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Philemon Commentary


I. Content of the Epistle


Love Your Brothers

I. Salutation (v.1-3)

II. Praise and prayer (v.4-7)

III. Request and intercession (v.8-17)

IV. Commitment and assurance (v.18-22)

V. Greeting and blessing (v.23-25)


II. Verse by Verse commentary


Philem. 1 “Paul, a prisoner of Christ Jesus, and Timothy our brother, To Philemon our beloved friend and fellow laborer,

   YLT: “Paul, a prisoner of Christ Jesus, and Timotheus the brother, to Philemon our beloved and fellow-worker,”

   Meaning of Words: “Philemon”: heart, reigns, friendliness, friendship.

   Literal Meaning: Paul, a prisoner of Christ Jesus” “a prisoner of Christ Jesus” apparently, Paul was imprisoned by the Roman government, however, he regarded himself as a prisoner of Christ Jesus actually------he was imprisoned by the sovereign arrangement of Christ so that he could suffer with Him and he shall also be glorified with Him (Rom. 8:17).

    Unusually, Paul did not use his apostleship in this epistle (See Rom. 1:1; 1Cor. 1:1; 2Cor. 1:1; Gal. 1:1; Eph. 1:1; Col. 1:1; 1Tim. 1:1; 2Tim. 1:1; Tit. 1:1). Contrarily, he emphasized on his identity of a prisoner to ask a favor for others. He not only cleared up the sense of being threatened but also was amiable as a friend.

“And Timothy our brother” the tone of this epistle shows that it is written by Paul himself (“I” See v.4, 8, 9……). However, Paul put his name and the name of Timothy together to the salutation and there may be there possibilities: 1) Philemon knew Timothy; 2) Paul probably had communicated with Timothy concerning the matter of Onesimus; 3) Paul respected Timothy his fellow labor.

To Philemon our beloved friend and fellow laborer” The appellation “fellow labor” is spoken concerning the work of the Lord. According to the traditional saying of the church, “Philemon” was one of the elders in the church at Colosse and the church gathered together in his house (See v.2).

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) It is glorious that believers are imprisoned for the Lord and we should rejoice in it because our reward is great in heaven (Matt. 5:11-12).

2) If we indeed have a feeling of “prisoners of Christ Jesus”, we won’t walk randomly and will be willing to be limited and restrained by the Lord.


Philem. 2 “to the beloved Apphia, Archippus our fellow soldier, and to the church in your house:

   YLT: “and Apphia the beloved, and Archippus our fellow-soldier, and the assembly in thy house:”

   Literal Meaning: to the beloved Apphia” “the beloved Apphia” (in the Chinese version there is sister before Apphia and it refers to sister in the Lord); “Apphia” according to the individual nature of this epistle, she must be the family member of Philemon and probably she was his wife because wives played an important role in dealing with fugitive bondmen.

Archippus our fellow soldier” “fellow soldier” in the original refers to battle companions who experience fierce battles together and here it refers to those who work for the Lord together (See 2Cor. 10:4; 1Tim.1:18: 2Tim. 2:3); “Archippus” may be the son of Philemon who devoted himself to participating in the work of preaching and shepherding the church (See Col. 4:17).

“And to the church in your house” believers in the church in Colosse probably gathered together in the house of Philemon. Paul made the whole church care for the matter of fugitive slaves, showing that he considered thoroughly------he not only considered Onesimus’ present situation and asked all the Saints to deal with the problems between Christian masters and bondmen but also paved the way for his service in the church later.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) How beautiful and good that husband and wife and parents and children in the family and all the Saints in the church could make decisions with the same mind!

2) It is indeed a good thing that one could open his house for the gathering and communion of all the Saints.


Philem. 3 “Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

   YLT: “Grace to you, and peace, from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ!”

   Meaning of Words: “grace”: joy, kindness, love.

   Literal Meaning: Grace and peace” “grace” is the benefit that God gives men to let them enjoy freely. The greatest grace for men is that God Himself is obtained and enjoyed by them. “Peace” does not refer to the smooth going of environments but the calm and comfort of the inner states. In other words, peace is the state that men have enjoyed the salvation of God so that men could have peace with both God and men.

