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Romans Chapter Thirteen


Romans 13

Among themselves Christians are exhorted not to seek the high things of this world, but to walk as brethren with those of low degree: a precept too much forgotten in the assembly of God-to her loss. If the Christian of high degree requires that honour according to the flesh should be paid him, let it be done with good will. Happy he who, according to the example of the King of kings and to the precept of our apostle, knows how to walk in company with those of low degree in their journey through the wilderness. Now love is the fulfilling of the law; for love works no ill to his neighbour, and so fulfils the law.

Another principle acts also on the spirit of the Christian. It is time to awake. The deliverance from this present evil age, which the Lord will accomplish for us, draws nigh. The night is far spent, the day is at hand-God knows the moment. The characteristics which marked its approach in the days of the apostle have ripened in a very different way since then, although God, with a view to those whom He is gathering in, is still even now restraining them. Let us then walk as children of the day, casting off the works of darkness. We belong to the day, of which Christ Himself will be the light. Let our walk be in accordance with that day, putting on Christ Himself, and not being studious of that which is in accordance with the will and the lusts of the flesh.

── John DarbySynopsis of Romans


Romans 13

Chapter Contents

The duty of subjection to governors. (1-7) Exhortations to mutual love. (8-10) To temperance and sobriety. (11-14)

Commentary on Romans 13:1-7

(Read Romans 13:1-7)

The grace of the gospel teaches us submission and quiet, where pride and the carnal mind only see causes for murmuring and discontent. Whatever the persons in authority over us themselves may be, yet the just power they have, must be submitted to and obeyed. In the general course of human affairs, rulers are not a terror to honest, quiet, and good subjects, but to evil-doers. Such is the power of sin and corruption, that many will be kept back from crimes only by the fear of punishment. Thou hast the benefit of the government, therefore do what thou canst to preserve it, and nothing to disturb it. This directs private persons to behave quietly and peaceably where God has set them, 1 Timothy 2:1,2. Christians must not use any trick or fraud. All smuggling, dealing in contraband goods, withholding or evading duties, is rebellion against the express command of God. Thus honest neighbours are robbed, who will have to pay the more; and the crimes of smugglers, and others who join with them, are abetted. It is painful that some professors of the gospel should countenance such dishonest practices. The lesson here taught it becomes all Christians to learn and practise, that the godly in the land will always be found the quiet and the peaceable in the land, whatever others are.

Commentary on Romans 13:8-10

(Read Romans 13:8-10)

Christians must avoid useless expense, and be careful not to contract any debts they have not the power to discharge. They are also to stand aloof from all venturesome speculations and rash engagements, and whatever may expose them to the danger of not rendering to all their due. Do not keep in any one's debt. Give every one his own. Do not spend that on yourselves, which you owe to others. But many who are very sensible of the trouble, think little of the sin, of being in debt. Love to others includes all the duties of the second table. The last five of the ten commandments are all summed up in this royal law, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself; with the same sincerity that thou lovest thyself, though not in the same measure and degree. He that loves his neighbour as himself, will desire the welfare of his neighbour. On this is built that golden rule, of doing as we would be done by. Love is a living, active principle of obedience to the whole law. Let us not only avoid injuries to the persons, connexions, property, and characters of men; but do no kind or degree of evil to any man, and study to be useful in every station of life.

Commentary on Romans 13:11-14

(Read Romans 13:11-14)

