Luke Chapter Nineteen
The history of His last approach to Jerusalem and intercourse with it now commences (v. 35). Here then He presents Himself anew as the Son of David, and for the last time; laying on the conscience of the nation His pretensions to that title, while displaying the consequences of His rejection. Near Jericho,  the place of malediction, He gives sight to a blind man who believes in His title of Son of David. So indeed those who possessed that faith did receive their sight to follow Him, and they saw yet greater things than these. In Jericho (chap. 19) He sets forth grace, in spite of the pharisaic spirit. Nevertheless it is as a son of Abraham that He points out Zacchaeus, who-in a false position indeed as such-had a tender conscience and a generous heart  by grace. His position did not, in the eyes of Jesus, take from him the character of son of Abraham (if it had that effect, who could have been blessed?) and did not bar the way to that salvation which was come to save the lost. It entered with Jesus into the house of this son of Abraham. He brought salvation, whoever might be heir to it.
Nevertheless He does not conceal from them His departure, and the character which the kingdom would assume, owing to His absence. As for them, Jerusalem, and the expectation of the coming kingdom, filled their minds. The Lord therefore explains to them what would take place. He goes away to receive a kingdom and to return. Meanwhile He commits some of His goods (the gifts of the Spirit) to His servants to trade with during His absence. The difference between this parable and that in the Gospel by Matthew is this: Matthewpresents the sovereignty and the wisdom of the giver, who varies His gifts according to the aptitude of His servants; in Luke it is more particularly the responsibility of the servants, who each receive the same sum, and the one gains by it, in his master's interest, more than the other. Accordingly it is not said, as in Matthew, "Enter into the joy of your Lord," the same thing to all, and the more excellent thing; but to the one it is authority over ten cities that is given; to the other, over five (that is to say, a share in the kingdom according to their labour). The servant does not lose that which he has gained, although it was for his master. He enjoys it. Not so with the servant who made no use of his talent; that which had been committed to him is given to the one who had gained ten.
That which we gain spiritually here, in spiritual intelligence and in the knowledge of God in power, is not lost in the other world. On the contrary we receive more, and the glory of the inheritance is given us in proportion to our work. All is grace.
But there was yet another element in the history of the kingdom. The citizens (the Jews) not only reject the king, but, when he is gone away to receive the kingdom, send a messenger after him to say that they will not have him to reign over them. Thus the Jews, when Peter sets their sin before them, and declares to them that if they repent, Jesus would return, and with Him the times of refreshing, reject the testimony, and, so to say, send Stephen after Jesus to testify that they would have nothing to do with Him. When He returns in glory, the perverse nation is judged before His eyes. The avowed enemies of Christ, they receive the reward of their rebellion.
He had declared that which the kingdom was-that which it should be. He now comes to present it for the last time in His own Person to the inhabitants of Jerusalem according to the prophecy of Zechariah. This remarkable scene has been considered in its general aspect when studying Matthew and Mark; but some particular circumstances require notice here. All is gathered round His entrance. The disciples and the Pharisees are in contrast. Jerusalem is in the day of her visitation, and she knows it not.
Some remarkable expressions are uttered by His disciples, moved by the Spirit of God, on this occasion. Had they been silent, the stones would have broken out in proclamation of the glory of the rejected One. The kingdom, in their triumphant acclamations, is not simply the kingdom in its earthly aspect. In Matthew it was, "Hosanna to the Son of David," and "Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord; Hosanna in the highest." That was indeed true; but here we have something more. The Son of David disappears. He is indeed the King, who comes in the name of the Lord; but it is no longer the remnant of Israel who seek salvation in the name of the Son of David, acknowledging His title. It is "peace in heaven and glory in the highest." The kingdom depends on peace being established in the heavenly places. The Son of man, exalted on high, and victorious over Satan, has reconciled the heavens. The glory of grace in His Person is established for the everlasting and supreme glory of the God of love. The kingdom on earth is but a consequence of this glory which grace has established. The power that cast out Satan has established peace in heaven. At the beginning, in Luke 2:14, we have, in the manifested grace, Glory to God in the highest; peace on earth; the good pleasure [of God] in men. To establish the kingdom, peace is made in heaven; the glory of God is fully established in the highest.