“To you from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.” “God our Father” God is the God of the world, however, He is our father. God is the springhead of grace and peace and we believers are vessels that enjoy grace and peace. “The Lord Jesus Christ” is the channel of grace and peace. We must enjoy grace and peace through Him.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) Christians are those who enjoy the grace of God and therefore their life must have pleasant points. The Christianity without attraction is not the true Christianity.

2) Grace is a gift which men cannot gain by themselves because men do not have merits worthy of grace.

3) Grace is the source of peace and peace is the result of grace. It is impossible for men to have God’s peace if they have not asked for God’s grace.

4) We should not seek after peace besides God. The short cut of the true peace is doing the will of God.

5) Believers’ peace is neither related to environments nor influenced by things in the outside world.

6) Luther, Martin said that grace and peace summarize the whole Christianity. Grace makes us be delivered from sins and peace makes our conscience calm (it is translated from the Chinese version).


Philem. 4 “I thank my God, making mention of you always in my prayers,

   YLT: “I give thanks to my God, always making mention of thee in my prayers,”

   Literal Meaning: “Making mention of you in my prayers” the plural word “prayers” means praying usually and at the first opportunity and praying at all times and unceasingly.

  I thank my Godalways” the word “always” stresses on the lasting thanksgiving. 

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) What the self-centered ones (i.e. the selfish ones) consider in their hearts is nothing more than the pains and happiness of themselves and their family members and they never consider the matters of others.

2) Every time Paul mentioned others, he thought about God. God is the hub of our relations. If one does not have God in his life, probably he deals with others according to gains and loses and he lacks the friendship of sacrificing oneself.

3) Without God we cannot bring the true benefits to others.

4) If our walkings cannot make men thank God for us, we won’t have good testimonies.

5) Paul mentioned “my God”, showing his good relationship with God. Not only Paul was possessed by God but also God is possessed by Paul.

6) Does our relationship with God merely rely on the objective truth or the subjective experience that we regard God as our reliance and help in everything?

7) It is true that there are many troubles in serving the church, however, there are also much consolation!


Philem. 5 “hearing of your love and faith which you have toward the Lord Jesus and toward all the saints,

   YLT: “hearing of thy love and faith that thou hast unto the Lord Jesus and toward all the saints,”

   Literal Meaning: hearing of your love” “love” is worked by faith originally (Gal. 5:6) and faith should be mentioned before love. However, Paul mentioned love first and then faith for the special condition of this epistle.

    The word “hearing of” shows that the love of Philemon was talked with great relish by all the saints and he was an elder with great love.

“And faith which you have toward the Lord Jesus and toward all the saints” in the original, there is a preposition before “the Lord Jesus” and “all the saints” respectively in this verse and it refers to their direction and belonging. It could be translated into “toward the Lord Jesus” and “upon all the saints”. According to what Paul himself had mentioned in other epistles, faith is mainly toward Christ Jesus and love is mainly toward all the saints (See Col. 1:4). And therefore this verse probably means that your faith toward the Lord Jesus and love toward all the saints. However, here it probably shows that your love and faith are both toward the Lord Jesus and all the saints. At any rate, love and faith are closely related to each other and they are inseparable.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) Love is worked by faith and faith is manifested by faith. Faith is in the hearts and invisible, however, faith could be manifested through love.

2) A normal Christian should keep the balance between love and faith----having both love and faith. The more faith one has, the more love he will show.

3) Those who love God must love men. If we do not love our brother whom we have seen, we cannot love God whom we have not seen (1John. 4:20).

4) The true faith is the foundation of the true love. If we do not have the normal faith toward God, we won’t have the normal love toward men.

5) One should have faith toward God and love toward men. All those who truly have faith toward God must have love toward all the saints.

6) Faith keeps our relationship with God normal and love keeps our relationship with men normal.

7) The love of believers should begin with loving “all the saints” and then reach loving “all” (2Pet. 1:7).

8) If believers merely have love and lack the support of the true faith, what they have done could be regarded as their being swayed by emotions.

9) Christ Jesus is the source of faith and the more we know Christ, the more faith we will have.

10) Paul mentioned “all the saints” instead of “all believers”, showing that those who believed in the Lord Jesus all have been separated by God and they are holy in the eyes of God.


Philem. 6 “that the sharing of your faith may become effective by the acknowledgment of every good thing which is in you in Christ Jesus.

