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John Chapter Two


John 2

The third day we find in chapter 2. A marriage takes place in Galilee. Jesus is there; and the water of purification is changed into the wine of joy for the marriage-feast. Afterwards at Jerusalem He cleanses the temple of God with authority, executing judgment on all those who profaned it. In principle these are the two things that characterise His millennial position. Doubtless these things took place historically; but, as introduced here and in this manner, they have evidently a wider meaning. Besides, why the third day? After what? Two days of testimony had taken place-that of John, and that of Jesus; and now blessing and judgment are accomplished. In Galilee the remnant had their place; and it is the scene of blessing, according to Isaiah 9-Jerusalem is that of judgment. At the feast He would not know His mother: this was the link of His natural relation with Israel, which, looking at Him as born under the law, was His mother. He separates Himself from her to accomplish blessing. It is only in testimony therefore in Galilee, for the moment. It is when He returns that the good wine will be for Israel-true blessing and joy at the end. Nevertheless He still abides with His mother, whom, as to His work, He did not acknowledge. And this also was the case with regard to His connection with Israel.

Afterwards, in judging the Jews and judicially cleansing the temple, He presents Himself as the Son of God. It is His Father's house. The proof of this which He gives is His resurrection, when the Jews should have rejected and crucified Him. Moreover He was not only the Son: it was God who was there-not in the temple. It was empty-that house built by Herod. The body of Jesus was now the true temple. Sealed by His resurrection, the scriptures and the word of Jesus were of divine authority to the disciples, as speaking of Him according to the intention of the Spirit of God.

This subdivision of the book ends here. It closes the earthly revelation of Christ including His death; but even so it is the sin of the world. Chapter 2 gives the millennium; chapter 3 is the work in and for us which qualifies for the kingdom on earth or heaven; and the work for us, closing Messiah's connection with the Jews, opens the heavenly things by the lifting up of the Son of man-divine love and eternal life.

The miracles that He wrought convinced many as to their natural understanding. No doubt it was sincerely; but a just human conclusion. But another truth now opens. Man, in his natural state, [1] was really incapable of receiving the things of God; not that the testimony was insufficient to convince him, nor that he was never convinced: many were so at this time; but Jesus did not commit Himself to them. He knew what man was. When convinced, his will, his nature, was not altered. Let the time of trial come, and he would shew himself as he was, alienated from God, and even His enemy. Sad but too true testimony! The life, the death, of Jesus proves it. He knew it when He began His work. This did not make His love grow cold; for the strength of that love was in itself.


[1] Observe, that the state of man is here manifested fully and thoroughly. Supposing him to be outwardly righteous according to the law, and to believe in Jesus according to sincere natural convictions, he clothes himself with this, in order to hide from himself what he really is. He does not know himself at all. What he is remains untouched. And he is a sinner. But this leads us to another observation. There are two great principles from Paradise itself-responsibility and life. Man can never disentangle them, till he learns that he is lost, and that no good exists in him. Then he is glad to know that there is a source of life and pardon outside himself. It is this which is shewn us here. There must be a new life; Jesus does not instruct a nature which is only sin. These two principles run through scripture in a remarkable way: first, as stated, in Paradise, responsibility and life in power. Man took of one tree, failing in responsibility, and forfeited life. The law gave the measure of responsibility when good and evil were known, and promised life on the ground of doing what it required, satisfying responsibility. Christ comes, meets the need of man's failure in responsibility, and is, and gives, eternal life. Thus, and thus only, can the question be met, and the two principles reconciled. Moreover two things are presented in Him to reveal God. He knows man, and all men. What a knowledge in this world! A prophet knows that which is revealed to him; he has, in that case, divine knowledge. But Jesus knows all men in an absolute way. He is God. But when once He has introduced life in grace, He speaks of another thing; He speaks that which He knows, and testifies that which He has seen. Now He knows God His Father in heaven. He is the Son of man who is in heaven. He knows man divinely; but He knows God and all His glory divinely also. What a magnificent picture, or, rather should I say, revelation, of that which He is for us! For it is here as man that He tells us this; and also, in order that we may enter into it and enjoy it, He becomes the sacrifice for sin according to the eternal love of God His Father.

