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1 Timothy Chapter Two


1 Timothy 2

The apostle proceeds to give instructions founded on the great principles which he had established-on grace. The Jewish spirit might look on Gentile kings as enemies, and on Gentiles in general as unworthy of divine favour. The persecution of which Christians were the object gave the flesh occasion to nourish these dispositions and to enter into the spirit of the law. Grace rises above all these thoughts-all these feelings of the heart. It teaches us to think of all men with love. We belong to a Saviour-God, who acts in the gospel towards all men with love. Especially were they to pray for kings and those who had places in the world, that God would dispose their hearts to allow us to live in peace and quietness in all honesty. This was well-pleasing to a Saviour-God, who was willing that all men should be saved and be brought to know the truth. The subject here is not the counsels of God, but His dealings with men under the gospel. He acts in grace. It is the acceptable time-the day of salvation. He opens the door through the blood of Christ, and proclaims peace and a sure reception to all who come. The work is done; His character fully glorified with regard to sin. lf they refuse to come, that is the will of man. That God will fulfill His counsels after all makes no change in His dealings, nor in the responsibility of men. We have love to proclaim to all-in the spirit of love in our ways towards them. The distinction between Jew and Gentile totally disappears here. There is one God, and one Mediator between God and men, a Man, Christ Jesus. These are the two great truths which form the basis of all true religion. Judaism had already been the revelation and testimony in the world of the first: there was one only God. This remains eternally true, but did not suffice to bring men into relationship with God. With regard to men He abode within the veil in the darkness which shrouded His majesty. Christianity, while fully revealing the one God, presents the second truth: there is one mediator between God and men. There is one, and there is but one. It is as true that there is but one Mediator as that there is but one God. This is the great and distinctive truth of Christianity.

Two things here characterise the Mediator. He is a man; He gave Himself a ransom for all. The time for this testimony was ordered of God.

Precious truth! We are in weakness, we are guilty, we could not bring ourselves near to God. We needed a Mediator, who, while maintaining the glory of God, should put us into such a position that He could present us to God in righteousness according to that glory. Christ gave Himself as a ransom. But He must be a man in order to suffer for men, and to represent men. And this He was. But this is not all. We are weak-here, where we are to receive the revelation of God; and weak, with regard to the use of our resources in God and our communion with Him--even when our guilt is blotted out. And, in our weakness to receive the revelation of God, Christ has revealed God, and all that He is in His own Person, in all the circumstances wherein man could have need either in body or in soul. He came down into the lowest depths in order that there should be none, even of the most wretched, who could not feel that God in His goodness was near him and was entirely accessible to him-come down to Him-His love finding its occasion in misery; and that there was no need to which He was not present, which He could not meet.

It is thus that He made himself known on earth; and, now that He is on high, He is still the same. Ho does not forget His human experiences: they are perpetuated by His divine power in the sympathizing feelings of His humanity, according to the energy of that divine love which was their source and their motive power. He is still a man in glory, and in divine perfection. His divinity imparts the strength of its love to His humanity, but does not set aside the latter. Nothing could resemble such a Mediator as this; nothing could equal the tenderness, the knowledge of the human heart, the sympathy, the experience of need. In the measure which divinity could give to what He did, and in the strength of its love, He came down, took part in all the sorrows of humanity, and entered into all the circumstances in which the human heart could be, and was wounded, oppressed, and discouraged, bowing down under the evil. No tenderness, no power of sympathy, no humanity like His; no human heart that can so understand, so feel with us, whatever the burden may be that oppresses the heart of man. It is the Man, the Christ Jesus, who is our Mediator; none so near, none who has come down so low, and entered with divine power into the need, and all the need, of man. The conscience is purified by His work, the heart relieved by that which He was, and which He is for ever.

There is but One: to think of another would be to snatch from Him His glory and from us our perfect consolation. His coming from on high, His divine nature, His death, His life as man in heaven, all point Him out as the one and only Mediator.