   YLT: “that the fellowship of thy faith may become working in the full knowledge of every good thing that in you toward Christ Jesus;”

   Meaning of Words: “sharing”: communion, friendship, fellowship, partnership; “acknowledgement”: full knowledge, full discernment, full recognition.

   Literal Meaning: that the sharing of your faith may become effective” “the sharing of your faith” is the communion of faith. “Become effective” refers to having effective results. 

“By the acknowledgment of every good thing which is in you in Christ Jesus” “acknowledgement” implies full understanding and clear recognition. “By the acknowledgement of” refers to making others see and realize. “Every good thing” refers to all good things that Christians have done in love. “In Christ Jesus” refers to toward and unto Christ Jesus. 

This verse means that may you be used to sharing faith with all the saints and let it become effective, so that all will fully recognize that every good thing in you is for Christ and to Him.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) The communion of faith is not quiet, inactive or ineffective. All the relationships that are not of faith are the worldly communication and they are merely social communication. 

2) Christians learn to know Christ through giving and are filled by Christ through completely humbling and emptying themselves.

3) The most reliable way for Christians to know the riches of Christ further is to open their generous hearts and stretch out their hands of compassion.

4) Those who know Christ the most are not the Bible scholars with excellent word or even the saints only pray all the day but those who are kind and generous to men.


Philem. 7 “For we have great joy and consolation in your love, because the hearts of the saints have been refreshed by you, brother.

   YLT: “for we have much joy and comfort in thy love, because the bowels of the saints have been refreshed through thee, brother.”

   Meaning of Words: “consolation”: encouragement, imploration, appeal, solace; “refresh”: take ease, renew strength.

   Literal Meaning: in your love, brother” there is a preposition and an article before “love” and it specially refers to many things that Philemon had done in love.

  For we have great joy and consolation” it refers to rejoicing and being encouraged greatly.

  “Because the hearts of the saints have been refreshed by you” “the saints” refers to Christians at Colosse. “Refreshing” The Greek used this word to describe the mood of soldiers when they are tired in a march and have a rest on the sides of the road. Here it indicates that the hearts of all saints feel pleasant for it.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) Good works bring more encouragement to the saints than many messages.

2) It is a lovable thing that one’s house makes those who believe in God come to have a rest and make them pleasant both in body and mind!


Philem. 8 “Therefore, though I might be very bold in Christ to command you what is fitting,

   YLT: “Wherefore, having in Christ much boldness to command thee that which is fit --”

   Meaning of Words: “what is fitting”: reaching a certain standard, be proper.

   Literal Meaning: “be very boldto command you what is fitting” “what is fitting” refers to things and duties we should do, i.e. things proper for the identity of Christians.


Philem. 9 “yet for love's sake I rather appeal to you--being such a one as Paul, the aged, and now also a prisoner of Jesus Christ--

   YLT: “because of the love I rather entreat, being such an one as Paul the aged, and now also a prisoner of Jesus Christ;”

   Meaning of Words: “appeal to”: call near, beseech, entreat, implore.

   Literal Meaning: being such a one as Paul, the aged” “the aged” Paul’s actual age was unknown and he may be between 55 and 60 at that time. Paul’s body was damaged and he called himself the aged because he suffered various persecutions and toil.

“And now also a prisoner of Jesus Christ” it shows that this epistle was written when Paul was imprisoned the Roman for the first time.

  “Yet for love's sake I rather appeal to you” “appeal to” is opposite to “command” in v.8.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) Though authority could make men surrender, it is inferior to requesting in love which could make men surrender willingly.

2) Love from men’s hearts is more powerful than the outer authority. Men may resist authority, however, love shall soften it.


Philem. 10 “I appeal to you for my son Onesimus, whom I have begotten while in my chains,

   YLT: “I entreat thee concerning my child -- whom I did beget in my bonds -- Onesimus,”

   Meaning of Words: Onesimus”: profitable.

   Literal Meaning: whom I have begotten while in my chains” refers to the new believer who was gained through the gospel in the prison.


Philem. 11 “who once was unprofitable to you, but now is profitable to you and to me.