Four things are here taught, as a Christian's directory for his day's work. When to awake; Now; and to awake out of the sleep of carnal security, sloth, and negligence; out of the sleep of spiritual death, and out of the sleep of spiritual deadness. Considering the time; a busy time; a perilous time. Also the salvation nigh at hand. Let us mind our way, and mend our pace, we are nearer our journey's end. Also to make ourselves ready. The night is far spent, the day is at hand; therefore it is time to dress ourselves. Observe what we must put off; clothes worn in the night. Cast off the sinful works of darkness. Observe what we must put on; how we should dress our souls. Put on the armour of light. A Christian must reckon himself undressed, if unarmed. The graces of the Spirit are this armour, to secure the soul from Satan's temptations, and the assaults of this present evil world. Put on Christ; that includes all. Put on righteousness of Christ, for justification. Put on the Spirit and grace of Christ, for sanctification. The Lord Jesus Christ must be put on as Lord to rule you as Jesus to save you; and in both, as Christ anointed and appointed by the Father to this ruling, saving work. And how to walk. When we are up and ready, we are not to sit still, but to appear abroad; let us walk. Christianity teaches us how to walk so as to please God, who ever sees us. Walk honestly as in the day; avoiding the works of darkness. Where there are riot and drunkenness, there usually are chambering and wantonness, and strife and envy. Solomon puts these all together, Proverbs 23:29-35. See what provision to make. Our great care must be to provide for our souls: but must we take no care about our bodies? Yes; but two things are forbidden. Perplexing ourselves with anxious, encumbering care; and indulging ourselves in irregular desires. Natural wants are to be answered, but evil appetites must be checked and denied. To ask meat for our necessities, is our duty, we are taught to pray for daily bread; but to ask meat for our lusts, is provoking God, Psalm 78:18.

── Matthew HenryConcise Commentary on Romans


Romans 13

Verse 1

[1] Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God.

St. Paul, writing to the Romans, whose city was the seat of the empire, speaks largely of obedience to magistrates: and this was also, in effect, a public apology for the Christian religion.

Let every soul be subject to the supreme powers — An admonition peculiarly needful for the Jews. Power, in the singular number, is the supreme authority; powers are they who are invested with it. That is more readily acknowledged to be from God than these. The apostle affirms it of both. They are all from God, who constituted all in general, and permits each in particular by his providence.

The powers that be are appointed by God — It might be rendered, are subordinate to, or, orderly disposed under, God; implying, that they are God's deputies or vicegerents and consequently, their authority being, in effect, his, demands our conscientious obedience.

Verse 2

[2] Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation.

Whosoever resisteth the power — In any other manner than the laws of the community direct.

Shall receive condemnation — Not only from the magistrate, but from God also.

Verse 3

[3] For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same:

For rulers are — In the general, notwithstanding some particular exceptions.

A terror to evil works — Only.

Wouldest thou then not be afraid — There is one fear which precedes evil actions, and deters from them: this should always remain. There is another fear which follows evil actions: they who do well are free from this.

Verse 4

[4] For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil.

The sword — The instrument of capital punishment, which God authorizes him to inflict.

Verse 5

[5] Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not only for wrath, but also for conscience sake.

Not only for fear of wrath — That is, punishment from man.

But for conscience' sake — Out of obedience to God.

Verse 6

[6] For for this cause pay ye tribute also: for they are God's ministers, attending continually upon this very thing.

For this cause — Because they are the ministers (officers) of God for the public good.

This very thing — The public good.

Verse 7

[7] Render therefore to all their dues: tribute to whom tribute is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honour to whom honour.

To all — Magistrates.

Tribute — Taxes on your persons or estates.

Custom — For goods exported or imported.

Fear — Obedience.

Honour — Reverence. All these are due to the supreme power.

Verse 8

[8] Owe no man any thing, but to love one another: for he that loveth another hath fulfilled the law.

From our duty to magistrates he passes on to general duties.

To love one another — An eternal debt, which can never be sufficiently discharged; but yet if this be rightly performed, it discharges all the rest.

For he that loveth another — As he ought.

Hath fulfilled the whole law — Toward his neighbour.

Verse 9

[9] For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

If there be any other — More particular.

Commandment — Toward our neighbour; as there are many in the law.

It is summed up in this — So that if you was not thinking of it, yet if your heart was full of love, you would fulfil it.

Verse 10

[10] Love worketh no ill to his neighbour: therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.

Therefore love is the fulfilling of the law — For the same love which restrains from all evil, incites us to all good.