But there is another aspect of this truth, and of the fact that He is a Man. It is, that He is not merely a mediator as a Priest upon His throne, between Israel and the Lord; not simply the Messiah, in order to place Israel in relationship with their God, but a Man between God and men. It is according to the eternal nature of God Himself and to the need of men in His presence. It was of these truths, eternal and of universal bearing, that Paul was the herald and the apostle.

Possessing a character that belongs to all ages and that goes beyond them, all these facts had their time to be revealed.

All means dependent on man's use of them had been tried with men-and in vain, as to recalling him to God; and now the necessary foundations of their relationship with God had to be set forth, laid by God Himself, and the Gentiles were to hear the testimony of grace. And such was the apostle's testimony, "a teacher of the Gentiles in the faith and in the truth."

Paul has plainly now laid the foundations, and he proceeds therefore to details. Men were to pray everywhere, lifting up pure hands, without wrath, and without vain human reasonings. Women were to walk in modesty, adorned with good works, and to learn in silence. A woman was forbidden to teach or to exercise authority over men; she was to abide in quietness and silence. The reason given for this is remarkable, and shews how, in our relations with God, everything depends on the original starting-point. In innocence Adam had the first place; in sin, Eve It was she who, being deceived, brought in transgression. Adam was not deceived, guilty as he was of disobeying God. United to his wife, he followed her, not deceived by the enemy but weak through his affection. Without the weakness, it was this which the second Adam did in grace; He followed His deceived and guilty bride, but in order to redeem and deliver her by taking her faults upon Himself. Eve suffered on earth the penalty of her fault in a way which is a mark of the judgment of God; but walking in modesty, with faith and love and holiness, she shall be delivered in the hour of her trial; and that which bears the stamp of judgment shall be an occasion of the mercy and succour of God.

── John DarbySynopsis of 1 Timothy


1 Timothy 2

Chapter Contents

Prayer to be made for all persons, since the grace of the gospel makes no difference of ranks or stations. (1-7) How men and women ought to behave, both in their religious and common life. (8-15)

Commentary on 1 Timothy 2:1-7

(Read 1 Timothy 2:1-7)

The disciples of Christ must be praying people; all, without distinction of nation, sect, rank, or party. Our duty as Christians, is summed up in two words; godliness, that is, the right worshipping of God; and honesty, that is, good conduct toward all men. These must go together: we are not truly honest, if we are not godly, and do not render to God his due; and we are not truly godly, if not honest. What is acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour, we should abound in. There is one Mediator, and that Mediator gave himself a ransom for all. And this appointment has been made for the benefit of the Jews and the Gentiles of every nation; that all who are willing may come in this way, to the mercy-seat of a pardoning God, to seek reconciliation with him. Sin had made a quarrel between us and God; Jesus Christ is the Mediator who makes peace. He is a ransom that was to be known in due time. In the Old Testament times, his sufferings, and the glory that should follow, were spoken of as things to be revealed in the last times. Those who are saved must come to the knowledge of the truth, for that is God's appointed way to save sinners: if we do not know the truth, we cannot be ruled by it.

Commentary on 1 Timothy 2:8-15

(Read 1 Timothy 2:8-15)

Under the gospel, prayer is not to be confined to any one particular house of prayer, but men must pray every where. We must pray in our closets, pray in our families, pray at our meals, pray when we are on journeys, and pray in the solemn assemblies, whether more public or private. We must pray in charity; without wrath, or malice, or anger at any person. We must pray in faith, without doubting, and without disputing. Women who profess the Christian religion, must be modest in apparel, not affecting gaudiness, gaiety, or costliness. Good works are the best ornament; these are, in the sight of God, of great price. Modesty and neatness are more to be consulted in garments than elegance and fashion. And it would be well if the professors of serious godliness were wholly free from vanity in dress. They should spend more time and money in relieving the sick and distressed, than in decorating themselves and their children. To do this in a manner unsuitable to their rank in life, and their profession of godliness, is sinful. These are not trifles, but Divine commands. The best ornaments for professors of godliness, are good works. According to St. Paul, women are not allowed to be public teachers in the church; for teaching is an office of authority. But good women may and ought to teach their children at home the principles of true religion. Also, women must not think themselves excused from learning what is necessary to salvation, though they must not usurp authority. As woman was last in the creation, which is one reason for her subjection, so she was first in the transgression. But there is a word of comfort; that those who continue in sobriety, shall be saved in child-bearing, or with child-bearing, by the Messiah, who was born of a woman. And the especial sorrow to which the female sex is subject, should cause men to exercise their authority with much gentleness, tenderness, and affection.

