Galatians Chapter Three
I. Content of the Chapter
The Dialectics of the Truth of the Gospel
I. The experience of the Galatian believers’ being saved proved the truth of justification by faith:
A. They believed in the Lord because they saw in their eyes of hearts that Jesus Christ was crucified (v.1).
B. They received the Holy Spirit by faith instead of the works of the law (v.2).
C. They begun in the Spirit and could not be made perfect by the flesh (v.3).
D. They had suffered for faith and if they were converted, what they had suffered would be in vain (v.4).
E. They experienced the great power of the Holy Spirit by faith instead of the works of the law (v.5).
II. The fact that Abraham was justified by faith proved that “faith” is the right way:
A. Abraham was justified by God by faith (v.6).
B. Believers are the true children of Abraham (v.7).
C. It is clearly recorded in the Bible that the Gentiles would be justified by faith like Abraham (v.8-9).
D. It is also clearly recorded in the Bible that as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse (v.10).
E. Men cannot fully keep the law and therefore they cannot live by it (v.11-12).
F. Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law and therefore we could inherit the blessing of Abraham (v.13-14).
III. God’s covenant of promises was before the law and therefore promises surpass the law:
A. Since God’s covenant of promises was established, it cannot be annulled (v.15).
B. The centre of God’s covenant of promises is Christ (v.16).
C. God’s covenant of promises is before the appointment of the law (v.17).
D. God gives inheritance by promise instead of the law (v.18).
E. The law was added because of transgressions and it was appointed through angels (v.19-20).
F. The law has confined all under sin and works for the promise by faith (v.21-22).
IV. The law brought men to Christ that they might be justified by faith:
A. The law was both the keeper and the tutor (v.23-25).
B. We are all sons of God through faith (v.26).
C. We are in Christ by faith and are one (v.27-28).
D. We are heirs by faith (v.29).
II. Verse by Verse commentary
Gal. 3:1 “O foolish Galatians! Who has bewitched you that you should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was clearly portrayed among you as crucified?”
YLT: “O thoughtless Galatians, who did bewitch you, not to obey the truth -- before whose eyes Jesus Christ was described before among you crucified?”
Meaning of Words: “foolish”: senseless, unintelligent, thoughtless; “portray”: describe publicly, personate, put up a poster publicly; “bewitch” is the heretical allure.
Literal Meaning: Paul had publicly explained the truth that Christ was crucified to the Galatians clearly and they should be responsible for their foolish behavior.
Enlightenment in the Word:
1) The Lord’s cross is not a past thing in the history but a fresh fact.
2) The spiritual state of a believer depends on his attitude towards the cross------is it old or fresh?
3) All those who ignore the cross are foolish.
4) The heresies would make men: a) foolish; b) confused; c) not obey the truth; 4) distant from Christ.
Gal. 3:2 “This only I want to learn from you: Did you receive the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?”
YLT: “this only do I wish to learn from you -- by works of law the Spirit did ye receive, or by the hearing of faith?”
Meaning of Words: “learn from”: find out, discover, be informed of; “receive”: accept, hold, take.
Literal Meaning: “This only I want to learn from you” Paul wanted to find out one thing from their own experiences.
“Did you receive the Spirit” The indwelling of the Spirit could be seen from their change of state and life after they had believed in the Lord.
“By the works of the law?” When the Galatian believers received the Spirit, they did not know what the law was yet.
“Or by the hearing of faith?” Their reception of the Spirit was the result that they heard the words of God by heart (Rom. 10:14-17).
Enlightenment in the Word: The Spirit is not given to men by men’s good points, behavior or achievements.
Gal. 3:3 “Are you so foolish? Having begun in the Spirit, are you now being made perfect by the flesh?”
YLT: “so thoughtless are ye! having begun in the Spirit, now in the flesh do ye end?”
Meaning of Words: “begin in”: commence on; “be made perfect”: accomplish, finish, realize.
Literal Meaning: “Having begun in the Spirit” It indicates that the one who is born again by the Spirit and receives the indwelling Spirit begins the Christian life.
“Are you now being made perfect by the flesh?” It means that men use their natural strength to keep the letters of the law so as to accomplish the works of Christians. However, Paul said that since we begin in the Spirit, we should not be so foolish that we want to use the works of the flesh to replace the works of the Spirit.