Verse 11

[11] And that, knowing the time, that now it is high time to awake out of sleep: for now is our salvation nearer than when we believed.

And do this — Fulfil the law of love in all the instances above mentioned.

Knowing the season — Full of grace, but hasting away.

That it is high time to awake out of sleep — How beautifully is the metaphor carried on! This life, a night; the resurrection, the day; the gospel shining on the heart, the dawn of this day; we are to awake out of sleep; to rise up and throw away our night-clothes, fit only for darkness, and put on new; and, being soldiers, we are to arm, and prepare for fight, who are encompassed with so many enemies. The day dawns when we receive faith, and then sleep gives place. Then it is time to rise, to arm, to walk, to work, lest sleep steal upon us again. Final salvation, glory, is nearer to us now, than when we first believed - It is continually advancing, flying forward upon the swiftest wings of time. And that which remains between the present hour and eternity is comparatively but a moment.

Verse 13

[13] Let us walk honestly, as in the day; not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and wantonness, not in strife and envying.

Banqueting — Luxurious, elegant feasts.

Verse 14

[14] But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, to fulfil the lusts thereof.

But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ — Herein is contained the whole of our salvation. It is a strong and beautiful expression for the most intimate union with him, and being clothed with all the graces which were in him. The apostle does not say, Put on purity and sobriety, peacefulness and benevolence; but he says all this and a thousand times more at once, in saying, Put on Christ. And make not provision - To raise foolish desires, or, when they are raised already, to satisfy them.

── John WesleyExplanatory Notes on Romans


Chapter 13. The Duty of Citizens

The Night Is Nearly Over
The Day Is Almost Here

I. Attitude toward Government

  1. Submit to the Authorities
  2. Fulfill the Obligations
  3. Do What Is Right

II. Attitude toward People

  1. No Debt
  2. Love Your Neighbor as Yourself
  3. Fulfill the Law

III. Attitude toward Self

  1. Be Alert and Behave Well
  2. Clothe Yourself with Jesus
  3. Don't Gratify the Sinful Nature
── Chih-Hsin ChangAn Outline of The New Testament
Chapter Thirteen general Review
1) To understand our relationship to the government
2) To appreciate the importance of love and moral purity
Continuing to instruct concerning the "transformed life,"  Paul now
discusses the Christian's responsibilities to governmental authorities.
Understanding that all governments are in power due to the providence
of God, and that they serve as ministers of God to avenge the evil 
doer, Christians are admonished to submit to "the powers that be" 
(1-5).  This submission involves payment of taxes and having respect 
for those in authority (6-7).
Paul's next exhortation deals with the importance of love and moral 
purity.  Christians are to be indebted to no one, save to love one 
another.  When love is properly demonstrated, even the requirements of 
the Law are adequately met (8-10).  This admonition to love, however, 
is carefully balanced with the reminder that time is short and it is 
imperative that Christians maintain moral purity.  This is done by 
Christians putting on the Lord Jesus and not making provision for the 
fulfilling of the lusts of the flesh (11-14).
      1. For governing authorities are appointed by God (1-2)
      2. For governing authorities are God's ministers to avenge evil
      3. To avoid wrath and maintain good conscience (5)
      1. Taxes, customs (6-7a)
      2. Fear (respect), honor (7b)
   A. THE VALUE OF LOVE (8-10)
      1. Owe no one anything but love (8a)
      2. For love does no harm, and fulfills the Law (8b-10)
      1. The time is short, we need to cast off the works of darkness 
         and put on the armor of light (11-12)
      2. Walk properly by putting on the Lord Jesus and making no
         provision to fulfill fleshly lusts (13-14)
the governing authorities - the political powers which govern society
he does not bear the sword in vain - an implied reference to the
                                     approved use of capital punishment
put on the Lord Jesus Christ - a process begun in baptism (Ga 3:27),
                               continued as we develop Christ-like
                               qualities (Co 3:9-17)
make no provision for the flesh, to fulfill its lusts - avoid 
        situations where unlawful fleshly desires might be aroused and
        acted upon
1) List the main points of this chapter
   - Responsibilities To The Government (1-7)
   - Exhortations To Love And Moral Purity (8-14)
2) What one word summarizes the Christian's responsibility to the
   government? (1)
   - submit
3) From where do governments get their authority? (1)
   - God
4) What happens if we resist governing authorities? (2)
   - We resist God and bring judgment upon ourselves
5) What is a major responsibility of government? (4)
   - To avenge the evil doer
6) What should serve as motivation for Christians' submission to the
   government? (5)
   - Wrath, and conscience
7) What else is required of Christians in regards to government? (7)
   - Payment of taxes, and respect for those in authority
8) What one thing should we owe to others? (8)
   - Love
9) What are we to put on? (12,14)
   - The "armor of light", the Lord Jesus Christ
10) What are we not to provide opportunities for? (14)
    - The fulfillment of fleshly lusts