── Matthew HenryConcise Commentary on 1 Timothy


1 Timothy 2

Verse 1

[1] I exhort therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men;

I exhort therefore — Seeing God is so gracious. In this chapter he gives directions, 1. With regard to public prayers 2. With regard to doctrine. Supplication is here the imploring help in time of need: prayer is any kind of offering up our desires to God. But true prayer is the vehemency of holy zeal, the ardour of divine love, arising from a calm, undisturbed soul, moved upon by the Spirit of God. Intercession is prayer for others. We may likewise give thanks for all men, in the full sense of the word, for that God "willeth all men to be saved," and Christ is the Mediator of all.

Verse 2

[2] For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty.

For all that are in authority — Seeing even the lowest country magistrates frequently do much good or much harm. God supports the power of magistracy for the sake of his own people, when, in the present state of men, it could not otherwise be kept up in any nation whatever.

Godliness — Inward religion; the true worship of God.

Honesty — A comprehensive word taking in the whole duty we owe to our neighbour.

Verse 3

[3] For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour;

For this — That we pray for all men. Do you ask, "Why are not more converted?" We do not pray enough.

Is acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour — Who has actually saved us that believe, and willeth all men to be saved. It is strange that any whom he has actually saved should doubt the universality of his grace!

Verse 4

[4] Who will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the truth.

Who willeth seriously all men - Not a part only, much less the smallest part.

To be saved — Eternally. This is treated of, 1 Timothy 2:5,6. And, in order thereto, to come - They are not compelled.

To the knowledge of the truth — Which brings salvation. This is treated of, 1 Timothy 2:6,7.

Verse 5

[5] For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;

For — The fourth verse is proved by the fifth; the first, by the fourth.

There is one God — And they who have not him, through the one Mediator, have no God.

One mediator also — We could not rejoice that there is a God, were there not a mediator also; one who stands between God and men, to reconcile man to God, and to transact the whole affair of our salvation. This excludes all other mediators, as saints and angels, whom the Papists set up and idolatrously worship as such: just as the heathens of old set up many mediators, to pacify their superior gods.

The man — Therefore all men are to apply to this mediator, "who gave himself for all."

Verse 6

[6] Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time.

Who gave himself a ransom for all — Such a ransom, the word signifies, wherein a like or equal is given; as an eye for an eye, or life for life: and this ransom, from the dignity of the person redeeming, was more than equivalent to all mankind.

To be testified of in due season — Literally, in his own seasons; those chosen by his own wisdom.

Verse 8

[8] I will therefore that men pray every where, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting.

I will — A word strongly expressing his apostolical authority.

Therefore — This particle connects the eighth with the first verse.

That men pray in every place — Public and private. Wherever men are, there prayer should be.

Lifting up holy hands — Pure from all known sin.

Without wrath — In any kind, against any creature. And every temper or motion of our soul that is not according to love is wrath. And doubting - Which is contrary to faith. And wrath, or unholy actions, or want of faith in him we call upon, are the three grand hinderances of God's hearing our petitions. Christianity consists of faith and love, embracing truth and grace: therefore the sum of our wishes should be, to pray, and live, and die, without any wrath or doubt.

Verse 9

[9] In like manner also, that women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety; not with broided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array;

With sobriety — Which, in St. Paul's sense, is the virtue which governs our whole life according to true wisdom.