── John DarbySynopsis of John


John 2

Chapter Contents

The miracle at Cana. (1-11) Christ casts the buyers and sellers out of the temple. (12-22) Many believe in Christ. (23-25)

Commentary on John 2:1-11

(Read John 2:1-11)

It is very desirable when there is a marriage, to have Christ own and bless it. Those that would have Christ with them at their marriage, must invite him by prayer, and he will come. While in this world we sometimes find ourselves in straits, even when we think ourselves in fulness. There was want at a marriage feast. Those who are come to care for the things of the world, must look for trouble, and count upon disappointment. In our addresses to Christ, we must humbly spread our case before him, and then refer ourselves to him to do as he pleases. In Christ's reply to his mother there was no disrespect. He used the same word when speaking to her with affection from the cross; yet it is a standing testimony against the idolatry of after-ages, in giving undue honours to his mother. His hour is come when we know not what to do. Delays of mercy are not denials of prayer. Those that expect Christ's favours, must observe his orders with ready obedience. The way of duty is the way to mercy; and Christ's methods must not be objected against. The beginning of Moses' miracles was turning water into blood, Exodus 7:20; the beginning of Christ's miracles was turning water into wine; which may remind us of the difference between the law of Moses and the gospel of Christ. He showed that he improves creature-comforts to all true believers, and make them comforts indeed. And Christ's works are all for use. Has he turned thy water into wine, given thee knowledge and grace? it is to profit withal; therefore draw out now, and use it. It was the best wine. Christ's works commend themselves even to those who know not their Author. What was produced by miracles, always was the best in its kind. Though Christ hereby allows a right use of wine, he does not in the least do away his own caution, which is, that our hearts be not at any time overcharged with surfeiting and drunkenness, Luke 21:34. Though we need not scruple to feast with our friends on proper occasions, yet every social interview should be so conducted, that we might invite the Redeemer to join with us, if he were now on earth; and all levity, luxury, and excess offend him.

Commentary on John 2:12-22

(Read John 2:12-22)

The first public work in which we find Christ engaged, was driving from the temple the traders whom the covetous priests and rulers encouraged to make a market-place of its courts. Those now make God's house a house of merchandise, whose minds are filled with cares about worldly business when attending religious exercises, or who perform Divine offices for love of gain. Christ, having thus cleansed the temple, gave a sign to those who demanded it, to prove his authority for so doing. He foretells his death by the Jews' malice, Destroy ye this temple; I will permit you to destroy it. He foretells his resurrection by his own power; In three days I will raise it up. Christ took again his own life. Men mistake by understanding that according to the letter, which the Scripture speaks by way of figure. When Jesus was risen from the dead, his disciples remembered he has said this. It helps much in understanding the Divine word, to observe the fulfilling of the Scriptures.

Commentary on John 2:23-25

(Read John 2:23-25)

Our Lord knew all men, their nature, dispositions, affections, designs, so as we do not know any man, not even ourselves. He knows his crafty enemies, and all their secret projects; his false friends, and their true characters. He knows who are truly his, knows their uprightness, and knows their weaknesses. We know what is done by men; Christ knows what is in them, he tries the heart. Beware of a dead faith, or a formal profession: carnal, empty professors are not to be trusted, and however men impose on others or themselves, they cannot impose on the heart-searching God.

── Matthew HenryConcise Commentary on John


John 2

Verse 2

[2] And both Jesus was called, and his disciples, to the marriage.

Jesus and his disciples were invited to the marriage — Christ does not take away human society, but sanctifies it. Water might have quenched thirst; yet our Lord allows wine; especially at a festival solemnity. Such was his facility in drawing his disciples at first, who were afterward to go through rougher ways.