The Christian's Duty To Government (13:1-7)
1. Christians are blessed to be citizens of a heavenly kingdom...
   a. Our citizenship is in heaven - Ph 3:20
   b. We have been conveyed into the kingdom of God's dear Son - Co
      1:13; Re 1:9
   -- As such, we are described as "sojourners and pilgrims" in this
      world - 1 Pe 2:11
2. As "pilgrims", we live and work under the governments of men...
   a. With a variety of political systems:  democracies, kingdoms,
      dictatorships, etc.
   b. Offering varying degrees of freedom, responsibilities, etc.
   -- What is our duty to such governments?
3. The Lord's church began and thrived during the Roman Empire...
   a. To Christians in the capital city of Rome, Paul wrote of their
   b. To Christians dispersed in outlying areas of the Empire, Peter did
   -- The Christian's duty to government is made very clear by the
[Using Paul's comments in Ro 13:1-7 as our starting point, let's review
what our duties are...]
   A. THE RULE...
      1. Stressed twice by Paul
         a. "Let every soul be subject to the governing authorities"
            - Ro 13:1
         b. "Therefore you must be subject..." - Ro 13:5
      2. Peter likewise taught this duty - 1 Pe 2:13-14
         a. "Therefore submit yourselves..."
            1) Submit means "be subject to"
            2) Signifying "to place one's self under subjection; to
               render one's self subordinate"
         b. We are to submit "to every ordinance of man"
            1) The word "ordinance" literally means "a creation"
            2) The Greeks and Romans described the appointment of
               officers as the "creation" of them
            3) Thus the expression "ordinance" actually refers:
               a) Not to a particular law passed by government
               b) But to the civil government or institution itself
               c) Cf. "to every human institution" (NASB, NRSV)
            4) Note that we are to submit to every human institution
               (whether it be a monarchy, democracy, totalitarian state,
      -- Our responsibility is clear:  "Let every soul be subject" - Ro
      1. Governing authorities that exist have been appointed by God!
         - Ro 13:1
         a. As emphasized in the book of Daniel - Dan 2:20-21; 4:17,25a,
         b. Even those that are evil, which God often uses for His
            divine purposes and then replaces - cf. Exo 9:16 (Egypt);
            Isa 10:5-12 (Assyria)
      2. Therefore to resist government means to resist God Himself!
         - Ro 13:2-4
         a. To resist is to bring judgment upon one's self
         b. For government is a minister of God, designed to avenge evil
      3. Peter adds two good reasons - 1 Pe 2:15
         a. First and foremost, "this is the will of God"
            1) Cf. also, "for the Lord's sake" - 1 Pe 2:13
            2) This will suffice for all true servants of God
         b. That we may "put to silence the ignorance of foolish men"
            1) Because of their allegiance to a heavenly king,
               Christians are often falsely accused of sedition or
               treason - e.g., Ac 17:5-8
            2) By doing good (e.g., by submitting), we can "silence"
               (lit., muzzle) ignorant charges
      -- To avoid wrath and have a good conscience, "you must be subject"
         - Ro 13:5
      1. It is not whenever government is oppressive