 In Luke the coming to Jericho is stated as a general fact, in contrast with His general journey which is in view from chapter 9:51. In point of fact it was on going out of Jericho He saw the blind man. The general fact is all we have here, to give the whole history, Zacchaeus and all, Its moral place.
 I doubt not that Zacchaeus sets before Jesus that which he did habitually, before the Lord came to him. Nevertheless salvation came that day to his house.
── John Darby《Synopsis of Luke》
The conversion of Zaccheus. (1-10) The parable of the nobleman and his servants. (11-27) Christ enters Jerusalem. (28-40) Christ laments over Jerusalem. (41-48)
Commentary on Luke 19:1-10
(Read Luke 19:1-10)
Those who sincerely desire a sight of Christ, like Zaccheus, will break through opposition, and take pains to see him. Christ invited himself to Zaccheus' house. Wherever Christ comes he opens the heart, and inclines it to receive him. He that has a mind to know Christ, shall be known of him. Those whom Christ calls, must humble themselves, and come down. We may well receive him joyfully, who brings all good with him. Zaccheus gave proofs publicly that he was become a true convert. He does not look to be justified by his works, as the Pharisee; but by his good works he will, through the grace of God, show the sincerity of his faith and repentance. Zaccheus is declared to be a happy man, now he is turned from sin to God. Now that he is saved from his sins, from the guilt of them, from the power of them, all the benefits of salvation are his. Christ is come to his house, and where Christ comes he brings salvation with him. He came into this lost world to seek and to save it. His design was to save, when there was no salvation in any other. He seeks those that sought him not, and asked not for him.
Commentary on Luke 19:11-27
(Read Luke 19:11-27)
This parable is like that of the talents, Matthew 25. Those that are called to Christ, he furnishes with gifts needful for their business; and from those to whom he gives power, he expects service. The manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal, 1 Corinthians 12:7. And as every one has received the gift, so let him minister the same, 1 Peter 4:10. The account required, resembles that in the parable of the talents; and the punishment of the avowed enemies of Christ, as well as of false professors, is shown. The principal difference is, that the pound given to each seems to point out the gift of the gospel, which is the same to all who hear it; but the talents, distributed more or less, seem to mean that God gives different capacities and advantages to men, by which this one gift of the gospel may be differently improved.
Commentary on Luke 19:28-40
(Read Luke 19:28-40)
Christ has dominion over all creatures, and may use them as he pleases. He has all men's hearts both under his eye and in his hand. Christ's triumphs, and his disciples' joyful praises, vex proud Pharisees, who are enemies to him and to his kingdom. But Christ, as he despises the contempt of the proud, so he accepts the praises of the humble. Pharisees would silence the praises of Christ, but they cannot; for as God can out of stones raise up children unto Abraham, and turn the stony heart to himself, so he can bring praise out of the mouths of children. And what will be the feelings of men when the Lord returns in glory to judge the world!
Commentary on Luke 19:41-48
(Read Luke 19:41-48)
Who can behold the holy Jesus, looking forward to the miseries that awaited his murderers, weeping over the city where his precious blood was about to be shed, without seeing that the likeness of God in the believer, consists much in good-will and compassion? Surely those cannot be right who take up any doctrines of truth, so as to be hardened towards their fellow-sinners. But let every one remember, that though Jesus wept over Jerusalem, he executed awful vengeance upon it. Though he delights not in the death of a sinner, yet he will surely bring to pass his awful threatenings on those who neglect his salvation. The Son of God did not weep vain and causeless tears, nor for a light matter, nor for himself. He knows the value of souls, the weight of guilt, and how low it will press and sink mankind. May he then come and cleanse our hearts by his Spirit, from all that defiles. May sinners, on every side, become attentive to the words of truth and salvation.
── Matthew Henry《Concise Commentary on Luke》
 And, behold, there was a man named Zacchaeus, which was the chief among the publicans, and he was rich.
The chief of the publicans — What we would term, commissioner of the customs. A very honourable as well as profitable place.
 And he ran before, and climbed up into a sycomore tree to see him: for he was to pass that way.
And running before — With great earnestness.