Not with curled hair, not with gold — Worn by way of ornament.

Not with pearls — Jewels of any kind: a part is put for the whole.

Not with costly raiment — These four are expressly forbidden by name to all women (here is no exception) professing godliness, and no art of man can reconcile with the Christian profession the wilful violation of an express command.

Verse 12

[12] But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence.

To usurp authority over the man — By public teaching.

Verse 13

[13] For Adam was first formed, then Eve.

First — So that woman was originally the inferior.

Verse 14

[14] And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression.

And Adam was not deceived — The serpent deceived Eve: Eve did not deceive Adam, but persuaded him. "Thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife," Genesis 3:17. The preceding verse showed why a woman should not "usurp authority over the man." this shows why she ought not "to teach." She is more easily deceived, and more easily deceives.

The woman being deceived transgressed — "The serpent deceived" her, Genesis 3:13, and she transgressed.

Verse 15

[15] Notwithstanding she shall be saved in childbearing, if they continue in faith and charity and holiness with sobriety.

Yet she — That is, women in general, who were all involved with Eve in the sentence pronounced, Genesis 3:16.

Shall be saved in childbearing — Carried safe through the pain and danger which that sentence entails upon them for the transgression; yea, and finally saved, if they continue in loving faith and holy wisdom.

── John WesleyExplanatory Notes on 1 Timothy


Chapter 2. The Importance of Intercession

All Be Saved
Come to the Truth

I. First to Pray for

  1. Kings and Those in Authority
  2. Godliness and Peacefulness
  3. Please god Our Savior

II. What Men Should Be

  1. Without Anger
  2. Without Disputing
  3. Pray Everywhere

III. What Women Should Be

  1. Dress Modestly
  2. Learn in Quietness
  3. Keep Holiness with Propriety

── Chih-Hsin ChangAn Outline of The New Testament

Chapter Two General Review
1) To appreciate the importance and place of prayer, especially in the
   lives of men
2) To notice God's desire for the salvation of all men, therefore 
   offering Christ as a ransom for all, not just a select few
3) To understand the proper adornment of women, and their place in the
   public teaching of the church
Having reminded Timothy of his charge to remain in Ephesus and "wage
the good warfare", Paul now begins instructing Timothy in matters that
involve the church.  He starts with a call to prayer, defining for whom
and why we should pray.  His desire is that men pray in every place,
lifting up holy hands without wrath and doubting (1-8).
Just as men are to pray everywhere, so women are to adorn themselves
properly.  This involves modest apparel worn with propriety and 
moderation, but it also includes good works, as is proper for women 
professing godliness.  Also proper is women learning in silence 
(translated peaceable in verse 2) with all submission.  Therefore a 
woman is not permitted to teach or have authority over a man.  Basing 
this restriction on the relationship of Adam, Eve, and the fall, Paul 