         a. Consider the government and conditions when Paul and Peter
         b. The government was totalitarian, under Nero's evil and
            despotic rule as emperor
         c. Under Nero's reign, Christians suffered greatly - cf. 1 Pe
            4:12-13; 5:8-9
         d. Paul and Peter were eventually martyred
      2. The only exception:  we must obey God rather than man!
         a. As illustrated by Peter and the apostles - Ac 4:18-20; 5:
         b. When government tries to force us to disobey God, we must
            disobey the government
         c. Even then, we may break only the particular law designed to
            force disobedience to God
         d. We have no authority to break other laws in protest to the
            unjust law
      -- When government seeks to stifle our service to God, we must
         obey God rather than man!
[As we return to our text, we note additional duties to government...]
      1. As an act of submission we should pay our taxes - Ro 13:6
      2. Also other fees that are due, such as customs - Ro 13:7
      -- We may not approve of how the taxes are spent, but I doubt the
         early Christians approved of how Nero spent the government's
         money either
      1. Fear to whom fear is due - Ro 13:7
         a. Such as police officers, judges
         b. And if you do evil, be afraid! - Ro 13:4
      2. Honor to whom honor is due - Ro 13:7; cf. 1 Pe 2:17
         a. Such as presidents, kings, governors, local leaders
         b. Out of respect for the office, if not for the man (or woman)
      -- Our duty is not limited to those whose political or personal
         behavior we approve
[Before we end our study, we should certainly note another duty to
government that is ours...]
      1. We are to offer supplications, prayers, intercessions - 1 Ti 2:
         a. Praying for those who lead, not only our country, but those
            around the world
         b. Praying that they rule with wisdom, righteousness, and mercy
      2. We are to offer thanks - 1 Ti 2:1-2
         a. Taking time to thank God for those who rule well
         b. Thanking God for when we live in peace and prosperity, and
            for protecting us when we do not
      -- An invaluable contribution Christians can give their country
         are their prayers
      1. Good in a material sense, to enjoy quiet and peaceful times
         - cf. 1 Th 4:11; He 12:14a
      2. Good in a spiritual sense, free to be godly and reverent - cf.
         He 12:14b
      -- As God works through the governments of men to bestow peace,
         prayer should be a priority for those who wish to live in peace
1. The duties placed on Christians toward their earthly governments are
   clear and simple...
   a. Be subject to governing authorities
   b. Pay what is due in taxes and respect
   c. Pray for all those in positions of authority
2. Beyond this, our involvement in the affairs of government may fall
   into the realm of judgment...
   a. Should we enter politics, serve in law enforcement, enlist in the
   b. Such questions have been debated by Christians for centuries
   -- One thing is clear, we must obey God rather than man, and avoid
      becoming entangled with the affairs of this life to the neglect of
      our service to God (2 Ti 2:4)
As a Christian, are you faithfully fulfilling your duty to earthly
government, while sojourning as a citizen of a heavenly kingdom...?


