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2 Corinthians Chapter Two


2 Corinthians 2

But had there been any lightness in his decisions, since, as he now informed them, he had intended to visit them on his way to Macedonia (where he was at the moment of writing this letter), and then a second time on his return from that country? In no wise; they were not intentions lightly formed, according to the flesh, and then abandoned. It was his affection, it was to spare them. He could not bear the idea of going with a rod to those whom he loved. Observe in what manner, although shewing his affection and tenderness, he maintains his authority; and they needed the exercise of this authority. And while reminding them of his authority, he displays all his tenderness. They were not Cretans, perhaps, whom it was necessary to rebuke sharply; but there was a laxity of. morals which required delicacy and care lest they should become restive, but also authority and a bridle, lest, in giving them liberty, they should fall into all sorts of bad ways. But he turns immediately to the certainty which was in Christ, the basis of all his own. He would not press too much upon the chord he had touched at the beginning. He lets his authority be known as that which might have been exercised, and he does not employ it. The groundwork of Christianity was needed, in order to put their souls into a condition to judge themselves healthily. They were quite disposed, through the intrigues of false teachers and their habit of schools of philosophy, to separate from the apostle, and, in spirit, from Christ. He brings them back to the foundation, to the sure doctrine that was common to all those that had laboured among them at the beginning. He would give Satan no occasion to detach them from him (see chap 2:11).

He establishes therefore the great principles of christian joy and assurance. I do not speak of the blood, the only source of peace of conscience before God as a judge, but of the manner in which we are placed by the power of God in His presence, in the position and state into which that power introduces us according to the counsels of His grace. Simple certainty was in Christ, according to that which had been said. It was not first Yea, and then Nay: the yea remained always yea-a principle of immense importance, but for the establishment of which there was needed the power and the firmness and even perfection, and the wisdom, of God; for to assure and make stedfast that which was not wise and perfect would certainly not have been worthy of Him.

It will be seen that the question was, whether Paul had lightly changed his purpose. He says that he had not; but he leaves the thought of that which concerned him personally to speak of that which pre-occupied his thoughts-of Christ; and to him, in fact, to live was Christ. But there was a difficulty to solve, when the immutability of God's promises was the question. It is that we are not in a state to profit by that which was immutable on account of our weakness and inconstancy. He solves this difficulty by setting forth the mighty operations of God in grace.

There are two points therefore:-the establishment of all the promises in Christ, and the enjoyment, by us, of the effect of these promises. The thing is, as we have seen, not merely to say, to promise, something; but not to change one's intentions, not to depart from what was said, but to keep one's word. Now there had been promises. God had made promises, whether to Abraham unconditionally, or to Israel at Sinai under the condition of obedience. But in Christ there was, not promises, but the Amen to God's promises, the verity and realisation of them. Whatever promises there had been on God's part, the Yea was in Him, and the Amen in Him. God has established-deposited, so to speak-the fulfilment of all His promises in the Person of Christ. Life, glory, righteousness, pardon, the gift of the Spirit, all is in Him; it is in Him that all is we-Yea and Amen. We cannot have the effect of any promise whatsoever out of Him. But this is not all: we, believers, are the objects of these counsels of God. They are to the glory of God by us.

But, in the first place, the glory of God is that of Him whoever glorifies Himself in His ways of sovereign grace towards us; for it is in these ways that He unfolds and displays what He is. The Yea and Amen therefore of the promises of God, the accomplishment and the realisation of the promises of God, for His glory by us, are in Christ.