He climbed up — Notwithstanding his quality: desire conquering honour and shame.
 And when Jesus came to the place, he looked up, and saw him, and said unto him, Zacchaeus, make haste, and come down; for to day I must abide at thy house.
Jesus said, Zaccheus, make haste and come down — What a strange mixture of passions must Zaccheus have now felt, hearing one speak, as knowing both his name and his heart!
 And when they saw it, they all murmured, saying, That he was gone to be guest with a man that is a sinner.
They all murmured — All who were near: though most of them rather out of surprise than indignation.
 And Zacchaeus stood, and said unto the Lord; Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor; and if I have taken any thing from any man by false accusation, I restore him fourfold.
And Zaccheus stood — Showing by his posture, his deliberate, purpose and ready mind, and said, Behold, Lord, I give - I determine to do it immediately.
 And Jesus said unto him, This day is salvation come to this house, forsomuch as he also is a son of Abraham.
He also is a son of Abraham — A Jew born, and as such has a right to the first offer of salvation.
 For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost.
 And as they heard these things, he added and spake a parable, because he was nigh to Jerusalem, and because they thought that the kingdom of God should immediately appear.
They thought the kingdom of God — A glorious temporal kingdom, would immediately appear.
 He said therefore, A certain nobleman went into a far country to receive for himself a kingdom, and to return.
 And he called his ten servants, and delivered them ten pounds, and said unto them, Occupy till I come.
Trade till I come — To visit the nation, to destroy Jerusalem, to judge the world: or, in a more particular sense, to require thy soul of thee.
 But his citizens hated him, and sent a message after him, saying, We will not have this man to reign over us.
But his citizens — Such were those of Jerusalem, hated him, and sent an embassy after him - The word seems to imply, their sending ambassadors to a superior court, to enter their protest against his being admitted to the regal power. In such a solemn manner did the Jews protest, as it were, before God, that Christ should not reign over them: this man - So they call him in contempt.
 And it came to pass, that when he was returned, having received the kingdom, then he commanded these servants to be called unto him, to whom he had given the money, that he might know how much every man had gained by trading.
When he was returned — In his glory.
 Wherefore then gavest not thou my money into the bank, that at my coming I might have required mine own with usury?
With interest — Which does not appear to be contrary to any law of God or man. But this is no plea for usury, that is, the taking such interest as implies any degree of oppression or extortion.
 (And they said unto him, Lord, he hath ten pounds.)
They said — With admiration, not envy.
 For I say unto you, That unto every one which hath shall be given; and from him that hath not, even that he hath shall be taken away from him.
 But those mine enemies, which would not that I should reign over them, bring hither, and slay them before me.
He went before — The foremost of the company, showing his readiness to suffer.
 And it came to pass, when he was come nigh to Bethphage and Bethany, at the mount called the mount of Olives, he sent two of his disciples,
 And when he was come nigh, even now at the descent of the mount of Olives, the whole multitude of the disciples began to rejoice and praise God with a loud voice for all the mighty works that they had seen;
The whole multitude began to praise God — Speaking at once, as it seems, from a Divine impulse, words which most of them did not understand.
 Saying, Blessed be the King that cometh in the name of the Lord: peace in heaven, and glory in the highest.
Peace in heaven — God being reconciled to man.
 And some of the Pharisees from among the multitude said unto him, Master, rebuke thy disciples.
Rebuke thy disciples — Paying thee this immoderate honour.
 And he answered and said unto them, I tell you that, if these should hold their peace, the stones would immediately cry out.
If these should hold their peace, the stones, which lie before you, would cry out - That is, God would raise up some still more unlikely instruments to declare his praise. For the power of God will not return empty.
 Saying, If thou hadst known, even thou, at least in this thy day, the things which belong unto thy peace! but now they are hid from thine eyes.
O that thou hadst known, at least in this thy day — After thou hast neglected so many.
Thy day — The day wherein God still offers thee his blessings.
 For the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side,
Thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee around — All this was exactly performed by Titus, the Roman general.
 And shall lay thee even with the ground, and thy children within thee; and they shall not leave in thee one stone upon another; because thou knewest not the time of thy visitation.
And thy children within thee — All the Jews were at that time gathered together, it being the time of the passover.
