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Galatians Chapter Five


Galatians 5

It is in this liberty, the liberty of Christ, alluding to the free woman and Jerusalem above, that they were to stand fast, and not put themselves again under the yoke of the law. If they took that ground they made themselves responsible to keep it personally and wholly, and Christ was of no effect to them. They could not rest upon the work of Christ for righteousness, and then hold themselves responsible to fulfil righteousness themselves according to the law. The two things contradict each other. Hence too it would be no longer grace on which they stood. They forsook grace, in order to satisfy the requirements of the law. This is not the Christian's position.

Here is the Christian's position. He does not seek for righteousness before God as a man who does not possess it; he is the righteousness of God in Christ, and Christ Himself is the measure of that righteousness. The Holy Ghost dwells in him. Faith rests in this righteousness, even as God rests in it, and this faith is sustained by the Holy Ghost, who turns the heart that is established in that righteousness towards the glory that is its recompense-a recompense which Christ enjoys already, so that we know what that righteousness deserves. Christ is in the glory due to righteousness, to the work which He accomplished. We know this righteousness in virtue of that which He has wrought, because God has owned His work and set Him at His right hand on high. The glory in which He is is His just reward, and the proof of that righteousness. The Spirit reveals the glory, and seals to us that righteousness on which faith builds. It is thus that the apostle expresses it: "We, through the Spirit, wait for the hope [the hoped-for glory] of righteousness by faith." To us it is faith, for we have not yet the thing hoped for-the glory due to that righteousness which is ours. Christ possesses it, so that we know what we hope for. It is by the Spirit that we know it, and that we have the assurance of the righteousness which gives us the title to possess it. It is not righteousness we wait for, but, by the Spirit in faith, the hope that belongs to it. It is by faith; for in Christ neither circumcision nor uncircumcision avails anything, but faith working by love. There must be a moral reality.

The apostle's heart is oppressed at the thought of what they were rejecting, and the mischief this doctrine was doing. It overflows. In the midst of his argument he interrupts himself. "Ye did run well: who has hindered you from obeying the truth?" To be so easily persuaded of this Judaising doctrine, which was but a fatal error, was not the work of Him who had called them. It was not thus that through grace they had become Christians. A little leaven corrupted the whole.

Nevertheless the apostle regains his confidence by looking higher. By resting on the grace which is in Christ towards His own, he can re-assure himself with regard to the Galatians. He stood in doubt when he thought of them; he had confidence when he thought of Christ, that they would surely not be otherwise minded. Thus delivered from the evil by grace, as in the moral case of the Corinthians, he was ready to punish all disobedience, when all that knew how to obey had been brought fully back to obedience; so here also, every heart that was susceptible of the influence of the truth would be brought back to the power of the truth of Christ; and those who, active in evil, troubled them by false doctrine, those whose will was engaged in propagating error, should bear their burden. It is very beautiful to see the apostle's uneasiness, when he thinks of men-the fruit moreover of his love for them-and the confidence which he regains as soon as he lifts up his heart to the Lord. But his abrupt style, his broken and unconnected words, shew how deeply his heart was engaged. The error that separated the soul from Christ was to him more terrible than the said fruits of practical separation. We do not find the same marks of agitation in the epistle to the Corinthians; here the foundation of everything was in question. In the case of the Galatians the glory of Christ the Saviour was at stake, the only thing that could bring a soul into connection with God; and on the other hand it was a systematic work of Satan to overthrow the gospel of Christ as needed for the salvation of men.

Here, interrupting himself, he adds, "And I, if I preach circumcision, why am I persecuted?" It will in fact be seen that the Jews were habitually the instigators of the persecution which the apostle suffered from the Gentiles. The spirit of Judaism, as has been the case in all ages, the religious spirit of the natural man, has been Satan's great instrument in his opposition to the gospel. If Christ would put His sanction on the flesh, the world would come to terms and be as religious as you please, and would value itself upon its devotion. But in that case it would not be the true Christ. Christ came, a witness that the natural man is lost, wicked, and without hope, dead in his trespasses and sins; that redemption is necessary, and a new man. He came in grace, but it was because man was incapable of being restored; and consequently all must be pure grace and emanate from God. If Christ would have to do with the old man, all would be well; but, I repeat, He would no longer be Christ. The world then, the old man, does not endure Him. But there is a conscience, there is a felt need of religion, there is the prestige of an ancient religion held from one's fathers; true perhaps in its original foundations, although perverted. Thus the prince of the world will use carnal religion to excite the flesh, the ready enemy, when once awakened, of the spiritual religion which pronounces sentence upon it.