But how can we participate in it, if all is Christ and in Christ? It is here that the Holy Ghost presents the second part of the ways of grace. We are in Christ, and we are in Him not according to the instability of the will of man, and the weakness that characterises him in his transitory and changeable works. He who was firmly established us in Christ is God Himself. The accomplishment of all the promises is in Him. Under the law, and under conditions the fulfilment of which depended on the stability of man, the effect of the promise was never attained; the thing promised eluded the pursuit of man, because man needed to be in a state capable of attaining it by righteousness, and he was not in that state; the accomplishment of the promise therefore was always suspended; it would have its effect if-but the "if" was not accomplished, and the Yea and Amen did not come. But all that God has promised is in Christ. The second part is the "by us," and how far we enjoy it. We are firmly established by God in Christ, in whom all the promises subsist, so that we securely possess in Him all that is promised us. But we do not enjoy it as that which subsists in our own hands.

But, further, God Himself has anointed us. We have by Jesus received the Holy Ghost. God has taken care that we should understand by the Spirit that which is freely given us in Christ. But the Spirit is given to us, according to the counsels of God, for other things than understanding merely His gifts in Christ. He who has received Him is sealed. God has marked him with His seal, even as He marked Christ with His seal when He anointed Him after His baptism by John. Moreover the Spirit becomes the earnest, in our own hearts, of that which we shall fully possess hereafter in Christ. We understand the things that are given us in the glory; we are marked by the seal of God to enjoy them; we have the earnest of them in our hearts-our affections are engaged by them. Established in Christ, we have the Holy Ghost, who seals us when we believe, to bring us into the enjoyment, even while here below, of that which is in Christ.

Having again spoken of the care which manifested his affection for them, he expresses his conviction that that which had pained him had pained them also; and this was demonstrated by the way in which they had treated the transgressor. He exhorts them to receive again and comfort the poor guilty one, who was in danger of being entirely overwhelmed by the discipline that had been exercised towards him by the mass of the Christians; adding, that if the Christians forgave him his fault, he forgave it likewise. He would not that Satan should get any advantage through this case to bring in dissension between himself and the Corinthians; for Paul well knew what the enemy aimed at, the object with which he made use of this affair.

This gives him occasion to shew how much he had them always in his heart. Coming to Troas for the gospel, and a wide door being opened to him, nevertheless he could not remain there, because he had not found Titus; and he left Troas and continued his journey into Macedonia. It will be remembered that, instead of passing by the western shores of the Archipelago, in order to visit Macedonia, taking Corinth on his way, and then returning by the same route, the apostle had sent Titus with his first letter, and had gone by way of Asia Minor, or the eastern coast of the sea, which led him to Troas, where Titus was to meet him. But not finding him at Troas, and being uneasy with regard to the Corinthians, he could not be satisfied with there being a work to be done at Troas, but journeyed on to meet Titus and repaired to Macedonia. There he found him, as we shall see presently. But this thought of having left Troas affected him, for in fact it is a serious thing, and painful to the heart, to miss an opportunity of preaching Christ, and the more so when people are disposed to receive Him, or at least to hear of Him. To have left Troas was indeed a proof of his affection for the Corinthians; and the apostle recalls the circumstance as a strong demonstration of that affection. He comforts himself for having missed this work of evangelisation by the thought that after all God led him as in triumph (not "caused him to triumph"). The gospel which he carried with him, the testimony of Christ, was like the perfume caused by burning aromatic drugs in triumphal processions-a token of death to some of the captives, of life to others. And this perfume of the gospel was pure in his hands. The apostle was not like some who adulterated the wine they furnished; he laboured in christian integrity before God.

── John DarbySynopsis of 2 Corinthians


2 Corinthians 2

Chapter Contents

Reasons for the apostle not coming to Corinth. (1-4) Directions about restoring the repentant offender. (5-11) An account of his labours and success in spreading the gospel of Christ. (12-17)

Commentary on 2 Corinthians 2:1-4

(Read 2 Corinthians 2:1-4)

The apostle desired to have a cheerful meeting with them; and he had written in confidence of their doing what was to their benefit and his comfort; and that therefore they would be glad to remove every cause of disquiet from him. We should always give pain unwillingly, even when duty requires that it must be given.