reminds them they can be saved in their natural role of childbearing if
they continue in faith, love, and holiness, with self-control (9-15).
      1. Supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks
         are to be made for all (1)
         a. For kings and all who are in authority (2a)
         b. That we may lead quiet and peaceable lives in all godliness
            and reverence (2b)
      2. This is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Savior (3)
         a. Who desires all men to be saved and know the truth (4)
         b. For there is one Mediator between God and men (5a)
            1) The Man Christ Jesus, who gave Himself a ransom for all
            2) To be testified in due time, for which Paul was 
               appointed a preacher and an apostle (6b-7a)
               a) Paul speaks the truth in Christ and is not lying (7b)
               b) A teacher of the Gentiles in faith and truth (7c)
      1. For men to pray everywhere (8a)
      2. Lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting (8b)
      1. With modest apparel (9a)
         a. With propriety and moderation (9b)
         b. Not with braided hair, gold, pearls, or costly clothing
      2. With good works, which is proper for women professing 
         godliness (10)
      1. To learn in silence with all submission (11)
      2. Not permitted to teach or have authority over a man, but to be
         in silence (12)
         a. For Adam was formed first, then Eve (13)
         b. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived
            fell into transgression (14)
      3. A woman will be saved in childbearing if they continue in...
         a. Faith
         b. Love
         c. Holiness
         -- With self-control (15)
1) What are the main points of this chapter?
   - The practice of prayer (1-8)
   - Instructions for women (9-15)
2) What four things does Paul exhort be made for all men? (1)
   - Supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks
3) Who else are we to pray for?  Why? (2)
   - Kings and all who are in authority
   - That we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and
4) What does God desire for all men? (4)
   - That they be saved and come to the knowledge of the truth
5) Who is the one mediator between God and men? (5)
   - The Man Christ Jesus
6) For whom did Jesus give Himself as a ransom? (6)
   - For all
7) What did Paul desire that men do? (8)
   - Pray everywhere, lifting up holy hands without wrath and doubting
8) How are women to adorn themselves? (9-10)
   - In modest apparel, with propriety and moderation
   - Not with braided hair, gold, pearls, or costly clothing
   - With good works, as is proper for women professing godliness
9) How were the women to learn? (11)
   - In silence (peaceable, cf. 2:3), with all submission
10) What did Paul not permit a woman to do? (12)
   - To teach or have authority over a man
11) What two reasons does Paul give for these limitations on women?
   - Adam was formed first, then Eve
   - Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived fell into
12) What are the women encouraged to continue in? (15)
   - Faith, love, holiness, with self-control