It is only to add something to Christ. But what? If it is not Christ and the new man, it is the old man, it is sinful man; and, instead of a needed and accomplished redemption, and an entirely new life from above, you have a testimony that agreement between the two is possible; that grace is not necessary, except at most as a little help; that man is not already lost and dead in his trespasses and sins, that the flesh is not essentially and absolutely evil. Thus the name of Christ is made subservient to the flesh, which willingly adorns itself with the credit of His name, in order to destroy the gospel from its very foundations. Only preach circumcision, accept the religion of the flesh, and all difficulty will cease; the world will accept your gospel, but it will not be the gospel of Christ. The cross in itself (that is, the total ruin of man-man proved to be the enemy of God), and perfect finished redemption by grace, will always be a stumbling-block to one who desires to maintain some credit for the flesh. "Would to God," says the apostle-for he sees the whole gospel falling into ruin before this device, and souls destroyed-"would to God that they who trouble you were cut off!" What have we seen since then? Where is the holy indignation of the apostle?

He then touches on the point of the practical consequences of this doctrine, and explains how the doctrine of perfect grace was connected, without the law, with a walk worthy of the people of God. Ye have then been called, he says, unto liberty: only use not your liberty for an occasion to the flesh-which the flesh would readily do. God gave the law to convince of sin; the flesh would use it to work out righteousness. He acts in grace, that we may be above sin and outside its dominion: the flesh would use grace as an occasion to sin without restraint. The Christian, truly free from the yoke of sin, as well as from its condemnation (for Christ risen is his life as well as his righteousness, and the Spirit is the power and guide of his walk towards glory, and according to Christ), instead of serving his lusts, seeks to serve others, as free to do it in love. Thus the law itself is fulfilled, without our being under its yoke: for the whole practical law is summed up in this word: "Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself."

If, yielding to the flesh, and attacking those who were not circumcised, they devoured one another, they were to take heed that they were not consumed one of another. But the apostle would give something more positive. "This I say then," he continues, after the interruption of his subject, "Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh." It is not by putting oneself under the law that one has power against sin. It is the Spirit (given in virtue of the ascension of Christ our righteousness, to the right hand of God) who is the Christian's strength. Now the two powers, the flesh and the Spirit, are antagonistic. The flesh strives to hinder us when we would walk according to the Spirit, and the Spirit resists the working of the flesh to prevent it from accomplishing its will. [1] But if we are led of the Spirit, we are not under the law. Holiness, true holiness, is accomplished without the law, even as righteousness is not founded on it. 'Nor is there any difficulty in judging between what is of the flesh and what is of the Spirit; the apostle enumerates the sad fruits of the former, adding the sure testimony that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God. The fruits of the Spirit are equally evident in their character, and assuredly against such things there was no law. If we walk according to the Spirit, the law will find nothing to condemn in us. And they that are Christ's have crucified the flesh and its lusts. This is what they are, inasmuch as they are Christians; it is that which distinguishes them. If these Galatians really lived, it was in the Spirit: let them then walk in the Spirit.


[1] It is not "so that ye cannot," but "in order that ye might not."

── John DarbySynopsis of Galatians


Galatians 5

Chapter Contents

An earnest exhortation to stand fast in the liberty of the gospel. (1-12) To take heed of indulging a sinful temper. (13-15) And to walk in the Spirit, and not to fulfil the lusts of the flesh: the works of both are described. (16-26)

Commentary on Galatians 5:1-6

(Read Galatians 5:1-6)

Christ will not be the Saviour of any who will not own and rely upon him as their only Saviour. Let us take heed to the warnings and persuasions of the apostle to stedfastness in the doctrine and liberty of the gospel. All true Christians, being taught by the Holy Spirit, wait for eternal life, the reward of righteousness, and the object of their hope, as the gift of God by faith in Christ; and not for the sake of their own works. The Jewish convert might observe the ceremonies or assert his liberty, the Gentile might disregard them or might attend to them, provided he did not depend upon them. No outward privileges or profession will avail to acceptance with God, without sincere faith in our Lord Jesus. True faith is a working grace; it works by love to God, and to our brethren. May we be of the number of those who, through the Spirit, wait for the hope of righteousness by faith. The danger of old was not in things of no consequence in themselves, as many forms and observances now are. But without faith working by love, all else is worthless, and compared with it other things are of small value.

