Hebrews Chapter One
I. Content of the Chapter
Christ is the Son of God, More Excellent than the Prophets and the Angels.
A. The Son of God is more excellent than the prophets (v.1-3);
1. By the prophets: at various times and in various ways spoke in time past to the fathers (v.1);
2. By His Son: has in these last days spoken to us (v
3. The status, ministry and nature of the Son of God (v.2b-3);
B. The Son of God is more excellent than the angels (v.4-14);
1. Name ---- He has by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they (v.4);
2. Status ---- He is the Son of God, and the angels are merely the (v.5-7);
3. Power and disposition ---- God accepts more than all (v.8-9);
4. Work and existence ---- the heavens and the earth are the work of His hands. And He remain (v.10-12);
5. His relation with salvation ---- He is the accomplisher of salvation. And the angels are the ministering spirits sent forth to minister for those who will inherit salvation (v.13-14);
II. Verse by Verse commentary
Heb. 1:1 “God, who at various times and in various ways spoke in time past to the fathers by the prophets,”
YLT: ”In many parts, and many ways, God of old having spoken to the fathers in the prophets,”
Meaning of Words: “prophets”: foreteller, an inspired speaker; “various times”: many parts, many phases; “various ways”: many forms, many methods; “spoke”: preach, utter (the past perfect tense);
Literal Meaning: “God …in time past by the prophets”, “in time past”, before the incarnation of Christ, namely, the times of the Old Testament; “prophets”: those who speak for God and reveal God Himself and His will to men; “the prophets”: the prophets in the Old Testament; “by the prophets”: it is “in the prophets” in the original, which means that the inspiration and revelation of God’s Spirit in the prophets;
“At various times and in various ways spoke to the fathers”, “at various times and in various ways”, “at various times and in various ways”: at different times and by different ways partly and incompletely, e.g. all the prophecies, types, visions and dreams etc. “Spoke”: God spoke to men; “the fathers”: the elect of God ---- the fathers of the Jews in the past generations, which are in contrast to “us” in verse two.
This verse suggests that God in the times of the Old Testament spoke to men successively through the personalities and words of those who were of God, expressing Himself and His will partially.
Enlightenment in the Word:
1) God is a God who speaks. He reveals Himself and His will to men by speaking to men so that they may know what He is and has and does.
2) God is a God of revelation. He has fellowship with men through revelation. And God needs vessels to convey His revelation. That is to say, He needs a group of men to be His vessel.
3) God spoke to men “by the prophets”. Therefore, we shall not despise the prophecies, but prove all things and hold fast the right (1Thess. 5:20-21).
4) “The prophets” show that any single prophet could not represent the complete revelation of God, and each prophet could only speak a part or an aspect of God’s word for Him. Therefore, we shall not uphold any servant of God above what is written (1Cor. 4:6).
5) We shall desire to prophesy (1Cor. 14:1). However, one shall firstly be revealed and inspired by God so that he is able to speak for God and edify the church (1Cor. 14:29-31).
6) If we desire to know God, we shall rely on
and obtain the transient word through the word that God has already spoken.
Therefore, let the word of God in the Scriptures dwell in us richly (
7) Do not ignore the Holy Bible, for every scripture is divinely inspired (2Tim. 3:16). And do not despise the prophecies (1Thess. 5:20).
8) The words that God had spoken in the Old Testament were spoken “at various times and in various ways”
Heb. 1:2 “has in these last days spoken to us by His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the worlds;”
YLT: ”in these last days did speak to us in a Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He did make the ages;”
Meaning of Words: “these last days”: the end of these days; “speak”: utter, preach;
Literal Meaning: “has in these last days spoken to us by His Son”, “these last days” refer to the times of the New Testament, or the times of grace, namely, the period from the first coming of Jesus Christ to His second coming; “His Son” refers to Jesus Christ ---- He is the only begotten Son in the bosom of the Father and has declared God (John 1:18); “we”: believers in the times of the New Testament;
The whole verse shows that God speaks to us through His Son Jesus Christ today and we are enabled to obtain the word of God and understand only by Him.
“Whom He has appointed heir of all things”, “appoint”: set, which shows that such action is completely out of God the Father; “heir of all things”: the one who inherit all things legally. All that God has had and done are of Him (John 16:15).
This verse indicates that Jesus Christ is always the center and end of God’s eternal will and the significance and purpose of the existence of all things are the Son of God Jesus Christ.
