v.37-38).

  D. One should pray that he may not enter into temptation (v.39-40).

  E. One should put down his own will and only seek the accomplishment of the will of God (v.41-42).

  F. One should pray earnestly and then he could receive the heavenly help (v.43-44).

  G. One should watch in prayer that he may not sleep (v.45-46).


Lessons Learnt from Peter

I. The failure of Peter:

  A. He did not know himself and thought that he was strong (v.33).

  B. He cannot watch and pray with the Lord and slept (v.45; See Mark. 14:37).

  C. He used the fleshly weapon to cut off the ear of the high priest’s servant (v.50; See John. 18:10).

  D. He followed at a distance (v.54b)------keep the distance.

  E. He sat by the fire (v.56b)------rely on the warmness of the world and men.

  F. He was unable to undergo the question of a certain servant girl (v.56-57)------he cannot undergo a little test.

  G. He exposed the Galilean speech (v.59; See Matt. 26:73)------he exposed himself.

II. The return of Peter:

  A. The Lord has prayed for him that his faith should not fail (v.32).

  B. The Lord predicted his failure (v.34).

  C. The Lord encouraged him to rise and pray, that he may not enter into temptation (v.40, 46).

  D. The Lord picked up the pieces------healed the ear of the servant (v.51).

  E. The Lord used the environment to remind him------the crow of the rooster (v.60).

  F. The gaze of the Lord------the Lord turned and looked at Peter (v.61).

  G. He completely confessed his weakness and failure------he went out and wept bitterly (v.62).


The Prayer of the Lord in the Garden of Gethsemane (v.39-46)

I. The Lord Jesus was sorrowful alone------the disciples did not understand the suffering of the cross (the cup).

II. The Lord Jesus prayed alone------the disciples were unable to watch and pray with Him because of their weakness.

III. The Lord Jesus asked the relation between the cup and the will of God------He only sought the fulfillment of the will of God the Father.

IV. The Lord Jesus prayed three times------until He clearly understood the will of God the Father.

V. The Lord Jesus faced what was going to happen calmly and composedly------because He clearly knew the will of God the Father.


The Tribulations of the Lord Jesus before the Suffering

I. He was betrayed by the disciple who was with Him on the table (v.3-6, 21-22).

II. The disciples who sat with Him disputed that which of them would be the greatest (v.24).

III. Peter did not know himself (v.33).

IV. The disciples could not understand what He had said (v.38).

V. He suffered agony in the Garden of Gethsemane (v.44).

VI. The disciples could not watch and pray with Him (v.45-46).

VII. He was arrested by the leaders of Judaism as against a robber (v.47-53).

VIII. He was denied before men by Peter three times (v.54-62).

IX. He was mocked and beaten by those who held Him (v.63-65).

X. He was judged and condemned by the council (v.66-71).


The Comparison between the Lord Jesus and Peter

I. A certain servant girl said, "This man was also with Him." Peter denied Him (v.54-60)

II. The council said, "Are You then the Son of God?" So He said to them, "You rightly say that I am” (v.70).


── Caleb HuangChristian Digest Bible Commentary Series

   Translated by Sharon Ren