Commentary on Galatians 5:7-12

(Read Galatians 5:7-12)

The life of a Christian is a race, wherein he must run, and hold on, if he would obtain the prize. It is not enough that we profess Christianity, but we must run well, by living up to that profession. Many who set out fairly in religion, are hindered in their progress, or turn out of the way. It concerns those who begin to turn out of the way, or to tire in it, seriously to inquire what hinders them. The opinion or persuasion, verse 8, was, no doubt, that of mixing the works of the law with faith in Christ in justification. The apostle leaves them to judge whence it must arise, but sufficiently shows that it could be owing to none but Satan. It is dangerous for Christian churches to encourage those who follow, but especially who spread, destructive errors. And in reproving sin and error, we should always distinguish between the leaders and the led. The Jews were offended, because Christ was preached as the only salvation for sinners. If Paul and others would have admitted that the observance of the law of Moses was to be joined with faith in Christ, as necessary to salvation, then believers might have avoided many of the sufferings they underwent. The first beginnings of such leaven should be opposed. And assuredly those who persist in disturbing the church of Christ must bear their judgment.

Commentary on Galatians 5:13-15

(Read Galatians 5:13-15)

The gospel is a doctrine according to godliness, 1 Timothy 6:3, and is so far from giving the least countenance to sin, that it lays us under the strongest obligation to avoid and subdue it. The apostle urges that all the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. If Christians, who should help one another, and rejoice one another, quarrel, what can be expected but that the God of love should deny his grace, that the Spirit of love should depart, and the evil spirit, who seeks their destruction, should prevail? Happy would it be, if Christians, instead of biting and devouring one another on account of different opinions, would set themselves against sin in themselves, and in the places where they live.

Commentary on Galatians 5:16-26

(Read Galatians 5:16-26)

If it be our care to act under the guidance and power of the blessed Spirit, though we may not be freed from the stirrings and oppositions of the corrupt nature which remains in us, it shall not have dominion over us. Believers are engaged in a conflict, in which they earnestly desire that grace may obtain full and speedy victory. And those who desire thus to give themselves up to be led by the Holy Spirit, are not under the law as a covenant of works, nor exposed to its awful curse. Their hatred of sin, and desires after holiness, show that they have a part in the salvation of the gospel. The works of the flesh are many and manifest. And these sins will shut men out of heaven. Yet what numbers, calling themselves Christians, live in these, and say they hope for heaven! The fruits of the Spirit, or of the renewed nature, which we are to do, are named. And as the apostle had chiefly named works of the flesh, not only hurtful to men themselves, but tending to make them so to one another, so here he chiefly notices the fruits of the Spirit, which tend to make Christians agreeable one to another, as well as to make them happy. The fruits of the Spirit plainly show, that such are led by the Spirit. By describing the works of the flesh and fruits of the Spirit, we are told what to avoid and oppose, and what we are to cherish and cultivate; and this is the sincere care and endeavour of all real Christians. Sin does not now reign in their mortal bodies, so that they obey it, Romans 6:12, for they seek to destroy it. Christ never will own those who yield themselves up to be the servants of sin. And it is not enough that we cease to do evil, but we must learn to do well. Our conversation will always be answerable to the principle which guides and governs us, Romans 8:5. We must set ourselves in earnest to mortify the deeds of the body, and to walk in newness of life. Not being desirous of vain-glory, or unduly wishing for the esteem and applause of men, not provoking or envying one another, but seeking to bring forth more abundantly those good fruits, which are, through Jesus Christ, to the praise and glory of God.

── Matthew HenryConcise Commentary on Galatians


Galatians 5

Verse 1

[1] Stand fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free, and be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage.

Stand fast therefore in the liberty — From the ceremonial law.

Wherewith Christ hath made us — And all believers, free; and be not entangled again with the yoke of legal bondage.

Verse 2

[2] Behold, I Paul say unto you, that if ye be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing.

If ye be circumcised — And seek to be justified thereby.

Christ — The Christian institution.

Will profit you nothing — For you hereby disclaim Christ, and all the blessings which are through faith in him.

Verse 3

[3] For I testify again to every man that is circumcised, that he is a debtor to do the whole law.

I testify to every man — Every gentile.

That is circumcised — He thereby makes himself a debtor - Obliges.

Verse 4

[4] Christ is become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are justified by the law; ye are fallen from grace.