Commentary on 2 Corinthians 2:5-11

(Read 2 Corinthians 2:5-11)

The apostle desires them to receive the person who had done wrong, again into their communion; for he was aware of his fault, and much afflicted under his punishment. Even sorrow for sin should not unfit for other duties, and drive to despair. Not only was there danger last Satan should get advantage, by tempting the penitent to hard thoughts of God and religion, and so drive him to despair; but against the churches and the ministers of Christ, by bringing an evil report upon Christians as unforgiving; thus making divisions, and hindering the success of the ministry. In this, as in other things, wisdom is to be used, that the ministry may not be blamed for indulging sin on the one hand, or for too great severity towards sinners on the other hand. Satan has many plans to deceive, and knows how to make a bad use of our mistakes.

Commentary on 2 Corinthians 2:12-17

(Read 2 Corinthians 2:12-17)

A believer's triumphs are all in Christ. To him be the praise and glory of all, while the success of the gospel is a good reason for a Christian's joy and rejoicing. In ancient triumphs, abundance of perfumes and sweet odours were used; so the name and salvation of Jesus, as ointment poured out, was a sweet savour diffused in every place. Unto some, the gospel is a savour of death unto death. They reject it to their ruin. Unto others, the gospel is a savour of life unto life: as it quickened them at first when they were dead in trespasses and sins, so it makes them more lively, and will end in eternal life. Observe the awful impressions this matter made upon the apostle, and should also make upon us. The work is great, and of ourselves we have no strength at all; all our sufficiency is of God. But what we do in religion, unless it is done in sincerity, as in the sight of God, is not of God, does not come from him, and will not reach to him. May we carefully watch ourselves in this matter; and seek the testimony of our consciences, under the teaching of the Holy Spirit, that as of sincerity, so speak we in Christ and of Christ.

── Matthew HenryConcise Commentary on 2 Corinthians


2 Corinthians 2

Verse 1

[1] But I determined this with myself, that I would not come again to you in heaviness.

In grief — Either on account of the particular offender, or of the church in general.

Verse 2

[2] For if I make you sorry, who is he then that maketh me glad, but the same which is made sorry by me?

For if I grieve you, who is he that cheereth me, but he that is grieved by me — That is, I cannot be comforted myself till his grief is removed.

Verse 3

[3] And I wrote this same unto you, lest, when I came, I should have sorrow from them of whom I ought to rejoice; having confidence in you all, that my joy is the joy of you all.

And I wrote thus to you — I wrote to you before in this determination, not to come to you in grief.

Verse 4

[4] For out of much affliction and anguish of heart I wrote unto you with many tears; not that ye should be grieved, but that ye might know the love which I have more abundantly unto you.

From much anguish I wrote to you, not so much that ye might be grieved, as that ye might know by my faithful admonition my abundant love toward you.

Verse 5

[5] But if any have caused grief, he hath not grieved me, but in part: that I may not overcharge you all.

He hath grieved me but in part — Who still rejoice over the greater part of you. Otherwise I might burden you all.

Verse 6

[6] Sufficient to such a man is this punishment, which was inflicted of many.

Sufficient for such an one — With what a remarkable tenderness does St. Paul treat this offender! He never once mentions his name. Nor does he here so much as mention his crime.

By many — Not only by the rulers of the church: the whole congregation acquiesced in the sentence.

Verse 10

[10] To whom ye forgive any thing, I forgive also: for if I forgave any thing, to whom I forgave it, for your sakes forgave I it in the person of Christ;

To whom ye forgive — He makes no question of their complying with his direction.

Anything — So mildly does he speak even of that heinous sin, after it was repented of.

In the person of Christ — By the authority wherewith he has invested me.

Verse 11

[11] Lest Satan should get an advantage of us: for we are not ignorant of his devices.

Lest Satan — To whom he had been delivered, and who sought to destroy not only his flesh, but his soul also.

Get an advantage over us — For the loss of one soul is a common loss.