Verse 3

[3] And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine.

And wine falling short — How many days the solemnity had lasted, and on which day our Lord came, or how many disciples might follow him, does not appear.

His mother saith to him, They have not wine — Either she might mean, supply them by miracle; or, Go away, that others may go also, before the want appears.

Verse 4

[4] Jesus saith unto her, Woman, what have I to do with thee? mine hour is not yet come.

Jesus saith to her, Woman — So our Lord speaks also, John 19:26. It is probable this was the constant appellation which he used to her. He regarded his Father above all, not knowing even his mother after the flesh. What is it to me and thee? A mild reproof of her inordinate concern and untimely interposal.

Mine hour is not yet come — The time of my working this miracle, or of my going away. May we not learn hence, if his mother was rebuked for attempting to direct him in the days of his flesh, how absurd it is to address her as if she had a right to command him, on the throne of his glory? Likewise how indecent it is for us to direct his supreme wisdom, as to the time or manner in which he shall appear for us in any of the exigencies of life!

Verse 5

[5] His mother saith unto the servants, Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it.

His mother saith to the servants — Gathering from his answer he was about to do something extraordinary.

Verse 6

[6] And there were set there six waterpots of stone, after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three firkins apiece.

The purifying of the Jews — Who purified themselves by frequent washings particularly before eating.

Verse 9

[9] When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water that was made wine, and knew not whence it was: (but the servants which drew the water knew;) the governor of the feast called the bridegroom,

The governor of the feast — The bridegroom generally procured some friend to order all things at the entertainment.

Verse 10

[10] And saith unto him, Every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine; and when men have well drunk, then that which is worse: but thou hast kept the good wine until now.

And saith — St. John barely relates the words he spoke, which does not imply his approving them.

When they have well drunk — does not mean any more than toward the close of the entertainment.

Verse 11

[11] This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested forth his glory; and his disciples believed on him.

And his disciples believed — More steadfastly.

Verse 14

[14] And found in the temple those that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting:

Oxen, and sheep, and doves — Used for sacrifice: And the changers of money - Those who changed foreign money for that which was current at Jerusalem, for the convenience of them that came from distant countries.

Verse 15

[15] And when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; and poured out the changers' money, and overthrew the tables;

Having made a scourge of rushes — (Which were strewed on the ground,) he drove all out of the temple, (that is, the court of it,) both the sheep and the oxen - Though it does not appear that he struck even them; and much less, any of the men. But a terror from God, it is evident, fell upon them.

Verse 17

[17] And his disciples remembered that it was written, The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up.

Psalms 69:9.

Verse 18

[18] Then answered the Jews and said unto him, What sign shewest thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these things?

Then answered the Jews — Either some of those whom he had just driven out, or their friends: What sign showest thou? - So they require a miracle, to confirm a miracle!

Verse 19

[19] Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.

This temple — Doubtless pointing, while he spoke, to his body, the temple and habitation of the Godhead.

Verse 20

[20] Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three days?

Forty and six years — Just so many years before the time of this conversation, Herod the Great had begun his most magnificent reparation of the temple, (one part after another,) which he continued all his life, and which was now going on, and was continued thirty-six years longer, till within six or seven years of the destruction of the state, city, and temple by the Romans.

Verse 22

[22] When therefore he was risen from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this unto them; and they believed the scripture, and the word which Jesus had said.

They believed the scripture, and the word which Jesus had said — Concerning his resurrection.

Verse 23

[23] Now when he was in Jerusalem at the passover, in the feast day, many believed in his name, when they saw the miracles which he did.

Many believed — That he was a teacher sent from God.

Verse 24

[24] But Jesus did not commit himself unto them, because he knew all men,

He did not trust himself to them — Let us learn hence not rashly to put ourselves into the power of others. Let us study a wise and happy medium between universal suspiciousness and that easiness which would make us the property of every pretender to kindness and respect.

Verse 25

[25] And needed not that any should testify of man: for he knew what was in man.