Therefore Christ is become of no effect to you - Who seek to be justified by the law. Ye are fallen from grace - Ye renounce the new covenant. Ye disclaim the benefit of this gracious dispensation.

Verse 5

[5] For we through the Spirit wait for the hope of righteousness by faith.

For we — Who believe in Christ, Who are under the gospel dispensation.

Through the Spirit — Without any of those carnal ordinances.

Wait for — in sure confidence of attaining.

The hope of righteousness — The righteousness we hope for, and full reward of it. This righteousness we receive of God through faith; and by faith we shall obtain the reward.

Verse 6

[6] For in Jesus Christ neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision; but faith which worketh by love.

For in Christ Jesus — According to the institution which he hath established, according to the tenor of the Christian covenant.

Neither circumcision — With the most punctual observance of the law.

Nor uncircumcision — With the most exact heathen morality.

Availeth anything — Toward present justification or eternal salvation.

But faith — Alone; even that faith which worketh by love - All inward and outward holiness.

Verse 7

[7] Ye did run well; who did hinder you that ye should not obey the truth?

Ye did run well — In the race of faith. Who hath hindered you in your course, that ye should not still obey the truth?

Verse 8

[8] This persuasion cometh not of him that calleth you.

This your present persuasion cometh not from God, who called you - to his kingdom and glory.

Verse 9

[9] A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump.

A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump — One troubler, verse 10, troubles all.

Verse 10

[10] I have confidence in you through the Lord, that ye will be none otherwise minded: but he that troubleth you shall bear his judgment, whosoever he be.

Yet I have confidence that - After ye have read this.

Ye will be no otherwise minded — Than I am, and ye were.

But he that troubleth you — It seems to have been one person chiefly who endeavoured to seduce them.

Shall bear his judgment — A heavy burden, already hanging over his head.

Verse 11

[11] And I, brethren, if I yet preach circumcision, why do I yet suffer persecution? then is the offence of the cross ceased.

But if I still preach circumcision — As that troubler seems to have affirmed, probably taking occasion from his having circumcised Timothy.

Why do I still suffer persecution? then is the offence of the cross ceased — The grand reason why the Jews were so offended at his preaching Christ crucified, and so bitterly persecuted him for it, was, that it implied the abolition of the law. Yet St. Paul did not condemn the conforming, out of condescension to the weakness of any one, even to the ceremonial law; but he did absolutely condemn those who taught it as necessary to justification.

Verse 12

[12] I would they were even cut off which trouble you.

I would they were even cut off — From your communion; cast out of your church, that thus trouble you.

Verse 13

[13] For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another.

Ye have been called to liberty — From sin and misery, as well as from the ceremonial law.

Only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh — Take not occasion from hence to gratify corrupt nature.

But by love serve one another — And hereby show that Christ has made you free.

Verse 14

[14] For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this; Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

For all the law is fulfilled in this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself — inasmuch as none can do this without loving God, 1 John 4:12; and the love of God and man includes all perfection. Leviticus 19:18.

Verse 15

[15] But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.

But if — On the contrary, in consequence of the divisions which those troublers have occasioned among you, ye bite one another by evil speaking.

And devour one another — By railing and clamour.

Take heed ye be not consumed one of another — By bitterness, strife, and contention, our health and strength, both of body and soul, are consumed, as well as our substance and reputation.

Verse 16

[16] This I say then, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh.

I say then — He now explains what he proposed, Galatians 5:13.

Walk by the Spirit — Follow his guidance in all things.

And fulfil not — In anything.

The desire of the flesh — Of corrupt nature.

Verse 17

[17] For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.

For the flesh desireth against the Spirit — Nature desires what is quite contrary to the Spirit of God.

But the Spirit against the flesh- — But the Holy Spirit on his part opposes your evil nature.

These are contrary to each other — The flesh and the Spirit; there can be no agreement between them.

That ye may not do the things which ye would- — That, being thus strengthened by the Spirit, ye may not fulfil the desire of the flesh, as otherwise ye would do.

Verse 18

[18] But if ye be led of the Spirit, ye are not under the law.

But if ye are led by the Spirit — Of liberty and love, into all holiness.

Ye are not under the law — Not under the curse or bondage of it; not under the guilt or the power of sin.

Verse 19

[19] Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,

Now the works of the flesh — By which that inward principle is discovered.

Are manifest — Plain and undeniable. Works are mentioned in the plural because they are distinct from, and often inconsistent with, each other. But "the fruit of the Spirit" is mentioned in the singular, Galatians 5:22, as being all consistent and connected together.