   YLT: “who once was to thee unprofitable, and now is profitable to me and to thee,”

   Literal Meaning: who once was unprofitable to you” here Paul used a pun purposely. The original meaning of “Onesimus” was “profitable”. However, he was unprofitable to Philemon because he abandoned his master and ran away and the condition was opposite to the meaning of his name. 

“But now is profitable to you and to me” “once…but now” shows the great power of the gospel which is able to make the complete and thorough change. Today he who was once unprofitable became profitable because he had believed in the Lord and the name of Onesimus indeed conformed to his life.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) Those that do not have the life of Christ only care for themselves and never take care of others and consequently they do many things which harm others to benefit themselves and they are unprofitable to others.

2) If the faith of Christian is unable to make others see the change of life, probably his faith is not pure and there is something wrong with his faith.

3) The one who lets Christ reign in their hearts shall be profitable to others no matter how bad he was. Christians should let men around us feel that we are profitable to them.


Philem. 12 “I am sending him back. You therefore receive him, that is, my own heart,

   YLT: “whom I did send again, and thou him (that is, my own bowels) receive,”

   Meaning of Words: “heart”: feelings, bowels.

   The Background: at that time salves were regarded as properties of masters and they were living tools instead of men. According to the Roman law, masters had the right of their life. And therefore Onesimus indeed took a risk of life to return to his master.

   Literal Meaning: I am sending him back.” It means that Paul handed the matter of Onesimus over to you to deal with.

“Him, that is, my own heart” It means that he was my beloved one and his experience would touch my heart.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) Christianity does not teach men to flee from the past and ignore it but make men face the fact and find out a way to solve it.

2) What the faith of Christians brings to men is a new relation among men which annuls all the outward differences.

3) Christians are of one body----whether Jews or Greeks, whether slaves or free (1Cor. 12:13). In Christ there is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free (Gal. 3:28; Col. 3:11).


Philem. 13 “whom I wished to keep with me, that on your behalf he might minister to me in my chains for the gospel.

   YLT: “whom I did wish to retain to myself, that in thy behalf he might minister to me in the bonds of the good news,”

   Meaning of Words: “wish”: consider, mind.

   Literal Meaning: whom I wished to keep with me” “wished” shows that he once had such consideration. “Keep with me” refers to staying in the Roman prison.

“That on your behalf he might minister to me in my chains for the gospel” “on your behalf” shows that the one who is taught the word is responsible for rewarding him who teaches (See Gal. 6:6). “Minster” refers to the services of various chores. Paul was imprisoned for the sake of the gospel and he indeed needed others to minister him according to the condition at that time and his age.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) The world has a sense of gratitude, how much more shall believers?  Those who have been bestowed grace should show their thanksgiving.

2) When one decision is made among believers, we should neither decide on our own nor force others to do something and we should hold fast to the principle of “till he please” (Song of Sol. 2:7).


Philem. 14 “But without your consent I wanted to do nothing, that your good deed might not be by compulsion, as it were, but voluntary.

   YLT: “and apart from thy mind I willed to do nothing, that as of necessity thy good deed may not be, but of willingness,”

   Meaning of Words: “want”: be disposed, will.

   Literal Meaning: But without your consent I wanted to do nothing,” “wanted… nothing” shows that one never makes a decision flatly without the agreement of others.

“That your good deed might not be by compulsion, as it were, but voluntary.” “Compulsion” refers to being forced to do something; “voluntary” refers to of one’s own accord.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1) The principle Christians’ walking is that we do nothing without the agreement of those who are involved.

2) We should not force others to do good, so that men’s motive and good works may be voluntary and of the love to God.


Philem. 15 “For perhaps he departed for a while for this purpose, that you might receive him forever,

   YLT: “for perhaps because of this he did depart for an hour, that age-duringly thou mayest have him,”

   Meaning of Words: “a while”: an hour; “receive”: receive in full, take back.

   Literal Meaning: For perhaps he departed for a while for this purpose” “departed” is the passive voice and therefore Onesimus did not take the initiative to go away but that he was separated under God’s arrangement.

“That you might receive him forever” “forever” is in contrast to “a while” in the previous sentence. It refers to the relation between one another in the Lord. “Receive” refers to having completely.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) Christians should always welcome those who once made mistakes. Many times we suspect those who had gone on the wrong track and show that we won’t trust them forever. We trust that God will forgive them, however, it is really hard for us to do it.