Praying For Those In Authority (2:1-8)
1. Paul's purpose for writing to Timothy is expressed in 1 Ti 3:14-15...
2. An important part of our conduct in the family of God concerns our
   prayers - 1 Ti 2:1-8
   a. Such prayers are to be offered "for all men"
   b. Yet Paul does go on to specify "for kings and all who are in
[Therefore I think it appropriate to focus our attention on "Praying For
Those In Authority", especially whenever the "winds of war" are
      1. These are petitions for certain definite needs
      2. Humble requests which one makes in the light of this or that
         concrete situation which God
         alone can furnish help - Hendriksen
      3. E.g., when leaders are faced with a crisis
   B. PRAYERS...
      1. Perhaps used here to refer to requests for the fulfillment of
         needs always present
      2. In contrast with 'supplications' in specific situations
         - Hendriksen
      3. E.g., when leaders are faced with routine duties of governing
      1. "pleading in the interest of others" - Hendriksen
      2. Just as Christ does for us - cf. He 7:25
      3. E.g., praying on behalf a leader
      1. Expressing gratitude for blessings received
      2. Thus completing the 'circle' begun when requests were first
      3. E.g., when leaders have led their country to prosperity, or out
         of a crisis
[Such are the prayers we are to offer for those in positions of
authority.  Have we said such prayers lately...?]
      1. With lives that are 'quiet' and 'peaceable' - 1 Ti 2:2
         a. I.e., tranquil and calm
         b. Especially in our relationship with men - cf. 1 Th 4:11-12
      2. With lives lived in all 'godliness' and 'reverence' - 1 Ti 1:2
         a. I.e., piety and gravity
         b. Especially in our relationship with God - cf. Ti 2:11-14
      3. What does praying have to do with producing peace?
         a. God is in ultimate control - cf. Dan 2:20-21; 4:25; Ro 13:
            1-2; Re 1:5
         b. God can influence those in authority to do His will - cf.
            Pro 21:1; Isa 10;5-7,12,15
         c. We can influence God through prayer! - cf. Lk 18:7-8
      -- Truly the 'prayer closet' is more likely to succeed than the
         'voting booth' or the 'terrorist's bomb'!
      1. For God desires all men to be saved - 1 Ti 2:3-7
         a. He sent Jesus to be the ransom, and now mediator
         b. He appointed men like Paul to go and proclaim the truth
            among the nations
      2. The spread of truth is facilitated when peace exists among the
         a. In Paul's day, the Pax Romana made the spread of the gospel
         b. Today, peaceful relations between countries opens doors for
            the gospel
         c. Whereas wars often stifle communication and transportation
            between countries
      -- So let's pray that peace may prevail, though we understand that
         sometimes war has a place in God's providence - cf. Ecc 3:1-8
[Now let's consider...]
      1. In light of 1 Ti 3:14-15, some think Paul refers to assemblies
         in every place - 1 Ti 2:8
      2. I.e., not just in one country, but in all countries
         a. Pray for all who are in authority
         b. Pray for good leaders and bad leaders
      3. Of course, we can pray in other places besides the assemblies
         - Mt 6:6
      1. The Bible describes various 'praying postures'
         a. Standing - 1 Sam 1:26; Mk 11:25; Lk 18:13
         b. Hands spread out and/or lifted heavenward - 1 Kin 8:22; Neh
         c. Bowing the head - Neh 8:6
         d. Lifting heavenward of the eyes - Jn 17:1
         e. Kneeling - Ac 20:36
         f. Falling down with the face upon the ground - Mt 26:39
         g. Bowing the head, with face between the knees - 1 Kin 18:42
         h. Bowing the head, while striking the breast - Lk 18:13
         i. Not recorded in Scripture and unknown to the early church is
            the custom of closing the eyes while folding the hands!
      2. Evidently a particular posture is not what is important
         a. It is the inner attitude of the soul
         b. Certainly our posture should reflect our inner posture (what
            does 'slouching' suggest?)
      3. Paul must be emphasizing 'holy' hands
         a. I.e., hands (and lives) unpolluted by sin
         b. Prayers of confession and contrition should be offered
            before making requests for blessings!
      1. Without wrath
         a. I.e., 'settled indignation'
         a. Such an attitude toward another makes our prayers
            unacceptable to God - Mt 6:14-15; Ja 1:19-20
         b. No room here for angry praying against our leaders!
      2. Without doubting
         a. Just as prayers for wisdom must be offered in faith, so
            prayers for peace!
         b. Read Ja 1:5-8 and substitute 'peace' for 'wisdom'
1. Remember that as the people of God we are "the salt of the earth"
   - Mt 5:14
2. One of the best things we can do to make the earth a more pleasant
   place is to fulfill our duty to pray for those in authority!
3. Are you able to lift prayers with 'holy' hands?  Or are your prayers
   actually an abomination to the Lord? - cf. Pro 28:9
If you desire a quiet and peaceable a life, then let the blood of Jesus
cleans your hands and your heart so your prayers will be heard!
Remember, God desires all men to be saved... - 1 Ti 2:4