Enlightenment in the Word:
1) Christians should rely on grace both in the beginning and all the time. When men are saved, we do not need to do anything by our own strength but look upon God’s grace. And when we move on continually, we still do not need to do anything by our own strength but look upon God’s grace.
2) Christians begin and continue in the Holy Spirit. Since the Holy Spirit has been in our hearts, He shall accomplish everything and He does not need our flesh to do anything for Him.
3) All that is of the Holy Spirit is by faith and all that is of the flesh is by works.
Gal. 3:4 “Have you suffered so many things in vain--if indeed it was in vain?”
YLT: “so many things did ye suffer in vain! if, indeed, even in vain.”
Meaning of Words: “suffer”: undergo, experience, it is a neutral term and therefore it includes the experiences of sufferings and joy. However, the sufferings are in the majority; “in vain”: without a cause, useless, waste.
Literal Meaning: since the Galatian believers had received Christ, they had suffered so much for the witness of the Lord. But now they even wanted to keep the law and it would make their past experiences be of no effect.
“If indeed it was in vain?” It refers to hoping not so.
Enlightenment in the Word: The true believers will more or less have the spiritual experiences.
Gal. 3:5 “Therefore He who supplies the Spirit to you and works miracles among you, does He do it by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?--”
YLT: “He, therefore, who is supplying to you the Spirit, and working mighty acts among you -- by works of law or by the hearing of faith [is it]?”
Meaning of Words: “supply”: add, provide; “work”: send forth, operate, bring.
Literal Meaning: the Galatian believers not only received the Spirit in the beginning but also kept on receiving the Spirit abundantly and the special gifts and works of the Spirit were manifested among them (Acts. 14:8-15). They experienced these by the hearing and believing of the word instead of the works of the law.
Enlightenment in the Word: Receiving the truth by faith would make one experience the mighty works of the Spirit abundantly.
Gal. 3:6 “just as Abraham ‘believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness.’”
YLT: “according as Abraham did believe God, and it was reckoned to him -- to righteousness;”
Meaning of Words: “account”: put to one’s account, take count, consider, attribute.
The Background: the Judaizers said to the Galatians that God had given the promise of the salvation to Abraham and his sons and if the Gentiles wanted to be saved, they had to receive the circumcision and keep the law in order to become the sons of Abraham.
Literal Meaning: “just as” is a conjunction carrying on the passage and it shows that the example here could be used to prove the principle in the previous verse,
i.e. the salvation is not of the law.
The words in this verse are quoted from Gen. 15:6.
“Abraham ‘believed God” It indicates that he believed the promise that God gave him.
“And it was accounted to him for righteousness” It means that “righteousness” was put to his account and he was reckoned to have the just relation to God and given the “right” position before God.
Enlightenment in the Word: God valued our intentions more than the outer works.
Gal. 3:7 “Therefore know that only those who are of faith are sons of Abraham.”
YLT: “know ye, then, that those of faith -- these are sons of Abraham,”
Meaning of Words: “of”: out, from.
Literal Meaning: “therefore” shows
that the words in this verse are the conclusion of the previous verse: only
those who have faith or live merely on the principle of faith are the true sons
of Abraham. The Jews may boast of the importance of “being the sons of Abraham
by keeping the circumcision” (John. 8:31-40;
Enlightenment in the Word: he whoever wants to come to God by the outer ceremonies instead of faith cannot be called the spiritual child of Abraham.
Gal. 3:8 “And the Scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, preached the gospel to Abraham beforehand, saying, ‘In you all the nations shall be blessed.’”
YLT: “and the Writing having foreseen that by faith God doth declare righteous the nations did proclaim before the good news to Abraham --”
Literal Meaning: “And the Scripture, foreseeing” It means that through the records of the Scripture God had predicted the coming thing that He had foreseen. All the nations (the Gentiles) would receive the blessing of the salvation that God had promised Abraham and his sons by faith. Since we the Gentiles have partook in the promise, we do not need to keep the circumcision to be the Jews.
“In you all the nations shall be blessed.” It is quoted from Gen. 12:3 and it typifies that the Gentiles would be blessed 1) in the seed of Abraham------Christ; 2) on the principle of Abraham’s “justification by faith”.