Verse 12

[12] Furthermore, when I came to Troas to preach Christ's gospel, and a door was opened unto me of the Lord,

Now when I came to Troas — It seems, in that passage from Asia to Macedonia, of which a short account is given, Acts 20:1,2. Even though a door was opened to me - That is, there was free liberty to speak, and many were willing to hear: yet,

Verse 13

[13] I had no rest in my spirit, because I found not Titus my brother: but taking my leave of them, I went from thence into Macedonia.

I had no rest in my spirit — From an earnest desire to know how my letter had been received.

Because I did not find Titus — In his return from you.

So I went forth into Macedonia — Where being much nearer, I might more easily be informed concerning you. The apostle resumes the thread of his discourse, 2 Corinthians 7:2, interposing an admirable digression concerning what he had done and suffered elsewhere, the profit of which he by this means derives to the Corinthians also; and as a prelude to his apology against the false apostles.

Verse 14

[14] Now thanks be unto God, which always causeth us to triumph in Christ, and maketh manifest the savour of his knowledge by us in every place.

To triumph, implies not only victory, but an open manifestation of it. And as in triumphal processions, especially in the east, incense and perfumes were burned near the conqueror, the apostle beautifully alludes to this circumstance in the following verse: as likewise to the different effects which strong perfumes have upon different persons; some of whom they revive, while they throw others into the most violent disorders.

Verse 15

[15] For we are unto God a sweet savour of Christ, in them that are saved, and in them that perish:

For we — The preachers of the gospel.

Are to God a sweet odour of Christ — God is well-pleased with this perfume diffused by us, both in them that believe and are saved, treated of, 2 Corinthians 3:1; 2 Corinthians 4:2; and in them that obstinately disbelieve and, consequently, perish, treated of, 2 Corinthians 4:3-6.

Verse 16

[16] To the one we are the savour of death unto death; and to the other the savour of life unto life. And who is sufficient for these things?

And who is sufficient for these things — No man living, but by the power of God's Spirit.

Verse 17

[17] For we are not as many, which corrupt the word of God: but as of sincerity, but as of God, in the sight of God speak we in Christ.

For we are not as many, who adulterate the word of God — Like those vintners (so the Greek word implies) who mix their wines with baser liquors.

But as of sincerity — Without any mixture.

But as from God — This rises higher still; transmitting his pure word, not our own.

In the sight of God — Whom we regard as always present, and noting every word of our tongue.

Speak we — The tongue is ours, but the power is God's.

In Christ — Words which he gives, approves, and blesses.