2) Christians should have little regard for the things which are temporal and respect the things which are eternal (See 2Cor. 4:17-18).


Philem. 16 “no longer as a slave but more than a slave--a beloved brother, especially to me but how much more to you, both in the flesh and in the Lord.

   YLT: “no more as a servant, but above a servant -- a brother beloved, especially to me, and how much more to thee, both in the flesh and in the Lord!”

   Literal Meaning: no longer as a slave” “no longer as” is not implicit but realistic.

“But more than a slave--a beloved brother” Here it refers to the relation of believers in Christ. Paul’s words probably suggested to Philemon that he should release Onesimus and set him free.

“Especially to me but how much more to you” It means that Paul and Onesimus were strangers to each other and they even became beloved brothers in the Lord, how much more shall Philemon be more joyous and love Onesimus because they were master and servant.

“Both in the flesh and in the Lord.” “In the flesh” refers to speaking concerning the relation of men; “in the Lord” refers to speaking concerning the relation in the Lord.


Philem. 17 “If then you count me as a partner, receive him as you would me.

   YLT: “If, then, with me thou hast fellowship, receive him as me,”

   Literal Meaning: there is a word “therefore” in the beginning of the verse and it means that Philemon should do it on the basis of the reason in v.16.

  If then you count me as a partner” “a partner” refers to a coworker. 

“Receive him as you would me” “receive” refers to taking to oneself; “as you would me” refers to regarding him as a partner.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) The relation among believers is that we are partners who run on the heavenly way together and co-workers who pursue the spiritual benefits. 

2) Believers should not make a different among ourselves (James. 2:1-8) and we should not hold to the one and despise the other, or hate the one and love the other.


Philem. 18 “But if he has wronged you or owes anything, put that on my account.

   YLT: “and if he did hurt to thee, or doth owe anything, this to me be reckoning;”

   Meaning of Words: “wrong”: bully, be unjust, owe money.

   Literal Meaning: But if he has wronged you or owes anything” “has wronged you” shows that Onesimus not only ran away but also stole the money of his master.

“Put that on my account” It is the commercial term which refers to fully assuming one’s debts and taking the responsibility for paying back.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) Love is bearing all the pain and assuming the debts of the other side.

2) The Lord teaches us to “go and do likewise” in the metaphor of a good Samaritan (Luke. 10:37). When we help others, we should help them to the end.


Philem. 19 “I, Paul, am writing with my own hand. I will repay--not to mention to you that you owe me even your own self besides.

   YLT: “I, Paul did write with my hand, I -- I will repay; that I may not say that also thyself, besides, to me thou dost owe.”

   Literal Meaning: I, Paul, am writing with my own hand. I will repay” the epistle with “I am writing with my own hand” shows that it is an effective due bill, so that he must repay. It is not a joke. 

“Not to mention to you that you owe me even your own self besides” it shows that Philemon became a Christian by the guidance of Paul.


Philem. 20 “Yes, brother, let me have joy from you in the Lord; refresh my heart in the Lord.

   YLT: “Yes, brother, may I have profit of thee in the Lord; refresh my bowels in the Lord;”

   Meaning of Words: “refresh”: rest, refreshed.

   Literal Meaning: Yes, brother, let me have joy from you in the Lord;” “joy” is regarded as benefit in the ancient writing. Paul used the meaning of Onesimus again through the pun.

“Refresh my heart in the Lord” “refresh” refers to being entirely free from worry. Paul suggested to Philemon that he should not only receive Onesimus but also set him free or send him to Rome to serve Paul (See v.13-14).


Philem. 21 “Having confidence in your obedience, I write to you, knowing that you will do even more than I say.

   YLT: “having been confident in thy obedience I did write to thee, having known that also above what I may say thou wilt do;”

   Literal Meaning: Having confidence in your obedience, I write to you” “obedience” refers to granting the request of Paul.

“Knowing that you will do even more than I say” this epistle was kept to show a fact: if the request was ignored, the epistle must have been ruined. It shows that Philemon granted Paul’s request gladly.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) Trusting the other is the best way to persuade him.

2) Here there is a principle that one always expects the best from others. Our greatest expectation toward men is better than the half request. If we clearly show that the expectation is a little, what we will have will be a little.