He — To whom all things are naked, knew what was in man - Namely, a desperately deceitful heart.

── John WesleyExplanatory Notes on John


Chapter 2. Make Wine from Water

Spiritual Wine
Spiritual Temple

I. The Wedding Feast at Cana

  1. Run out of Wine
  2. Fill the Jars with Water
  3. Keep till Now

II. Jesus Cleans the Temple

  1. Drive out Cattle and Sheep
  2. Pour out Money
  3. Overturn Tables

III. Speak of the Temple of His Body

  1. Destroy the Temple
  2. Raise up in Three Days
  3. Rise from the Dead
── Chih-Hsin ChangAn Outline of The New Testament



John 2:13-25.

It was perfectly right for the people to get their money exchanged, and to buy and sell sheep, oxen, and doves, but it was wrong for these things to be done in the house of he Lord. The priests were also to blame in allowing these things to be within the precincts of the Temple.

Ⅰ. Desecration is the first thought to which I direct attention. The Temple was set apart for God’s worship and service, therefore to put it to a common use was to defile the house of God. Is not this an illustration of how sin has defiled man? God made man upright, like a beautiful temple, but by his inventions he has defiled the soul with all its affections, and the holy place of the spirit with all its capabilities. If we are self-centred we are desecrating the sacred shrine that has already been polluted by sin. If any one allows the idol of selfishness to be erected in his heart, he is a worse idolater than the heathen who bows down to blocks of wood and stone.

Ⅱ. Expulsion (verse 15). “ He drove them all out.” When Christ comes into the hearts and lives of those who believe in Him, He turns out all that is opposed to His will, and will keep every unholy thing out, as we allow Him to be Governor of our being, by sanctifying Him as Lord in our hearts (1. Peter 3:15, R.V.). A working man in the East End of London, in giving his experience, said, “ When the Lord Jesus came into my heart, He turned out all the bad lodgers”; yes, and He will keep them out as well if we allow Him. We could not pray a better prayer than the little girl who said, “ Please, Lord Jesus, come and live in my heart.” Some time after she thanked the Lord for having come in , in the following words, “ Lord Jesus, I thank Thee that Thou hast come to live in my heart. Now, Lord, please shut the door.”

Ⅲ. Question ( verse 18). The Jews questioned Christ as to His authority for acting as He did. They were blinded by prejudice, for as Trapp remarks, “ They might have seen sign enough, in His so powerfully ejecting those money-changers. The disciples call it zeal, the Jews rashness.” The Jews were always asking for signs (Matt.12:38; 15:4), and this was the one thing that kept them out of the power and blessing of the Gospel (1. Cor.1:22).

Ⅳ. Prediction (verse 19-21). Christ predicts His resurrection in His reply to the Jews. Godet remarks, “ This answer of Jesus is udden, like a flash of lightning. It springs from an immeasurable depth; it illuminates regions then completely unexplored by any other consciousness than His own. The woeds, ‘ Destroy this temple,’ characterise the present and future conduct of the Jew in its innermost significance, and the words, ‘ In three days I will raise it up,’ display all the grandeur of the Person and of the future work of Jesus.

Ⅴ. Recollection (verse 22). In the meantime they murmured not, much less opposed; we can do nothing against the truth, when at the worst, “ but for the truth” (11. Cor. 13:8). “ They laid up what they understood not; and as the waters cast up the dead, so did their memories that which seemed dead therein, by the help of the Holy Ghost,” remarks Trapp. A good memory is a blessing, if we call to mind what the Lord has done (Deut. 8:2), but it is a bane if it is the “ Son, remember” to bring back to memory the evil things one has done, or the good things not done (Luke 16:25).