“Through whom also He made the worlds”, “the worlds”: a habitual word of the Jews, which refers to the universe manifested in different ages. It is corresponding to “all things” ---- the worlds are all things, and vice versa.
This verse suggests that the worlds were created by God through His Son Jesus Christ.
Verse two and three tell us the relation of Christ with all things: 1) in the past, He was the creator of all things (see v.10; John 1:3; Col. 1:16; 1Cor. 8:6); at present, He is the maintainer of all things; 3) in the future, He is the heir of all things (see Rom. 11:36).
Enlightenment in the Word:
1) Both the Old Testament and the New Testament are written according to what God has spoken. However, the value of them is different because of the distinction of the way of the speaking.
2) The New Testament is hidden in the Old Testament, and the Old Testament is manifested in the New Testament. In the past, God only spoke some of His word partially (see v.1). However, all that He wants us to know are revealed in His Son.
3) Since God speaks to us by His Son, the object of our hearing shall not be men or things, but the word of Christ in everything (including the preachers, the Scriptures and the environment etc.).
4) No matter the Old Testament or the New Testament, we shall read the Christ in the Scriptures and obtain the provision of life through the fellowship with the Christ in the Scriptures (see John 5:39-40).
5) The words that the Lord Jesus has spoken unto us are spirits and are life (John 6:63). What is important is that the object word shall be transformed into subjective and transient words through the worship and receiving in spirit and truth. Otherwise, we will profit nothing (see John 4:23-24).
6) If we desire to have part in all the fullness of God, it does not depend on knowledge, but touching and knowing and manifesting the indwelling Christ, for in Christ dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily (Col. 2:9).
7) “God … spoken to us”, it shows that God takes men as the object of speaking and God pleases to have fellowship with men. Therefore, we shall cherish this precious status.
8) “God … has appointed heir of all things”, it points out that Christ is the center of God’s will and works. Once we have obtained Him, we have got value. Without Him, all is vanity.
9) All things were created by Christ. And Christ is the origin of all things. Once we have obtained Him, we have obtained everything. Without Him, we have nothing.
Heb. 1:3 “who being the brightness of His glory and the express image of His person, and upholding all things by the word of His power, when He had by Himself purged our sins, sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high,”
YLT: ”who being the brightness of the glory, and the impress of His subsistence, bearing up also the all things by the saying of his might -- through himself having made a cleansing of our sins, sat down at the right hand of the greatness in the highest,”
Meaning of Words: “glory”: honor, praise, dignity; “brightness”: radiance, an off-flash, efflugence; “person”: substance, essence; “image”: scratch, etching, sculptured figure, mark, graven; “word”: transient word (rhema); “uphold”: bear, bring forth, carry;
Literal Meaning: “who being the brightness of His glory”, “glory”: it is the revelation of God in the Scriptures (see Acts 7:2); “the brightness of His glory”, it means that He is the manifestation of God’s substance.
“And the express image of His person”, “express image”, it
in the original refers to the image stamped on the object is the same as that
in the seal; “the express image of His person”, it indicates that He is the
manifestation of God’s nature. Once men have seen Him, they have seen God (see
“And upholding all things by the word of His power”, “the word of His power”, it means that His
word carries authority and power; “uphold all things”: maintain, uphold and
promote all things (see
“When He had by Himself purged our sins”, the past perfect tense shows that it had fulfilled once and the effect endures for ever. “Purged”: through the blood of Him shedding on the cross (see Heb. 9:14);
“Sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high”, “sat down”: it is a posture of rest and enjoyment and waiting, which shows that He has completed His redemption work and waits from henceforth until his enemies be set footstool of his feet (see v.13; 10:13); “on high”: “the third heaven where God dwells” (see 2Cor. 12:2); “the Majesty”: God Himself (Titus 2:13; Heb. 8:1); “right hand” represents honor and power (see 1King. 2:19; Ps. 110:1; Titus 2:25, 34-35)
Enlightenment in the Word:
1) The beloved Son is the image of the
invisible God (
2) The Lord Jesus is the image that the nature of God has sealed and is the manifestation of the invisible God. The more we have known of Him, the more we will know about God. Man is unable to seek the way of knowing God outside of Christ.
3) All the celestial bodies are hung upon the outer space and move in certain orbits in perfect order. Apparently, they work under the action of universal gravitational forces. However, they work because of the “word” of the Son of God.