Philem. 22 “But, meanwhile, also prepare a guest room for me, for I trust that through your prayers I shall be granted to you.

   YLT: “and at the same time also prepare for me a lodging, for I hope that through your prayers I shall be granted to you.”

   Literal Meaning: But, meanwhile, also prepare a guest room for me” “a guest room” refers to friendship and hearty welcome.

“For I trust that through your prayers I shall be granted to you” Paul firmly believed the effect of prayers (See Philip. 1:19).


Philem. 23 “Epaphras, my fellow prisoner in Christ Jesus, greets you,

   YLT: “Salute thee doth Epaphras, (my fellow-captive in Christ Jesus,)”

  Literal Meaning: Epaphras” was a Colossian and the Lord’s worker in the church in Colosse (See Col. 1:7; 4:12). And he must be familiar with Philemon.


Philem. 24 “as do Mark, Aristarchus, Demas, Luke, my fellow laborers.

   YLT: “Markus, Aristarchus, Demas, Lukas, my fellow-workmen!”

   Literal Meaning: as do Mark, Aristarchus” these two ones were the Jews.

Demas, Luke, my fellow laborers” these two ones were Gentile believers.


Philem. 25 “The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit. Amen.

   YLT: “The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ with your spirit! Amen.”

   Literal Meaning: The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ” “Lord Jesus Christ” is the subjective genitive and it indicates that He is the possessor of grace; Christ is grace.

“Be with your spirit. Amen.” “Your” in the original is plural and “spirit” is singular.

   Enlightenment in the Word:

1) What men need is Christ Himself and Christ’s presence is the greatest blessing of the human race.

2) In the life of Christians, we need the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ at all times and without His grace, we are nothing and we could do nothing.


III. Outlines of the Spiritual Lessons


Living out Christ

I. Salutation------grace and peace to men (v.1-3)

II. Thanksgiving and praise (v.4-7)

  A. the way------prayer (v.4)

  B. the content------love and faith (v.5-6)

  C. the result------all have been refreshed (v.7)

III. The request in love (v.8-20)

  A. the way------appealing for love’s sake instead of commanding (v.8-9)

  B. the item------for Onesimus, whom Paul had begotten while in his chains (v.10)

  C. the reason------who once was unprofitable, but now is profitable to you and to me (v.11)

  D. the way------Paul sent him back and hoped him to receive him (v.12)

  E. the purpose------your good deed might not be by compulsion, as it were, but voluntary (v.13-14)

  F. the benefit------you might receive him forever (v.15)

  G. the request------regarding him as the beloved brother and receiving him as you would me (v.16-17)

  H. the promise------if he has wronged you or owes anything, put that on my account. I will repay (v.18-19)

  I. the hope------let me have joy from you in the Lord (v.20)

IV. Faith and hope (v.21-22)

V. Greeting and blessing (v.23-25)


Ideas in Christ

I. The idea of request instead of sigh (v.1-3)

II. The idea of praise instead of blame (v.4-7)

III. The idea of appeal instead of commandment (v.8-12)

IV. The idea of respect instead of selfishness (v.13-14)

V. The idea of receiving instead of rejecting (v.15-17)

VI. The idea of repaying instead of haggling over (v.18-19)

VII. The idea of encouragement instead of pressure (v.20-22)

VIII. The idea of carefulness instead of carelessness (v.23-25)


Relations in Christ

I. Brother (v.1)------life

II. Fellow labor (v.1, 24)------service

III. Fellow soldier (v.2)------conflict

IV. The sharing of faith (v.6)------oneness

V. Partner (v.17)------livelihood

VI. Fellow prisoner (v.23)------suffering


Seeing the Wisdom of the Lord’s Workers from This Epistle

I. Using praise to replace blame (v.4-5)

II. Using faith to replace criticism (v.6-7)

III. Using love to replace commandment (v.8-9)

IV. Using appeal to replace demand (v.10-14)

V. Using encouragement to replace discouragement (v.15-17)

VI. Using sacrificing oneself to replace sacrificing others (v.18-19)

VII. Using the positive to replace the negative (v.20-21)


── Caleb HuangChristian Digest Bible Commentary Series

   Translated by Sharon Ren