── John WesleyExplanatory Notes on 2 Corinthians


Chapter 2. The Intention to Exhort

The Smell of Death
The Fragrance of Life

I. Interrelation Among Members

  1. No Pains
  2. Make Me Glad
  3. Tears In Love

II. Forgiveness in the Body

  1. Excessive sorrow
  2. Forgive Him Together
  3. The Scheme of Satan

III. Spread the Fragrance of Christ

  1. Hold Fellow Workers in High Esteem
  2. Triumph in Christ
  3. Preach Christ
── Chih-Hsin ChangAn Outline of The New Testament
Chapter Two general Review
1) To appreciate the attitudes Paul had in writing his first epistle
2) To understand the need for proper follow-up toward one who has 
   reacted favorably to church discipline
3) To see the different effects the gospel can have on people
Paul continues to defend his integrity by explaining that his change of
plans was an effort to prevent his coming to them in sorrow.  Indeed,
his previous letter was written for the same reason, and with much
anguish of heart (1-4).  Speaking of grief, he reminds them that the
one who caused most of it had properly repented after their
disciplinary actions, and they should be careful to forgive and comfort
the person.  Paul himself was willing to forgive the penitent offender,
because he knew how Satan could easily take advantage of their
situation (5-11).
He then reveals the anxiety of trying to find Titus, which prompted his
leaving an "open door" in Troas to go on to Macedonia (12-13).  He will
return to the subject of finding Titus and the comfort he received upon
doing so (7:5-7), but at this point Paul begins vindicating his 
ministry as an apostle of Christ.  With thanks to God, Paul describes 
the "triumphant" nature of his ministry, in which God leads him as in a
victory procession.  Carrying the imagery of a victory procession a
little further (in which it was common to have incense as part of the 
parade), Paul views himself and his work as the "fragrance of Christ" 
which to those being saved is an "aroma of life", but to those who are
perishing it is an "aroma of death" (14-16b).  Realizing his own 
insufficiency for such things, he speaks not as those who "peddle" the 
Word of God, but with sincerity and with an awareness that it comes 
from God, and is in the sight of God (16c-17).
      1. He was determined not to come to them in sorrow (1-2)
      2. His previous letter he wrote in sorrow, lest when he came 
         there would be sorrow and not joy for both him and them (3-4)
      1. Speaking of sorrow, much of their grief was caused by one man
      2. However, their discipline was effective and the penitent 
         offender should be forgiven and reassured of their love for 
         him (6-8)
      3. His previous letter was a test of their obedience, and he is
         willing to forgive those they have forgiven, lest Satan take
         advantage of their situation (9-11)
      1. In Troas, the Lord had given him an "open door" to preach the
         gospel (12)
      2. But with no word from Titus, anxiety for their situation 
         prompted him to leave for Macedonia (13)
      1. Paul expresses thanksgiving to God
      2. The reason:  for leading them in a triumphal procession 
         similar to that enjoyed by a military leader after a victory
      1. God diffuses the "fragrance of His knowledge" in every place
      2. To God, they are the "fragrance of Christ" (15)
         a. To those who are perishing, they are an "aroma of death"
         b. To those who are being saved, they are an "aroma of life"
      3. He realizes his dependency upon God for sufficiency to be such
         things (16c-17)
         a. Unlike many, who "peddle" the Word of God (17a)
         b. In contrast, he speaks sincerely, as from God, and in the
            sight of God (17b)
1) What are the main points of this chapter?
   - Paul's defense of his integrity continues (1-13)
   - The "triumphant" nature of Paul's ministry (14-17)
2) What was Paul determined not to do? (1)
   - To come to them in sorrow
3) Why did he write his previous letter? (3)
   - Lest when he came he would have sorrow over those who ought to
     give him joy
4) How did Paul write as he penned his letter? (4)
   - Out of much affliction and anguish of heart, and with many tears
5) What did Paul want them to do with the man who had sinned, yet 
   repented after their disciplinary action toward him? (7-8)
   - To forgive and comfort him
   - To reaffirm their love to him
6) What was one purpose in writing to them as Paul had done? (9)
   - To test their obedience
7) Why was Paul so willing to forgive the offender once the Corinthians
   had forgiven him? (10-11)
   - Lest Satan take advantage of the situation
8) When Paul came to Troas to preach the gospel, what did he find? (12)
   - An "open door" provided by the Lord
9) Who did he not find that troubled him greatly?  Where did he then 
   go? (13)
   - Titus
   - Macedonia
10) Why does Paul give God thanks? (14)
   - For always leading him in triumph in Christ
11) How does Paul describe God working through him? (14)
   - As diffusing the fragrance of His knowledge in every place
12) In what two ways, and to what two groups of people, does Paul 
    describe himself as "the fragrance of Christ"? (15-17)
   - An "aroma of life to life" to those who are being saved
   - An "aroma of death to death" to those who are perishing
13) How do many misuse the Word of God?  How did Paul speak the Word?
   - As "peddling" (using it to make profit)
   - With sincerity, as from God, and in the sight of God in Christ