Ⅵ. Profession (verse 23). These believers are only make-believes. They have got the King’s head stamped on the coin of their profession, but the coin is made of base metal, therefore they are counterfeits. There was a great difference in the faith of the disciples mentioned in verse 11, and the mere faith of assent to Christ’s power in these, as Godet remarks, “ This faith had nothing inward and moral; it resulted solely from the impression of astonishment produced upon them by these wonders. Signs may, indeed, strengthen and develop true faith, where it is already formed, by displaying to it freely the riches of its object (verse 11). They may even, sometimes, excite attention, but not produce real faith. Faith is a moral act which attaches itself to the moral being of Jesus.

Ⅶ. Penetration (verse 24,25). The Holy Spirit seems to play upon the word “believe,” as the word “commit” in verse 24, is the same as is translated “ believe” in the other ninety-nine times in John’s Gospel. Christ did not commit (believe in ) Himself to them, as they did not commit themselves to Him. As Luthardt says, “ As they did not give themselves morally to Him, neither did He give Himself morally to them.”

In chapter 1. we behold Christ discerning a man who was true in heart, and to whom Christ committed Himself (1:48), but here He does not commit Himself because He knew that these disciples were not true to Him.

── F.E. MarshFive Hundred Bible Readings

The Water Turned To Wine (2:1-12)
1. John's purpose in his gospel was to produce faith - Jn 20:30-31
   a. Which he sought to accomplish by recording the "signs" done by
   b. Not all of them, but enough to produce faith in Jesus as the
      Christ, the Son of God
2. The "signs" Jesus performed were miracles...
   a. Expressions of supernatural, divine power
   b. Designed to attest His unique relationship with God - cf. Ac 2:22
[The first sign recorded by John took place shortly after Jesus had
acquired His first disciples...]
      1. On the third day - Jn 2:1
         a. The third day after Jesus made two more disciples
         b. Taking two days to reach Galilee from Judea (JFB)
      2. In the city of Cana - Jn 2:1
         a. Cana was about 4 miles NE of Nazareth, and SW of the Sea of
         b. Jesus had wanted to go to Galilee - cf. Jn 1:43
         c. Nathanael was from the city of Cana - cf. Jn 21:2
      1. The mother of Jesus was there - Jn 2:1
      2. Likewise Jesus and His disciples, who had been invited - Jn 2:2
         a. Jesus and His disciples were not ascetics - cf. Mt 9:14
         b. He came eating and drinking - cf. Mt 11:19
      1. As noted by the mother of Jesus - Jn 2:3
         a. She appears to have some role of responsibility and
            authority - cf. Jn 2:5
         b. The invitation to Jesus and His disciples may have been a
            last minute thing
         c. Running out of wine would have been an embarrassment to
            Mary, if she were in charge
         d. She tells Jesus; perhaps hinting a request? (RWP)
      2. Jesus responds to His mother - Jn 2:4
         a. "Woman"
            1) Not a term of disrespect in those days - cf. Jn 19:26;
            2) Though a subtle hint may be implied by its use instead of
               "Mother" that their relationship of mother and son was
         b. "What does your concern have to do with Me?"
            1) Perhaps a mild rebuke for her anxiety
            2) Perhaps too much like Martha? - cf. Lk 10:41