They shall not leave in thee one stone upon another — Only three towers were left standing for a time, to show the former strength and magnificence of the place. But these likewise were afterward levelled with the ground.
 And he went into the temple, and began to cast out them that sold therein, and them that bought;
 Saying unto them, It is written, My house is the house of prayer: but ye have made it a den of thieves.
── John ‘Wesley《Explanatory Notes on Luke》
Chapter 19. Teach Daily
Because of the
Being a Short Man
I. Salvation Comes to Zacchaeus the Tax Collector
II. Parable of the Ten Minas
III. Jesus Rides into Jerusalem on a Colt
── Chih-Hsin Chang《An Outline of The New Testament》
The Minas (Lk 19:11-27)
1. With this lesson we come to the end of our series on "The Parables
a. We have covered most, if not all, of the parables taught by our
b. In many lists, the last parable is the one before us now, the
parable of "The Minas"
2. Found in Lk 19:11-27, we quickly find similarities with the parable
of "The Talents"...
a. That parable is recorded by Matthew in Mt 25:14-30
b. It teaches basically the same lesson, that of faithful service as
we await the Lord's return
3. But there are some differences...
a. The setting in which Jesus told each parable is different
b. And the details vary slightly
4. In this study, my goal will be to...
a. Note some of the differences as we briefly review the parable of
b. Use this final study on the parables to review what we have
learned about "the mysteries of the kingdom"
[With that in mind, let's first consider...]
I. THE PARABLE OF "THE MINAS"
A. THE SETTING...
1. It was told on the way to
- Lk 19:11 Jerusalem
a. This would be shortly before His triumphal entry - cf. Lk
b. The parable of "The Talents" was told after His arrival and
during His last week
2. It was told to correct misunderstandings about the kingdom
- Lk 19:11
a. Some thought that the kingdom would "appear immediately"
b. Jesus had already taught that the
"does not kingdomof God
come with observation" - cf. Lk 17:20-21
-- Jesus therefore used this opportunity to explain that His
kingdom would not be readily apparent, and there would be a
need for faithful service in His absence
B. THE DETAILS...
1. Jesus used a historical incident as the basis for His parable
a. "Apparently this parable has the historical basis of
Archelaus who actually went from
Jerusalemto on this Rome
very errand to get a kingdom in
and to come back Palestine
to it. This happened while Jesus was a boy in
it was a matter of common knowledge." (Robertson's Word
b. "The historical background for the parable was the visit of
Archelaus, son of Herod the Great, to
to secure Rome
permission to reign as a so-called client king, i.e., over
a territory actually subject to
. This petition was Rome
opposed by a delegation of Archelaus' own subjects."
(Expositor's Bible Commentary)
2. In the parable, then...
a. A nobleman is going away to receive for himself a kingdom
and to return
b. He calls ten of his servants...
1) Giving them each one "mina" (about three month's wages,
whereas in "The Talents" one talent would take an
ordinary laborer twenty years to earn)
2) Telling them "Do business till I come"
c. There are citizens who send a delegation to express their
displeasure with having the nobleman reign over them
d. Having received the kingdom, the nobleman returns...
1) He calls for his servants and asks for an accounting
a) One servant earned ten minas, and was rewarded with
authority over ten cities
b) Another earned five minas, and was granted authority
over five cities
c) Another simply returned his original mina which
angered the nobleman, who then gave the one mina to
him who earned ten
d) An objection is raised by some standing by, but is
answered by the nobleman
2) The enemies who did not want the nobleman to reign over
them are killed
C. THE INTERPRETATION...
1. It explains how the
would not appear kingdomof God
a. The Lord would be going away to receive His kingdom
b. This He did when He ascended to heaven and sat down at the
right hand of God - cf. Ac 2:30-36; Ep 1:20-23; 1 Pe 3:22;
c. While His reign began (cf. Re 1:5; 17:14), it would not be
2. It portrays the rejection of the Lord's reign
a. There are many who do not wish to submit to the authority
of the Lord
b. It was prophesied that the Messiah's rule would be "in the
midst of Your enemies" - Ps 110:1-2
c. Such rejection does not mean His reign has not yet begun!