The Devices Of Satan (2:11)
1. When Paul wrote his second epistle to the Corinthians, he alluded to
   the possibility that Satan might take advantage of them:
   "lest Satan should take advantage of us; for we are not ignorant
   of his devices." (2 Co 2:11)
2. Informed Christians, however, need not be in a position to be caught
   off guard...
   a. Satan's advantage is based upon one being "ignorant of his 
   b. But if we are aware of the methods Satan uses to lead people 
      astray, we can resist him successfully!
3. What are some of "The Devices Of Satan"?  How can we defend 
   ourselves against them?
[In study we shall attempt to answer these questions.  We begin by 
noticing a "device" of Satan that Paul described later in this same 
      1. There are some whom "the god of this age" has blinded - cf. 
         2 Co 4:3-4
      2. The Spirit warned this would be done through "doctrines of 
         demons" - 1 Ti 4:1-3
      3. Today, many minds are blinded to the truth...
         a. By the doctrine of ATHEISM - there is no God
         b. By the doctrine of EVOLUTION - we are simply animals
         c. By the doctrine of HUMANISM - man is the measure of all 
            things, and in him alone is the solution to our problems
      -- Those who are so blinded are hindered from receiving the truth
      1. Is actually a strong offense, involving a war for the 
         "thoughts" of men - 2 Co 10:3-5
      2. Our greatest weapon is TRUTH, which can defeat the false
         arguments and free those who have been blinded into captivity
         - cf. Jn 8:32
         a. Thus the need for discussion and debate, in order to cast
            down "arguments" - 2 Co 10:5
         b. Consider the example of Paul, who "reasoned" with others - 
            Ac 17:2-3; 19:8-9
      3. Other weapons involve CHRIST-LIKE ATTITUDES that are "mighty 
         in God"...
         a. E.g., the meekness and gentleness of Christ - 2 Co 10:1-4
         b. E.g., patience and humility in correcting others - 2 Ti 2:
      -- "Speaking the truth in love" (Ep 4:15), we can be defeat 
         this "device of Satan"!
[Another "device of Satan" is to...]
      1. I am referring to those things described in 1 Jn 2:15-17
         a. The lust of the flesh
         b. The lust of the eyes
         c. The pride of life
      2. Satan used these tactics against EVE - cf. Gen 3:6
         a. What she saw was "good for food" (the lust of the flesh)
         b. It was "pleasant to the eyes" (lust of the eyes)
         c. It was "desirable to make one wise" (pride of life)
      3. Satan also tried these tactics in tempting Jesus - Mt 4:1-11
         a. "command that these stones become bread" (lust of the 
         b. "If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down..." (pride 
            of life)
         c. "All these things I will give you if..." (lust of the eyes)
      4. Today, Satan uses these tactics with a vengeance, tempting
         people through...
         a. Immorality (lust of the flesh)
         b. Materialism (lust of the eyes)
         c. Arrogance (pride of life)
      1. Saturate ourselves with the Word of God!
         a. This is how Jesus overcame His temptations by the devil
         b. Note how He answered each temptation by saying "It is 
            written..." - Mt 4:4,7,10
      2. Develop a strong love for the Father!
         a. For that love is incompatible with a love for the world 
            - cf. 1 Jn 2:15
         b. One cannot be a friend of the world and maintain friendship
            with God - Ja 4:4
      -- By saturating ourselves with God's Word and being strong in 
         our love for Him, we will effectively submit to Him and be 
         able to resist the devil, causing him to flee! - Ja 4:7
[Yet let's not think that Satan will give up easily; there are other 
"devices" up his sleeve, including...]
      1. Peter warned that the devil sought to devour Christians 
         through persecutions - 1 Pe 5:8-9
      2. Paul worried that afflictions brought about by Satan might 
         tempt the Thessalonians to give up - 1 Th 3:1-5
      3. Even today, Satan persecutes Christians!
         a. Some literally, through great suffering as Christians
         b. Others through social pressures that are often equally 
            1) Peer pressure
            2) Ridicule
            3) Ostracism