Which are these — He enumerates those "works of the flesh" to which the Galatians were most inclined; and those parts of "the fruit of the Spirit" of which they stood in the greatest need.

Lasciviousness — The Greek word means anything inward or outward that is contrary to chastity, and yet short of actual uncleanness.

Verse 20

[20] Idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies,

Idolatry, witchcraft — That this means witchcraft, strictly speaking, (not poisoning,) appears from its being joined with the worship of devil-gods, and not with murder. This is frequently and solemnly forbidden in the Old Testament. To deny therefore that there is, or ever was, any such thing, is, by plain consequence, to deny the authority both of the Old and New Testament.

Divisions — In domestic or civil matters. Heresies are divisions in religious communities.

Verse 21

[21] Envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like: of the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in time past, that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.

Revellings — Luxurious entertainments. Some of the works here mentioned are wrought principally, if not entirely, in the mind; and yet they are called "works of the flesh." Hence it is clear, the apostle does not by "the flesh" mean the body, or sensual appetites and inclinations only, but the corruption of human nature, as it spreads through all the powers of the soul, as well as all the members of the body.

Of which I tell you before — Before the event, I forewarn you.

Verse 22

[22] But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith,

Love — The root of all the rest.

Gentleness — Toward all men; ignorant and wicked men in particular.

Goodness — The Greek word means all that is benign, soft, winning, tender, either in temper or behaviour.

Verse 23

[23] Meekness, temperance: against such there is no law.

Meekness — Holding all the affections and passions in even balance.

Verse 24

[24] And they that are Christ's have crucified the flesh with the affections and lusts.

And they that are Christ's — True believers in him. Have thus crucified the flesh - Nailed it, as it were, to a cross whence it has no power to break loose, but is continually weaker and weaker.

With its affections and desires — All its evil passions, appetites, and inclinations.

Verse 25

[25] If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit.

If we live by the Spirit — If we are indeed raised from the dead, and are alive to God, by the operation of his Spirit.

Let us walk by the Spirit — Let us follow his guidance, in all our tempers, thoughts, words, and actions.

Verse 26

[26] Let us not be desirous of vain glory, provoking one another, envying one another.

Be not desirous of vain glory — Of the praise or esteem of men. They who do not carefully and closely follow the Spirit, easily slide into this: the natural effects of which are, provoking to envy them that are beneath us, and envying them that are above us.

── John WesleyExplanatory Notes on Galatians


Gal. 5:14~15

A zookeeper tossed a hot dog into a snake pen. Two snakes immediately began to devour the stick of meat, one on either end. When the two met at the middle, the snake with the larger mouth kept on going and consumed the other! We are reminded in this passage that people are often like these snakes, consuming one another with unkind words when they disagree on an issue.