         c. "My hour has not yet come."
            1) This suggests that Mary's request was more than just a
               desire for a gift of wine
            2) Perhaps she wanted a supreme manifestation of Him as the
            3) That event would come later, with His death and
               resurrection - cf. Jn 2:18-19; 12:23,27; 17:1
            4) His mother sought for a supreme sign, but at that time
               only a secondary sign could be fittingly given
            5) I.e., the triumph at Pentecost was not to be achieved at
               Cana (McGarvey)
[Despite the subtle rebuke, Mary evidently sense a willingness on Jesus'
part to do something.  So she instructed the servants to do whatever He
says (cf. Jn 2:5). This leads us to...]
      1. Beginning with six empty water pots - Jn 2:6
         a. Normally used for the Jewish rituals of purification - cf.
            Mk 7:3-4
         b. Capable of holding twenty or thirty gallons (two or three
            firkins, KJV) each
      2. Filled with water - Jn 2:7
         a. As instructed by Jesus
         b. Filled to the brim
      3. A sample drawn and taken to the master of the feast - Jn 2:8
         a. As instructed by Jesus
         b. Carried out by the servants
         c. Apparently what was drawn was still water; it became wine
            before reaching the guests - cf. Jn 2:9
      1. Upon the master of the feast - Jn 2:9-10
         a. He tasted the water that was made wine
         b. Not knowing where it came from, he called the bridegroom
         c. Telling him that he kept the good wine for last, contrary to
            normal custom
      2. Upon the disciples of Jesus - Jn 2:11
         a. It was the beginning of signs Jesus did in Galilee - cf. Jn
         b. In which Jesus manifested His glory - cf. Jn 1:14
         c. Their faith in Jesus was even more strengthened
      1. It should not be to justify the custom of social drinking
         a. The word "oinos" can refer to fermented wine, but not
         b. Alcoholic drinks today are much stronger than those in Bible
         c. The Bible is filled with the dangers of drinking - cf. Pro
            20:1; 23:29-35
         d. We do well to consider the influence of our example - cf. Ro
            14:21; 1 Co 10:31-33
      2. This miracle of turning water to wine reveals Jesus as:
         a. One who honors the bond of marriage by His presence at the
         b. One who bestows His gifts lavishly; if in the physical
            realm, how much more in the spiritual?
         c. One whose infinite love is made effective by His equally
            infinite power
         d. One who, accordingly, is the Son of God, full of grace and
         -- William Hendricksen, New Testament Commentary
1. After this miracle in Cana, Jesus went down to Capernaum - Jn 2:12
   a. Capernaum, a city on the northwestern shore of Galilee, visited
      frequently by Jesus
   b. Together with His mother, His brothers (cf. Mt 13:55), and His
   c. Though they did not stay many days - cf. Jn 2:13
2. The disciples of Jesus must have been excited...
   a. They had heard the testimony of John the Baptist concerning Jesus
   b. They had borne their own initial testimony as to Jesus
   c. Now they had seen this "sign" that Jesus was truly what they
      believed Him to be!
More signs to come would increase their faith in Jesus.  They can have a
similar affect in us as we continue to read and study the gospel
according to John...