3. It reveals the role of a disciple between the Lord's departure
and His return
a. The disciple is to be productive ("Do business until I
b. The disciple is to be faithful while awaiting the return of
4. It describes the reckoning that awaits all Christians
a. A reckoning which takes into consideration our service
b. A reckoning in which some are blessed and others are not
5. It alludes to the punishment awaiting those who do not submit
to the King
a. As mentioned before, some do not wish to have Christ as
b. When He returns, it will be to render judgment upon them
- cf. 2 Th 1:7-9
[Like so many of the parables, this one helps us "to know the mysteries
of the kingdom of heaven" (cf. Mt 13:10-11). At this point, let's
II. WHAT WE HAVE LEARNED FROM THE PARABLES
A. CONCERNING THE KINGDOM ITSELF...
1. The kingdom will spread despite Satan's efforts, and it is
both present and future ("The Wheat And The Tares")
2. It would start small, but spread throughout the earth ("The
3. It's influence may not be readily apparent, but it grows
throughout the earth ("The Leaven")
4. It's growth may be beyond our ability to comprehend, but it is
directly related to the seed, i.e., the Word ("The Growing
5. It's value is great, whether we find it after a long search
Of Great Price"), or happen to stumble upon it Pearl
("The Hidden Treasure")
6. The spread of the kingdom draws in many, but the wicked will
be separated from the just ("The Dragnet")
7. The kingdom will be taken from those who should have received
it, and given to those who will appreciate it ("The Wicked
Vinedressers", "The Wedding Feast", "The Barren Fig Tree", and
"The Great Supper")
B. CONCERNING THE DISCIPLES OF THE KINGDOM...
1. Those with ears to hear, having good and noble hearts, will
bear the sort of fruit intended by the word of the kingdom
2. Those instructed in the ways of the kingdom have treasure both
old and new ("The Householder")
3. They are merciful, as God is merciful ("The Unforgiving
4. They are free from a mercenary spirit in their service ("The
Laborers In The Vineyard")
5. They do the will of the Father ("The Two Sons")
6. They prepare themselves for the Lord's return, and are
watchful ("The Wise And Foolish Virgins")
7. They are productive while they await their Lord's return ("The
Talents" and "The Minas")
8. Their gratitude for salvation is related to the understanding
of their forgiveness ("The Debtors")
9. They love their neighbor, helping those in need ("The Good
10. They are persistent in their prayers ("The Friend At Midnight"
and "The Persistent Widow")
12. They are aware that one's life does not consist in the
abundance of possessions ("The Rich Fool")
13. They are humble, both in their relations with others ("Taking
Lowest Place") and in their prayers to God ("The Pharisee
and The Tax Collector")
14. They make proper use of material things ("The Unjust Steward")
knowing that now is the time to make things right with God
("The Rich Man And Lazarus")
15. Yet through it all, they know they are not worthy of the grace
received, they have simply done that which was their duty to
do ("The Unprofitable Servants")
C. CONCERNING THE KING...
1. We know of the great love He has for the lost, and how heaven
rejoices when they are saved ("The Lost Sheep" and "The Lost
2. We know how quick His Heavenly Father is to receive us unto
Himself when we return with a repentant heart ("The Prodigal
-- Yet many of the parables also reveal the King to be one Who
will one day call us into judgment to give an account for our
1. What wonderful lessons we learn from our Lord as we consider His
a. They involve things that many prophets and righteous men desired
to hear, but did not hear - Mt 13:16-17
b. We have truly been privileged to know "the mysteries of the
kingdom of heaven"! - Mt 13:10-11
2. What shall we do with what we have learned?
a. When Jesus first began teaching in parables, He taught the
importance of utilizing what we have been given - cf. Mt 13:12
b. Even in the last parable we have considered in this lesson, He
made the same point once again - cf. Lk 19:26
-- Will we be found faithful in our use of what we have been given
by Christ in His parables?
My prayer is that with God's grace and the encouragement provided in
this study on "The Parables Of Jesus", each one of us will indeed be
found faithful, and one day hear these wonderful words from our Lord:
"Well done, good and faithful servant; you were faithful over a
few things, I will make you ruler over many things. Enter into
the joy of your lord."