      1. Encourage one another!
         a. This is what Peter sought to do - cf. 1 Pe 5:8-10
         b. Paul sent Timothy to do the same - cf. 1 Th 3:2-3
      2. Adopt the proper attitude:  Rejoice!
         a. Knowing that trials can make us stronger - cf. Ja 1:2-4; 
            Ro 5:3-4
         b. Knowing that those who endure are blessed by God - cf. 1 Pe
            4:12-14; Mt 5:10-12
      3. Commit yourself to God in doing good - cf. 1 Pe 4:19
         a. God is a faithful Creator
         b. He takes note of our suffering, and will one day repay 
            those who trouble us (including Satan himself!), and give 
            us rest - cf. 2 Th 1:4-8; Re 20:10
[There is another "device" of Satan, that often has deadly effect...]
      1. The wrong companions can defeat one's effort to do good - cf.
         1 Co 15:33
      2. Amnon was led astray by the counsel of his "friend", Jonadab 
         - 2 Sam 13:1ff
      3. Today, many Christians are hindered in their spiritual 
         a. By the company they keep
         b. By the activities in which such company engages
      1. Realize the danger of the wrong companions - cf. Pr 13:20
      2. Heed the advice Paul made to the Corinthians:
         a. "Do not be unequally yoked together with unbelievers..."
            - 2 Co 6:14-16
         b. "Come out from among them..." - 2 Co 6:17-18
         c. "...perfecting holiness in the fear of God." - 2 Co 7:1
[Finally, let's look at one more "device" of Satan...]
      1. This relates to Paul's concern in our text - cf. 2 Co 2:6-11
         a. A sinning brother was disciplined, and had repented
         b. The need now was for the church to confirm their love and
         c. Otherwise, Satan might take advantage of this situation:
            1) Defeating the church by their unwillingness to forgive
            2) Overcoming the weak brother by his being swallowed up in
               sorrow if forgiveness was not granted by the 
      2. Today, Satan sometimes wins many souls by this "device"
         a. Christians who are unloving, unmerciful, and unforgiving,
            become stumblingblocks to others
         b. Christians who are apathetic, sluggish, in their service 
            and devotion to God, adversely influence new Christians
      1. Place our ultimate faith in the Lord, not in brethren - cf. 
         2 Ti 4:16-18
         a. This is not to suggest that brethren can't be trusted
         b. But brethren are fallible, the Lord is not!
      2. Remember that not all brethren set the proper example - e.g., 
         3 Jn 9-12
         a. Imitate the good examples
         b. Don't let the bad ones discourage us
1. This is not an exhaustive list, rather only a sampling of "The
   Devices Of Satan"
   a. The Scriptures certainly reveal much more about how the "Great 
      Deceiver" works
   b. There is also an interesting work of fiction that provides some
      interesting insights; it is called "The Screwtape Letters", by 
      C. S. Lewis
2. I trust this study has been sufficient to show, however...
   a. That our adversary is indeed strong
   b. That ignorance of his devices make us susceptible
   c. That if we are not diligent, he can indeed take advantage of us!
Remember, therefore, these important words of the apostle Paul...
   "Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord and in the power of
   His might.  Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able
   to stand against the wiles of the devil."
   "For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against
   principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the
   darkness of this age, against spiritual hosts of wickedness in
   the heavenly places."
   "Therefore take up the whole armor of God, that you may be able
   to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand."
                                 (Ep 6:10-13)


--《Executable Outlines


The Intention to Exhort

The Smell of Death

The Fragrance of Life


I.  Interrelation Among Members

1.    No Pains

2.    Make Me Glad

3.    Tears In Love

II.Forgiveness in the Body

1.    Excessive Sorrow

2.    Forgive Him Together

3.    The Scheme of Satan

III.       Spread the Fragrance of Christ

1.    Hold Fellow Workers in High Esteem

2.    Triumph in Christ

3.    Preach Christ

-- Chih-Hsin ChangAn Outline of The New Testament