Indebted To Love (13:8-10)
1. In our duty to government, Paul commanded to pay what is due (taxes
   and customs, fear and honor - cf. Ro 13:7
2. He then proceeded to discuss our duty to our fellow man (to owe no
   one anything, except to love one another) - cf. Ro 13:8
3. This does not forbid borrowing where contract obligations are met...
   a. Otherwise Jesus would not have permitted borrowing - cf. Mt 5:42
   b. Certainly debts should be paid - cf. Psa 37:21
4. This appears to be a use of the comparative "not"...
   a. Where "not" is not used as a literal prohibition
   b. But to compare one thing to another (not this..but this)
   c. For example, look at Jn 6:27
      1) Did Jesus condemn working for food?
      2) No, He was emphasizing what is most important
5. The point is this:  we owe a debt to always love one another...
   a. "Let no debt remain outstanding, except the continuing debt to
      love one another" (NIV)
   b. "Leave no debt unpaid except the standing debt of mutual love"
[Thus Christians should always feel "Indebted To Love".  As to reasons
why, consider...]
      1. Jewish Christians were slow to give up the Law - e.g., Ac 21:
      2. Some tried to bind elements of the Law on Gentiles - e.g., Ac
      3. The apostles (and Holy Spirit) withstood such efforts - cf. Ac
         15:28; Ga 5:1-4; Ro 7:4-6
      4. The command to love fulfilled much of the Law - Ro 13:8-10
      -- Jewish Christians could take comfort in knowing that keeping
         the command to love one another fulfilled the Law
      1. Jesus gave His disciples a new commandment - Jn 13:34,35; 15:12
         a. To love one another
         b. As He loved us
      2. The gospel reveals that God is love, and love is of God  - 1 Jn
         a. Those who love are born of God and know Him
         b. God loved us, and so we ought to love another
      -- As disciples of Christ, it is only natural that we emulate the
         love shown us
[For such reasons, we "ought" (indebted) to love one another.  How can
we pay this "debt"...?]
      1. Jesus sets the standard - Jn 13:34; 15:12
         a. We are to love as He loved us
         b. This raises the quality of love (compared to loving one as
      2. Jesus sets a high standard - Jn 15:13; 1 Jn 3:16-18
         a. By laying down His life for His friends
         b. We also ought to lay down our life for the brethren
      -- In principle, the example of Jesus illustrates how we pay the
         debt we owe
      1. Paul defined true love - 1 Co 13:4-8
         a. Defined by what it does
            1) Suffers long and is kind, rejoices in the truth
            2) Bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things,
               endures all things
         b. Defined by what it does not do
            1) Does not envy; does not parade itself, is not puffed up
            2) Does not behave rudely, does not seek its own, is not
               provoked, thinks no evil
            3) Does not rejoice in iniquity, and never fails
      2. We can pay on the debt by treating one another in this way
         a. Be patient and kind; rejoicing in what is truth
         b. Forbearing with one another, believing and hoping for the
            best in one another
         c. Free from envy, arrogance, pride, and selfish interests
         d. Thinking no evil of a brother, and grieved when seeing one
         e. Never failing to love as Christ loved us
      -- In practice, Paul's description provides guidance on how we pay
         the debt we owe
1. The debt we owe can never be fully paid...
   a. For we are to love one another as Christ loved us
   b. Yet His love "passes knowledge" - cf. Ep 3:19
2. Thus we should always feel an indebtedness...
   a. To increase in love - cf. 1 Th 4:9-10
   b. To abound in love still more and more - cf. Ph 1:9
In this way we can "approve the things that are excellent" and "be
sincere and without offense till the day of Christ." (Ph 1:10).  Is this
not sufficient motivation to be "Indebted To Love"...?