Enlightenment in the Word: in this verse Paul used the personification of the Bible which would foresee and preach the gospel. If we hold the right attitude to read the Bible, the dead letters would often become the living words.
Gal. 3:9 “So then those who are of faith are blessed with believing Abraham.”
YLT: “`Blessed in thee shall be all the nations;' so that those of faith are blessed with the faithful Abraham,”
Meaning of Words: “with”: together.
Literal Meaning: only those who are of faith will receive the blessing of the salvation that God had promised Abraham and his sons.
Gal. 3:10 “For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse; for it is written, ‘Cursed is everyone who does not continue in all things which are written in the book of the law, to do them.’”
YLT: “for as many as are of works of law are under a curse, for it hath been written, `Cursed [is] every one who is not remaining in all things that have been written in the Book of the Law -- to do them,'”
The Background: the remainder of this verse is quoted from Deut. 27:26. On that day, all that Moses declared were the curses because as long as one violated one, he would be cursed. Nobody could keep the whole and therefore all the people were under the curse.
Literal Meaning: “as many as are of the works of the law” refer to those who want to be justified before God by the works of the law. Keeping God’s law means that I want to give something to God and I want to please Him. And therefore, in other words, all those are of “I want to please God” are under the curse. Why is it so? Because men cannot please God by themselves and men are unworthy to please Him.
Please note the words “everyone who does not”, “continue”, “all things” and etc. They show that who regard the works of the law as the way to be saved must continue in all the things that are written in the law, otherwise they shall be cursed.
Enlightenment in the Word: the law is not only unable to make men be justified before God but also threatens men. If men attempt to be justified by the works of the law, they put themselves under the threats of the law.
Gal. 3:11 “But that no one is justified by the law in the sight of God is evident, for ‘the just shall live by faith.’”
YLT: “and that in law no one is declared righteous with God, is evident, because `The righteous by faith shall live;'”
Literal Meaning: Paul clearly knew that once the light of the law shines upon the hearts of men, men’s sins are completely exposed and nobody dares to say that he is sinless. It has been said in the Old Testament that the justification and the reception of the eternal life are merely of faith.
“The just shall live by faith” It is quoted from Hab. 2:4 and it means that the way by which the just live is faith instead of the works of the law.
Gal. 3:12 “Yet the law is not of faith, but ‘the man who does them shall live by them.’”
YLT: “and the law is not by faith, but -- `The man who did them shall live in them.'”
The Background: the remainder of this verse is quoted from Lev. 18:5 and the “living” there refers to living in this life and there isn’t the living in the coming life.
Literal Meaning: “Yet the law is not of faith” It means that the law is of the works originally.
“The man who does them shall live by them” It means that if one does not want to be cursed by the law and live, he must do these things completely.
Enlightenment in the Word: living by the law is different from living by faith. Even if one could keep all the regulations of the law, he only “lives” under the bondage of the law. The law is not like faith which would make men live in freedom.
Gal. 3:13 “Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us (for it is written, ‘Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree’ ),”
YLT: “Christ did redeem us from the curse of the law, having become for us a curse, for it hath been written, `Cursed is every one who is hanging on a tree,'”
Meaning of Words: “redeem”: ransom (buy from the market of slaves and it cannot be returned forever), rescue.
Literal Meaning: “a tree” refers the cross (Acts. 5:30). Christ substituted for us on the cross and He not only bore the curse for us but also became “a cures” for us (Deut. 21:23). The curse of the law was brought in because of men’s transgression (Gen. 3:17). When Christ removed our sin on the cross, He also saved us from the curse.
Gal. 3:14 “that the blessing of Abraham might come upon the Gentiles in Christ Jesus, that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.”
YLT: “that to the nations the blessing of Abraham may come in Christ Jesus, that the promise of the Spirit we may receive through the faith.”
Literal Meaning: if we have believed in the grace of the salvation of Christ Jesus, the curse departs from us immediately and we could have two results: 1) we will receive the promise of the blessing which Abraham had received when he was justified by faith; 2) we will received the promise of the Spirit through faith.