4) The word of the Lord is mighty and powerful. All those who draw the Lord’s word in faith will be enabled to enjoy the power in His word (see Luke 1:37).
5) All the sins before we have believed the Lord have been purged, and God will no more remember the sins and lawlessness of us in the past (Heb. 10:17).
6) We have to confess our sins committed after we have believed the Lord so that we will be forgiven and cleansed (1John 1:7, 9).
7) The great redemption of the Lord has been utterly “fulfilled” (John 19:30), leaving nothing to be further accomplished, so He sits down in the heaven. We shall also sit down in the heaven with Him (Eph. 2:6).
8) Christ does not sit down in the heaven doing nothing. He looks upon all those who are of Him in the heaven and sympathizes with our infirmities. Let us approach therefore with boldness to the throne of grace that we may receive mercy and find grace for seasonable help (Heb. 4:14-16).
9) Christ now is the mediator of the better covenant in the heaven (Heb. 8:1, 6). He is also able to save to the uttermost those who come to God through Him, since He always lives to make intercession for them (Heb. 7:22, 25).
Heb. 1:4 “having become so much better than the angels, as He has by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they.”
YLT: ”having become so much better than the messengers, as he did inherit a more excellent name than they.”
Meaning of Words: “more excellent”: surpassing; “better”: stronger, nobler;
The Background: “better than the angels”, the Jews revere the angels greatly, for they believe: 1) there were angels before all things were created (Job. 38:4-7); 2) the power of the angels far surpasses men in the world (2Pet. 2:11); 3) the angels will not die (Luke 20:36); 4) the angel is a spirit, and yet is also able to manifest in physical body (Heb. 13:2); 5) the angels minister unto God before Him (Dan. 7:10); 6) God gives the laws to the Jews through angels (Acts 7:51-53; Gal. 3:19); 7) God often preaches His word to the world through angels (Luke 1:26; Acts. 27:23).
Literal Meaning: “as He has by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they”, “by inheritance … name”, it refers to “the Son of God” (see v.2, 5). Sufficient explanation of it will be given in the following verses. The Jews pay very attention to names, and in the Scriptures names often represent the being and walking of a man (see 1Sam. 25:25). “They”: the name of the angels: ministers of God (see v.5-7); sons are certainly more honorable than servants.
“Having become so much better than the angels”, it is the comparison concerning name and person; “the Son of God”: it is the manifestation of God Himself. He has infinite divine power and is worthy of inheriting all things (see v.2-3). But the “angles” are ministering spirits (see v.14), who are unable to be compared with the Son of God.
Enlightenment in the Word:
1) Salvation is in none other, for neither is there another name under heaven which is given among men by which we must be saved (Acts 4:12).
2) The name of the Lord Jesus Christ is the name that is above every name (Phil. 2:9-11). We shall bow our knees and uphold this name together.
3) To those who call upon the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, Christ is ours (1Cor. 1:2), which means that He is rich towards and rewards Himself to all that call upon his name (Rom. 10:12) so that we shall enjoy the reality of the name.
4) Angels and we believers are both the servants of God. Therefore, we shall not worship angels, but worship God only (Rev. 22:8-9).
5) Though man of the flesh is inferior to the angels in strength (see Heb. 2:6-7), we believers are greater in person (see v.14). We shall judge angels in the future (1Cor. 6:3). Therefore, the worship of angels is false, and he that worships angels shall be deprived of prize (Col. 2:18).
6) We believers in the New Testament should not worship the angels, let alone those who are little inferior to the angels (Heb. 2:6-7). No matter how spiritual they are, or how worthy of honor they are, we shall in no wise uphold or obey them utterly.
Heb. 1:5 “For to which of the angels did He ever say: "You are My Son, Today I have begotten You"? And again: "I will be to Him a Father, And He shall be to Me a Son"?”
YLT: ”For to which of the messengers said He ever, `My Son thou art -- I to-day have begotten thee?' and again, `I will be to him for a father, and he shall be to Me for a son?'”