Chapter 5. Set Free

Born by the Spirit
Live by the Spirit

I. The Mistake of Taking Circumcision

  1. Obligated to Obey the Law
  2. Fallen away from Grace
  3. Have No Value

II. The Mistake of Preaching Circumcision

  1. Against the Truth
  2. Persuasion by Yeasts
  3. Avoid the Cross

III. Led by the Spirit

  1. The Acts of the Sinful Nature
  2. The Fruit of the Spirit
  3. Don't Become Conceited
── Chih-Hsin ChangAn Outline of The New Testament
Chapter Five General Review
1) To see that liberty in Christ does not mean license to do whatever
   we want
2) To understand how one might be separated from Christ, and fall from
3) To appreciate the need to walk in the Spirit, and the true evidence
   of one led by the Spirit
With verse one, Paul reaches the climax of this epistle, stating what
can properly be called the theme of his letter:  "Stand fast therefore
in the liberty by which Christ has made us free, and do not be 
entangled again with a yoke of bondage."  He follows with dire warnings
about the consequences of seeking to be circumcised and justified by 
the Law.  He then reminds them that the hope of righteousness is for 
those who through the Spirit eagerly wait for it with a faith  working 
through love (1-6).
The next few verses continue with warnings about allowing others to 
hinder their progress, with Paul's harshest words reserved for those 
trying to impose circumcision.  Yet Paul does not want anyone to think
that liberty in Christ means license, and encourages them to use their 
liberty in order to serve one another in love.  The two-fold benefit of
this proper use of liberty is that one actually fulfills the Law, and 
at the same time does not give the flesh an opportunity to cause them 
to bite and devour one another (7-15).
Paul then stresses the need for the Christian to walk in the Spirit so
as not to fulfill the lust of the flesh.  He describes the enmity 
between the flesh and the Spirit, explaining why we must bear the fruit
of the Spirit instead practicing the works of the flesh.  Not only is 
there no inheritance in the kingdom of God for those engaging in the 
works of the flesh, but those in Christ have crucified the flesh with 
its passions and desires.  Having been made alive in the Spirit, they 
ought to walk in the Spirit so as not to be conceited, not provoking 
nor envying one another (16-26).
      1. A call to stand strong in the freedom we now have in Christ
      2. A plea not to be entangled again with a yoke of bondage (1b)
      1. If one is circumcised out of a belief it is necessary, Christ
         will profit you nothing (2)
      2. Observing circumcision as a necessity requires keeping the
         whole law (3)
      3. Attempting to be justified by the Law will separate you from
         Christ and you will thereby fall from grace (4)
      1. Through the Spirit and by faith, we eagerly wait for the hope
         of righteousness (5)
      2. Circumcision is inconsequential; what avails is faith working
         through love (6)
      1. Despite a good start, they were being hindered and it did not
         come from God (7-8)
      2. Beware of the influence of "a little leaven" (9)
      3. Paul is confident the Galatians will come around, and that the
         Lord will judge the trouble makers (10)
      4. A reminder that Paul himself was not preaching circumcision,
         with a strong condemnation of those who were troubling them
      1. Use our liberty to serve one another in love, and the Law will
         be fulfilled (13-14)
      2. Abuse your liberty, and it will be an opportunity to consume
         one another! (13b,15)
      1. Only then will we not fulfill the flesh, which is contrary to
         the Spirit (16-17)
      2. If we are led by the Spirit, we are not under the Law (18)
      1. The works of the flesh...
         a. Identified by Paul (19-21a)
         b. Will keep one from inheriting the kingdom of God (21b)
      2. The fruit of the Spirit...
         a. Identified by Paul (22-23a)
         b. Against which there is no law (23b)
      1. For they have crucified the flesh with its passions and 
         desires (24)
      2. For they live in the Spirit (25)
      3. Therefore they should not be conceited, provoking and envying
         one another (26)
1) What are the main points of this chapter?
   - A liberty that excludes the necessity of circumcision (1-6)
   - A liberty that fulfills the Law (7-15)
   - A liberty in which one is to be led by the Spirit (16-26)
2) What does Paul enjoin which serves as the theme of this epistle? (1)
   - Stand fast in the liberty in which Christ has made us free
3) What are two consequences of becoming circumcised in order to be 
   saved? (2-3)
   - Christ will profit you nothing
   - You become a debtor to keep the whole Law
4) What two things happen when one seeks to be justified by the Law?
   - You become estranged from Christ
   - You fall from grace
5) How are we to eagerly wait for the hope of righteousness? (5)
   - Through the Spirit, by faith
6) What truly avails something in Christ Jesus? (6)
   - Faith working through love
7) What saying did Paul use to illustrate the danger of the false
   teachers? (9)
   - A little leaven leavens the whole lump
8) What did Paul wish those who were so bent on enforcing circumcision
   would do? (12)
   - Even cut themselves off
9) What would be a misuse of our liberty in Christ?  How should we use
   it instead? (13)
   - As an opportunity for the flesh
   - To serve one another through love
10) What one command fulfills the Law? (14)
   - You shall love your neighbor as yourself
11) How does a Christian avoid fulfilling the lust of the flesh? (16)
   - By walking in the Spirit
12) If one is led by the Spirit, what is their relation to the Law?
   - They are not under the Law
13) List the works of the flesh as described by Paul (19-21)
   - Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, licentiousness, idolatry, 
     sorcery, hatred, contentions, jealousies, outbursts of wrath, 
     selfish ambitions, dissensions, heresies, envy, murders, 
     drunkenness, revelries, and the like
14) What will be true of those who practice the works of the flesh?
   - They will not inherit the kingdom of God
15) What elements constitute the fruit of the Spirit? (22-23)
   - Love, joy, peace, longsuffering, kindness, goodness, faithfulness,
     gentleness, self-control
16) What have those who are Christ's done? (24)
   - They have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires
17) If one lives in the Spirit, what is expected of them? (25)
   - To walk in the Spirit
18) How would people manifest that they are walking in the Spirit? (26)
   - By not being conceited, nor provoking or envying one another


--《Executable Outlines