Gal. 3:15 “Brethren, I speak in the manner of men: Though it is only a man's covenant, yet if it is confirmed, no one annuls or adds to it.”
YLT: “Brethren, as a man I say [it], even of man a confirmed covenant no one doth make void or doth add to,”
Meaning of Words: “covenant”: will, contract, agreement, compact; “annul”: refuse, decline; “add to”: appoint besides, supplement as a codicil.
The Background: the one who makes the will does not need to consult or ask for the agreement of the one who receives the benefits. As long as it is legal, others couldn’t annul or add to it.
Literal Meaning: “I speak in the manner of men” means that “let’s give examples from our daily life and works”.
Here Paul used men’s covenant to explain the nature of the covenant of grace. Since the covenant has been made, all the sincere ones could not annul or add to it. And the one who makes the covenant must do according to the covenant. Men’s covenant is effective and more so God’s covenant. The effect of covenant lies in the “will” of the one who makes it. In the same way, concerning God’s covenant, the works of the law cannot make God’s covenant become effective or loss efficacy. God’s covenant of grace is established and its effect cannot be influenced by the subsequent law.
Gal. 3:16 “Now to Abraham and his Seed were the promises made. He does not say, ‘And to seeds,’ as of many, but as of one, ‘And to your Seed,’ who is Christ.”
YLT: “and to Abraham were the promises spoken, and to his seed; He doth not say, `And to seeds,' as of many, but as of one, `And to thy seed,' which is Christ;”
Meaning of Words: “the promises”: oath.
Literal Meaning: the covenant is the relation between God and men. It is established upon God’s promises and the promises are the foundation of the covenant. God sticks to what He had promised and also asks men to respond to Him with “faith”. The relation that is established by the promises is the covenant of grace.
There are two promisees of this covenant: Abraham and Christ. Abraham inherited God’s promises (Gen. 17:7) and all his sons (those who were born by faith) were all heirs with him. Christ had come and practiced the promises that God had agreed to give us blessings.
Gal. 3:17 “And this I say, that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years later, cannot annul the covenant that was confirmed before by God in Christ, that it should make the promise of no effect.”
YLT: “and this I say, A covenant confirmed before by God to Christ, the law, that came four hundred and thirty years after, doth not set aside, to make void the promise,”
Literal Meaning: “before” refers to the time before the existence of the law.
“The covenant that was confirmed” refers to the promises that God gave Abraham and his sons.
“Which was four hundred and thirty years
later” it refers to the
thing that God proclaimed the law at the feet of
“Cannot…make…of no effect” It means that God gave them the law not to annul the previous promises. The just and trustworthy God will completely carry out what He had promised. The law which existed four hundred and thirty years after the time when the promises were received cannot annul or destroy the promises.
Gal. 3:18 “For if the inheritance is of the law, it is no longer of promise; but God gave it to Abraham by promise.”
YLT: “for if by law [be] the inheritance, [it is] no more by promise, but to Abraham through promise did God grant [it].”
Meaning of Words: “gave” is the perfect tense and it shows that the nature of this gift is forever.
Literal Meaning: “inheritance” includes all the spiritual blessings that God promised Abraham and his sons. The law cannot coexist with promises. If the inheritance (the salvation) could be gained by the works of the law, the promises would be in vain. The above-mentioned verses prove that the law does not aim at saving men.
Gal. 3:19 “What purpose then does the law serve? It was added because of transgressions, till the Seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was appointed through angels by the hand of a mediator.”
YLT: “Why, then, the law? on account of the transgressions it was added, till the seed might come to which the promise hath been made, having been set in order through messengers in the hand of a mediator --”
Meaning of Words: “come to”: occur; “mediator”: a middleman who coordinates between two parts; “appoint”: instruct, command.
Literal Meaning: “the Seed…to whom the promise was made” refers to Christ (See v.16).
This verse shows the aim that God gives the law: the law was added because of men’s transgressions.
“Add” means that there was the promise earlier and the law was added. Before the existence of the law, every man sinned, however, no one knew sin. Until God gave the holy and righteous law to men, men compare their own behaviors with the law and no one dares to say that he is sinless. Since men know sin because of the law and are unable to deal with sin, they have to wait for the coming of Christ.