Instructions To Women (2:9-15)
1. The purpose of 1st Timothy is found in 1 Ti 3:14-15...
   a. That we might know how to conduct ourselves in God's family, the
   b. E.g., Paul's instruction to men regarding prayer - 1 Ti 2:1-8
2. In 1 Ti 2:9-15, Paul addresses the women, and gives instructions
   a. Their adornment - 1 Ti 2:9-10
   b. Their submission - 1 Ti 2:11-15
[His instructions may seem antiquated, but women seeking to please God
will do well to give earnest heed.  Consider, then, what is written
      1. Just as men are to pray 'everywhere', 'without wrath and
         doubting' - 1 Ti 2:8
      2. So these instructions to women apply 'everywhere', 'without
         wrath and doubting'
      3. "The apostle had stated particularly the duty of men in public
         worship (1 Ti 2:8), and he now proceeds to state the duty of
         women. All the directions here evidently refer to the proper
         manner of conducting public worship, and not to private duties;
         and the object here is to state the way in which he would have
         the different sexes appear." - Barnes
         a. "He had said that he would have prayers offered for all
            people (1Ti 2:1ff), and that in offering such petitions he
            would have the men on whom devolved the duty of conducting
            public devotion, do it with holy hands, and without any
            intermingling of passion, and with entire freedom from the
            spirit of contention." - ibid.
         b. "In reference to the duty of females in attendance on public
            worship, he says that he would have them appear in apparel
            suitable to the place and the occasion - adorned not after
            the manner of the world, but with the zeal and love in the
            cause of the Redeemer which became Christians." - ibid.
      1. Lit., "adorn themselves in adorning attire"; the word modest
         a. "orderly, well-arranged, decent" - Vine
         b. "well-arranged, becoming' - RWP
         c. The NASB uses the word 'proper'
      2. "It does not, properly, mean modest in the sense of being
         opposed to that which is immodest, or which tends to excite
         improper passions and desires, but that which is becoming or
         appropriate." - Barnes
      3. What constitutes 'proper' apparel is further defined by Paul as
         he continues...
      1. Propriety means "a sense of shame, a shrinking from trespassing
         the boundaries of propriety, proper reserve" - Hendriksen
      2. Moderation (translated 'sobriety', KJV) means "sanity; then
         sober-mindedness, moderation of the desires and passions. It is
         opposed to all that is frivolous, and to all undue excitement
         of the passions. The idea is, that in their apparel and
         deportment they should not entrench on the strictest decorum.
         Doddridge." - Barnes
      3. The point is to avoid extremes:  "Be not the first by whom the
         new is tried, nor yet the last to lay the old aside." - Pope
      1. Note that Paul is not dealing with brevity of clothing per se
         a. Rather, clothing and hairstyles designed to draw the
            attention of others
         b. Of course, drawing attention through brevity of clothing
            would violate the spirit of the letter, as well as the word
            translated before as "propriety" or "shamefacedness" (KJV)
      2. Is Paul condemning all adorning of the hair or wearing of
         a. Compare what Peter wrote in 1 Pe 3:3-4
            1) Both appear to be a use of the comparative 'not'...
               a) Where 'not' is not used as a literal prohibition
               b) But to compare one thing to another (not this..but
            2) For example, look at Jn 6:27
               a) Did Jesus condemn working for food?
               b) No, He was emphasizing what is most important
         b. Sarah evidently adorned herself such that her beauty could
            not be hidden (cf. Gen 12:14-15), but her true beauty was
            adornment of a meek and quiet spirit - 1 Pe 3:5-6
      3. "It cannot be supposed that the mere braiding of the hair is
         forbidden, but only that careful attention to the manner of
         doing it, and to the ornaments usually worn in it, which
         characterized worldly females. It is not to be supposed that
         all use of gold or pearls as articles of dress is here
         forbidden; but the idea is, that the Christian female is not to
         seek these as the adorning which she desires, or is not to
         imitate the world in these personal decorations." - Barnes
      GOOD WORKS..."
      1. Here is where the emphasis is to be, not on outward apparel!
      2. As per 1 Pe 3:3-4:  "Do not let your adornment be [merely]
         outward - arranging the hair, wearing gold, or putting on
         [fine] apparel - rather [let it be] the hidden person of the
         heart, with the incorruptible [beauty] of a gentle and quiet
         spirit, which is very precious in the sight of God." (NKJV)
      3. Good works befits women professing godliness (godly piety)
         - e.g., Dorcas, Ac 9:36,39
[Sisters in Christ, what do men notice most about you?  Attention to
physical adornment, or your godly conduct?  Be careful not to let the