It's Time To Wake Up! (13:11-14)
1. Apathy and lethargy are problems that often afflict the people of
   a. Many Christians simply "go through the motions"
   b. Many Churches exist, but with little zeal or progress
2. Such problems were common in New Testament times...
   a. The church in Ephesus left their first love - Re 2:4
   b. The church in Laodicea became lukewarm - Re 3:15-16
3. Paul felt the need to exhort the brethren in Rome to awake from sleep
   - Ro 13:11-14
   a. "To awake from carelessness and indifference" - B. W. Johnson
   b. "To shake off slothfulness, security, and all former sinful
      courses" - Poole
   c. To awake from "stupid, fatal indifference to eternal things" - JFB
[Have we become lethargic and indifferent to eternal things?  If so,
"It's Time To Wake Up!"  With Paul's exhortation before us, consider
some reasons...]
      1. Knowing the nature of time
         a. Time is short
         b. Time is fleeting - Ja 4:14-17
      2. Knowing what time it is
         a. Now is the time to obey the Lord
         b. Now is day of salvation - 2 Co 6:1-2
      1. Our salvation is nearer - in what way?
         a. The Lord's return is nearer
         b. Our own death is nearer, should we die before the Lord
            returns - cf. He 9:27
      2. Than we first believed
         a. Every day brings us closer
         b. Think of how much time has gone by since we believed!
      1. The night - referring to the moral darkness of this world - cf.
         1 Jn 2:8
      2. Is far spent - lit., "is cut off" It is becoming short; it is
         hastening to a close - cf. 1 Co 7:31b
      3. This world and time as we know it will not last long
      1. "The day of eternal blessedness is at hand - is about to dawn
         on us in our glorious resurrection unto eternal life" - Clarke
      2. Until which the Word of God serves as a light shining in the
         dark - cf. 2 Pe 1:19
[Since these things are true, let us walk (conduct ourselves)
      1. Such things as mentioned in this text:
         a. Revelry, drunkenness, lewdness
         b. Lust, strife, envy
      2. Such things as mentioned in other texts:
         a. Adultery, fornication, idolatry, sorcery, hatred,
            contentions, jealousies, outbursts of wrath, selfish
            ambitions, dissension's, heresies, murders - cf. Ga 5:19-21
         b. Passion, evil desire, covetousness, anger, malice,
            blasphemy, filthy language, lying - cf. Co 3:5-8
      1. The breastplate of faith and love, the hope of salvation as a
         helmet - 1 Th 5:8
      2. That armor of God including truth, righteousness, the gospel,
         faith, the hope of salvation, the Word of God - cf. Ep 6:10-17
      1. First, in baptism
         a. For in baptism we "put on" Christ - Ga 3:27
         b. We are raised "with" Christ, "made alive together with Him"
            - Co 2:11-13
      2. Then, in developing Christ-like character
         a. Putting on the new man, renewed in knowledge, with tender
            mercies, kindness, humility, meekness, longsuffering,
            forbearance, forgiving one another, love - Co 3:10-14
         b. Being renewed in mind, a new man in true righteousness and
            holiness - Ep 4:20-24
         c. Growing in the grace and knowledge of Jesus Christ - cf.
            2 Pe 1:5-8; 3:18
      1. Something we must do!
         a. If we want to live spiritually - cf. Ro 8:12-13a
         b. If we desire the love of the Father - cf. 1 Jn 2:15-17
      2. Something we can do!
         a. With the aid of the Spirit - cf. Ro 8:13b; Ep 3:16,20; Ga 5:
         b. With the aid of God's providence - cf. 1 Co 10:13
         c. With the aid of watchful prayer - Mt 26:41; cf. 1 Pe 4:7;
      3. How serious are we in this regard?
         a. Do we avoid circumstances that might tempt the flesh?
         b. Do we abstain from activities that arouse fleshly lusts?
1. Brethren, are we sleeping...?
   a. Indifferent to matters of the spirit, careless about things
   b. Lethargic in our service to the Lord, apathetic about our
      spiritual well-being?
2. If so, then "It's Time To Wake Up!"...
   a. The time to change and grow will be soon be gone!
   b. The day of eternity will arrive and we won't be ready!
3. Let us be children of the day, not of the night...
   a. Put on the Lord Jesus
   b. Put on the armor of light
   c. Walk properly
   d. Make no provision for the flesh to fulfill its fleshly lusts
...and we can look forward to obtaining salvation through Jesus Christ!
- cf. 1 Th 5:1-11


--《Executable Outlines


The Duty of Citizens

The Night Is Nearly Over

The Day Is Almost Here


I.  Attitude toward Government

1.    Submit to the Authorities

2.    Fulfill the Obligations

3.    Do What Is Right

II.Attitude toward People

1.    No Debt

2.    Love Your Neighbor as Yourself

3.    Fulfill the Law

III.       Attitude toward Self

1.    Be Alert and Behave Well

2.    Clothe Yourself with Jesus

3.    Don’t Gratify the Sinful Nature

-- Chih-Hsin ChangAn Outline of The New Testament