The Cleansing Of The Temple (2:13-25)
1. It is common to think of Jesus as a gentle, peace-loving man...
   a. He certainly presented Himself as such on most occasions - e.g.,
      Mt 11:28-30
   b. People felt comfortable in bringing their children to Him - e.g.,
      Mt 19:13-14
2. Yet on occasion Jesus displayed strong righteous indignation...
   a. Such as when He visited Jerusalem during the Passover at the
      beginning of His ministry
   b. As He drove the moneychangers and merchandisers out of the temple
      - Jn 2:13-15
[What prompted this outburst of anger?  What gave Jesus the authority to
do this?  What lessons might we glean from this event?  As we seek to
find the answers let's first note...]
      1. The Lord's rebuke reveals the reason for His outburst - cf. Jn
      2. The sellers of oxen and sheep, along with the moneychangers,
         had turned the temple into a house of merchandise
      3. It was to be a house of prayer, they had turned it into a den
         of thieves - cf. Mt 21:13
      -- The Lord was angered by the manner in which some used religion
         to make money
      1. What if we attend church simply as a form of "networking", to
         make business contacts?
      2. What if we take advantage of our relationship as brethren to
         further a multilevel marketing business, a home-based business,
         or any other financial enterprise?
      -- The Lord's temple today is the church, we must be careful lest
         we defile it as well (cf. 1 Co 3:16-17)
[The Lord has ordained that those who preach the gospel be supported (1
Co 9:14).  But He is angered by those who view the Lord's temple
(people) as a way to get rich.  Next, we note that His anger was
prompted by...]  
      1. The disciples were reminded of an Old Testament prophecy - Jn
         2:17; cf. Psa 69:9
      2. Jesus had zeal (fervor) for God's house, for it's intended
         purpose (a house of prayer)
      -- His great zeal for His Father's house moved Him to action
      1. Remember, today the Father's house is the church - cf. 1 Ti
      2. Do we have great zeal for the church?
         a. That it fulfill it's intended purpose (to make known God's
            will)? - cf. Ep 3:10-11
         b. That we are troubled when we see people try to turn it into
            something else, such as social club, or a purveyor of 
      -- If we have zeal for the Lord's house, we will not rest silent
         when others pervert its purpose
[Of course, the action we take may not be the same as what Jesus did. 
Indeed, He took up "a whip of cords."  What right did He have to use
such a display of force?  That's what the Jews wanted to know...]
      1. They wanted to know what sign (miracle) He could offer to prove
         His right to cleanse the temple - Jn 2:18
      2. Jesus offered His ability to rise from the dead as the ultimate
         proof - Jn 2:19-22
         a. Later, He would restate His claim to have this ability - Jn
         b. His resurrection proved that He was the Son of God - cf. Ro
      -- He has been given the authority to exercise such judgment as
         cleansing the temple - cf. Jn 5:22,26-27
      1. We are to judge with righteous judgment - Jn 7:24
         a. At times we must distinguish between "hogs" and "dogs" - Mt
         b. We can distinguish between good and bad fruit - Mt 7:15-20
      2. But our authority to judge is limited - Mt 7:1-5
         a. There are things we cannot judge in this life - 1 Co 4:3-5
         b. There are people we are not to judge - 1 Co 5:11-13
         c. Vengeance in particular belongs to the Lord - cf. Ro 12:
      -- While Jesus is our example (cf. 1 Pe 2:21), there are some
         "steps" that He took that we cannot take
[The reason we cannot emulate the Lord in every case becomes evident as
we consider...]
      1. John mentions how many came to believe in Him because of His
         signs - Jn 2:23
      2. John also makes note of His unwillingness to commit Himself to
         others at this time
         a. He had no need to, because he knew all - Jn 2:24
         b. He had no need to, because he knew what was in man - Jn 2:25
      -- Jesus is revealed as one who can discern the hearts of men 
         - cf. Mt 9:4; Re 2:23
      1. We cannot discern the hearts of men like the Lord can; note
         these comments:
         a. "Our Lord knew all men, their nature, dispositions,
            affections, designs, so as we do not know any man, not even
         b. "He knows his crafty enemies, and all their secret projects;
            his false friends, and their true characters."
         c. "He knows who are truly his, knows their uprightness, and
            knows their weaknesses."
         d. "We know what is done by men; Christ knows what is in them,
            he tries the heart."
         -- Matthew Henry Commentary
      2. Since we cannot read the hearts of men, we must be careful
         a. We are unable to always know the motives of others
         b. We must approach those in opposition with humility - cf. 
            2 Ti 2:24-26  
         c. We must approach brethren overtaken in a fault with
            gentleness - cf. Ga 6:1
1. In contending for the faith (which is a solemn duty, Ju 3)...
   a. Some often use the example of Jesus cleansing the temple to
      justify their behavior
   b. As they lash out in anger (righteous indignation?) towards those
      teaching error
2. Is it right to appeal to Jesus' example in this case...?
   a. Can we appeal to every example of Jesus?
   b. If so, are we justified to use a whip of cords as well?
3. The immediate context offers reasons to answer carefully...
   a. Jesus possessed unlimited authority to judge man, proven by His
      resurrection from the dead
   b. Jesus possessed divine power to read the hearts of men, we
      sometimes cannot even discern our own hearts
4. There are times for righteous indignation...
   a. But some things must be left to the Lord, the righteous Judge
   b. We must avoid what might actually be "self-righteous" indignation!
While we may not always be able to emulate the Lord's prerogative to
judge, we should certainly strive to copy His zeal for His Father's
house.  Is our zeal for His church what it ought to be...?


--《Executable Outlines