“And it was appointed through angels by
the hand of a mediator” Here are the two
reasons why the law is inferior to the promise: firstly, the promise was given
to men by God Himself and the law was given through angels. It was only
mentioned in the Old Testament that God was surrounded by numerous chariots
(angels) in the Mount of Sinai (Ps. 68:17) and it was implied in several parts
of the New Testament that God appointed the law through angels (Acts. 7:53;
Heb. 2:2); secondly, the promise was received by Abraham himself and the law
was appointed by the hand of a mediator. When God gave the Ten Commandments in
the Mount of Sinai, Moses was the mediator between God and the people of
Enlightenment in the Word: the law makes the offence abound and by the law is the knowledge of sin and therefore the law teaches sinners to know the urgent need of living in God’s grace (Rom. 5:20; 7:7-12). The true knowledge of our own corruption and useless must play the positive role in turning to look upon and rely on the Lord.
Gal. 3:20 “Now a mediator does not mediate for one only, but God is one.”
YLT: “and the mediator is not of one, and God is one --”
Literal Meaning: the covenant of the law was appointed by “a mediator”. The mediator serves as a guarantor for two parties and both God and men have the duty to keep the covenant. The reason why the covenant of the law was annulled was not that God did not keep the covenant but that men broke the covenant. As long as one party does not keep the covenant, the covenant shall be of no effect. However, since the covenant of promise is one-sided and it is of one God and therefore it won’t lose efficacy because of men.
Gal. 3:21 “Is the law then against the promises of God? Certainly not! For if there had been a law given which could have given life, truly righteousness would have been by the law.”
YLT: “the law, then, [is] against the promises of God? -- let it not be! for if a law was given that was able to make alive, truly by law there would have been the righteousness,”
Meaning of Words: “which could have given life”: have life, make alive.
Literal Meaning: the law is not opposite to the promises. The law cannot give men life, however, it could lead men to know the promises that give men life. If the law which was given by God through Moses the mediator could give us power to obey it, the law would accomplish what the promises accomplish today------giving us life. However, the fact is not so.
Gal. 3:22 “But the Scripture has confined all under sin, that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those who believe.”
YLT: “but the Writing did shut up the whole under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ may be given to those believing.”
Meaning of Words: “confine”: enclose, encircle, surround.
Literal Meaning: “the Scripture” refers to the Old Testament; “all” includes the Jews and the Gentiles.
“The Scripture has confined all under sin” Its aim is to give the blessing of promise to all who believe.
The Judaizers also said that believers could receive the salvation. However, Paul specially added “in Jesus Christ” to “those who believe” and it meant that there was not a way to inherit the promises save for believing in Jesus.
The law supplements the promises: the law has confined all under sin and the only way of living is the promises of faith.
Gal. 3:23 “But before faith came, we were kept under guard by the law, kept for the faith which would afterward be revealed.”
YLT: “And before the coming of the faith, under law we were being kept, shut up to the faith about to be revealed,”
Meaning of Words: “keep”: guard, keep watch and ward.
Literal Meaning: “before faith came” it refers to before the coming of Christ because faith is also recorded in the Old Testament (See v.6-9, 11). From the point of Paul, the Jews who were before the coming of Jesus were all kept in the prison and their prison was the law by which they were not allowed to come out. We are kept under the law: we are unable to do good and we do not have the hope of doing good. In such state that there is not other way and all the roads are closed, only one road is open and it is faith.
Those who are in the prison of the law waited for: 1) Christ the redeemer (v.19); 2) the manifestation of the principle of justification after the accomplishment of Christ’s redemption.
Enlightenment in the Word: in the past God let men be kept under guard by the law in order to let them know the preciousness of faith. Under the law, men could see the holy standard of God; under the law, men could see their utter helplessness; when there isn’t other way, how glad it is to know God’s salvation of justification by faith.
Gal. 3:24 “Therefore the law was our tutor to bring us to Christ, that we might be justified by faith.”
YLT: “so that the law became our child-conductor -- to Christ, that by faith we may be declared righteous,”
Meaning of Words: “tutor”: guardian, child-conductor.
The Background: “tutor” was the bondman in the Greek and Roman houses. Besides escorting the children to school, the tutor sometimes was the teacher who imparted and disciplined the children in the house. Until twenty-four years old, the children cannot have the legal right to reign in the house, inherit the inheritance and be no longer under the restraint of the salves.