physical take precedent and block out the spiritual!  Now consider
Paul's instructions regarding...]
      1. The word "silence" (NKJV, ASV, NRSV) - 1 Ti 2:11-12
         a. Translated "quietness" (KJV), "quietly" (NASB)
         b. Found here and in Ac 22:2 ("all the more silent") and 2 Th
            3:12 ("work in quietness")
         c. Related to the word used in 1 Ti 2:2 ("peaceable life")
      2. "The apostle goes on to give some other instructions to women,
         how they should behave themselves in public worship, in the
         church of God;" - Gill
         a. "he would have them be learners and not teachers, sit and
            hear, and learn more of Christ, and of the truth of the
            Gospel, and to maintain good works;" - ibid.
         b. "and he would have them learn in silence, and not offer to
            rise and speak, under a pretense of having a word from the
            Lord, or of being under an impulse of the Spirit of the
            Lord, as some frantic women have done;" - ibid.
         c. "and if they should meet with anything, under the ministry
            of the word, they did not understand, or they had an
            objection to, they were not to speak in public, but ask
            their own husbands at home; see 1 Co 14:34." - ibid.
         d. "And thus, they were to behave with all subjection; both to
            the ministers of the word, and to their own husbands; - ibid.
      3. Thus women should "listen attentively to instruction, without
         attempting to teach in public" - Barnes
      1. Note that this pertains to "over a man"
         a. Compare his comments with those in 1 Co 14:34-37
         b. Women may certainly teach other women, children - cf. Ti 2:
      2. Both 1 Ti 2:11-12 and 1 Co 14:34-37 appear to deal with the
         conduct of women in the public assemblies and worship of the
      1. Reasons for the submission of women in the church - 1 Ti 2:
         a. Adam was formed first, then Eve
            1) "Man was made as the lord of this lower creation and
               placed in the garden, and then the woman was made of a
               rib taken from his side, and given to him, not as a lord,
               but as a companion." - Barnes (cf. Gen 2:7-23)
            2) "All the circumstances combine to show the subordinate
               nature of her rank, and to prove that she was not
               designed to exert authority over the man; compare notes
               on 1 Co 11:8-9." - ibid.
         b. Adam was not deceived; Eve being deceived, fell into
            1) Neither the serpent nor Eve deceived Adam; he allowed
               himself to be persuaded by Eve after she ate - cf. Gen
            2) Eve was deceived by the serpent, which she readily
               acknowledged - Gen 3:13
            3) The woman's susceptibility to deception is thus offered
               as a reason why women are not to have a leadership role
               over men in the church
      2. Reassurances for women who learn in submission - 1 Ti 2:15
         a. "She will be saved in childbearing" (NKJV)
            1) "To be understood not of a temporal salvation, or being
               saved through childbearing, through the perilous time,
               and be delivered out of it..." - Gill
            2) "...for though this is generally the case, yet not
               always, nor always the case of good women. Rachel died in
               child bed." - ibid.
         b. But though subject to man, with no leadership role in the
            church, and susceptible to bearing children in pain and
            sorrow (cf. Gen 3:16), a woman can be saved as well as a man
            - cf. Ga 3:28
         c. She can be saved even in this function (childbearing), not
            by means of it - RWP
            1) Paul is not saying women must bear children to be saved,
               for he teaches elsewhere the value of the single life
               - cf. 1 Co 7:32-35
            2) Yet generally speaking, this is God's creative purpose
               for women (motherhood)
         d. "Provided they continue in faith and love and holiness, with
            modesty (self-restraint)"
            1) Faith, love, holiness - virtues necessary for salvation
            2) Modesty (self-restraint) - virtue necessary for submission
1. In a world obsessed with fashion and equality, it is not easy to be a
   'daughter of Sarah' today
2. But for women 'making a claim to godliness'...
   a. Their adornment will be modest and discreet, accompanied with good
   b. Their service will be faith, love, and holiness, accompanied by
      submission and self-restraint
In the words of Peter, such conduct is "...very precious in the sight of
God. For in this manner, in former times, the holy women who trusted in
God also adorned themselves..." - 1 Pe 3:4-5


--《Executable Outlines


The importance of intercession

All be saved

Come to the truth


I.  First to pray for

1.    Kings and those in authority

2.    Godliness and peacefulness

3.    Please God our savior

II.What men should be

1.    Without anger

2.    Without disputing

3.    Pray everywhere

III.       What women should be

1.    Dress modestly

2.    Learn in quietness

3.    Keep holiness with propriety

-- Chih-Hsin ChangAn Outline of The New Testament