Literal Meaning: Paul intended to
state that before the coming of Christ, the law functioned as a steward. The
Gal. 3:25 “But after faith has come, we are no longer under a tutor.”
YLT: “and the faith having come, no more under a child-conductor are we,”
Literal Meaning: Since Christ has come, we believers who have been justified by faith are no longer child before God and therefore we depart from the guard of the law.
Gal. 3:26 “For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus.”
YLT: “for ye are all sons of God through the faith in Christ Jesus,”
Meaning of Words: “sons” only refers to a kind of relation and there isn’t the difference in gender.
Literal Meaning: “all” shows that all those who are “in Christ Jesus” “through faith” are equally “sons of God”, are all set free from the control of the law and are all God’s heirs (Gal. 4:7; Rom. 8:17) who have the right to inherit the inheritance in God’s house.
Gal. 3:27 “For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ.”
YLT: “for as many as to Christ were baptized did put on Christ;”
Meaning of Words: “put on”: clothe, have put on.
Literal Meaning: “as were baptized into Christ” It indicates that one is baptized in the name of Christ in order to express the inner faith.
“Have put on Christ” it refers to putting on Christ and becoming a new man in Christ.
Enlightenment in the Word: Christians should put on Christ------manifest the glory of Christ in our life. We could not learn from the Pharisees who only put on the phylacteries in order to let others see their devout appearance and are full of corruption in their hearts.
Gal. 3:28 “There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus.”
YLT: “there is not here Jew or Greek, there is not here servant nor freeman, there is not here male and female, for all ye are one in Christ Jesus;”
Literal Meaning: this verse indicates that we are all one “in Christ” by faith so that we are set free from the “man-made” separations and differences:
1) Race: “Jew, Greek”;
2) Social status: “slave, free”;
3) Gender: “male, female”.
Enlightenment in the Word: if we still have discriminations against other believers on the grounds of race, social status and gender, probably we have not truly experienced what is “in Christ”.
Gal. 3:29 “And if you are Christ's, then you are Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise.”
YLT: “and if ye [are] of Christ then of Abraham ye are seed, and according to promise -- heirs.”
Literal Meaning: if we have been into Christ by faith, we “are one” with Him and we also become Abraham’s sons. In this way, we are all the heirs of the promises that Abraham had received no matter we are the Jews or the Gentiles and the eternal inheritances are certainly ours.
III. Outlines of the Spiritual Lessons
How Do Believers Receive Grace Because of Abraham?
II. God made the covenant of promise with him (v.16-18).
III. He was justified by faith (v.6).
IV. In him all the nations shall be blessed (v.8):
A. they become his true sons by faith and are blessed with him (v.7, 9, 14).
B. they are blessed by his Seed------Christ (v.16, 22).
The Effect of Faith
I. Justification by faith (v.8, 16).
II. Living by faith (v.11).
III. Receiving the Spirit by faith (v.3, 14).
IV. Receiving the promise of God by faith (v.22).
V. Receiving the inheritance by faith (v.18).
VI. Having the life of sons through faith (v.26).
VII. Being one with all the Saints by faith (v.28).
The Functions of the Law
I. The law was added because of transgressions (v.19) in order to manifest sin.
II. The law condemned that all men were sinful (v.11).
III. The law was used to curse sinners (v.11-14).
IV. The law has confined all under sin (v.22-23).
V. The law was our tutor (v.24).
VI. The law made preparations for Christ (v.19, 24).
The Covenant of Promise Surpasses the Covenant of the Law
I. The covenant of promise gave men blessings and the covenant of the law made men be cursed (v.6-14).
II. The covenant of promise is before the covenant of the law; the latter covenant cannot annul the previous covenant (v.15-17).
III. The inheritance is of promise instead of the law (v.18).
IV. The blessing of promise is Christ (v.16), however, the law was merely the keeper and tutor temporarily before the coming of Christ (v.19-25).
V. The promise was given by God Himself (v.16) and the covenant of the law was appointed through angels by the hand of a mediator (v.19).
── Caleb Huang《Christian Digest Bible Commentary Series》
Translated by Sharon Ren