Literal Meaning: “for to which of the angels did He ever say:… And again:…”, this is the opposite word, which means God has never said anything like the follow word.
are My Son, Today I have begotten You"?” It is quoted from the Book of Psalm (2:7), which
especially relates to the resurrection of the Lord Jesus (Acts 13:33). His
death is for the purpose of purging our sins. And His resurrection shows that
God has accepted and confessed the value of His death so that those who believe
Him have obtained the sign of justification by God (see
“You are My Son”, it means that God not only confesses the relation of life with His Son but also appoints the sonship. The former shows that all that God the Father “is” have dwelt in Christ (Col. 2:8-9), so He is the manifestation of God the Father (John 1:18). And the latter indicates that Christ is qualified to inherit all “that God the Father has” (see v.2; John 3:35; 13:3).
“Today I have begotten You”, it means that Christ was marked out the Son of
“"I will be to Him a Father, And He shall be to Me a Son"?” It is quoted from the Second Book of Samuel (7:14), which indicates that the Lord Jesus has already received by God (see 2Cor. 6:17-18) and has established the “Father - Son” relationship with God: 1) all that Christ “is” is out of God the Father; 2) all that Christ “has” is inherited from God the Father; 3) all that Christ “has done” is according to the will of God the Father.
Enlightenment in the Word:
1) Christ was marked out the Son of God by resurrection. Now the life of God is in the Son of God. He that has the Son has life, and he who does not have the Son of God does not have life (1John 5:11-12).
2) Christ is raised from the dead, thus also in the Christ all shall be made alive (1Cor. 15:20-22). We are not those who have hope in this life (see 1Cor. 15:19; 1Thess. 4:13). Therefore, we shall look up and life up our heads to embrace the second coming of the Lord (Luke 21:28).
3) To those who are separated them from the world and unto God, the God Almighty will say, “I will be a Father to you and you shall be to me for sons and daughters” (2Cor. 6:17-18). May we grasp this precious promise to lead a separated life and enjoy the full provision of God.
Heb. 1:6 “But when He again brings the firstborn into the world, He says: "Let all the angels of God worship Him."”
YLT: ”and when again He may bring in the first-born to the world, He saith, `And let them bow before him -- all messengers of God;'”
Meaning of Words: “the world”: habitable world;
Literal Meaning: “but when He again brings the firstborn into the world”, it is an indirect quotation of the Book of Psalm (97:7), which suggests that Jesus Christ is the Messiah whom the Jews wait for. And the psalm ninety seven does not describe his first coming, but second coming.
“The firstborn”: it is the status of the Lord Jesus after resurrection.
He was the only begotten Son of God (John 1:18). Moreover, all those that
believe Him have become the sons of God (John 20:17) because of the
resurrection of Christ, so He is called firstborn (Rom. 8:29). “The firstborn”
here contains a meaning of surpassing status. He is not only the “firstborn” of
the old creation (Col. 1:15) but also the firstborn of the new creation (
“The world”, it refers to the environment that human beings inhabit.
This verse unveils that Christ will come upon the world in His second coming on the position of the firstborn of God. Then He will receive all the sons of God to the “assembly of the firstborn registered” in heaven (see Heb. 12:23).
“He says: "Let all the angels of God worship Him."” “All”, it is not the worship when the Lord first came to the world (Luke 2:9-14), not the worship of the angels when he was raised up, but the worship of the angels when He comes again (Ps. 97:7).
Enlightenment in the Word:
1) He is the firstborn, and will bring many sons to glory (Heb. 2:10). We shall walk in Him today (Col. 2:6) and go on to full growth (Heb. 6:1).
2) We worship the Lord on account of the revelation and knowledge of His surpassing person. Everyone who has really known the greatness of the Lord will doubtlessly give his true worship (see Matt. 2:11; John 20:27-29).
3) All those who know Christ is the Almighty God and thus worship Him will fulfill the works of God through His Almightiness.
Heb. 1:7 “And of the angels He says: "Who makes His angels spirits And His ministers a flame of fire."”
YLT: ”and unto the messengers, indeed, He saith, `Who is making His messengers spirits, and His ministers a flame of fire;'”
Meaning of Words: “spirits”: breath;
Literal Meaning: “and of the angels He says: "Who makes His angels spirits”, this verse quotes from the Book of Psalm (104:4). “Spirits” have two aspects of meaning: 1) the angels are merely creature that can not be compared with the Lord who creates; 2) the angels move as swiftly as breath.
“And His ministers a flame of fire”, “fire” indicates that the ministry of the angels is being ordered to execute the judgment of God (Is. 66:15-16) and to protect those who are of God (2King 6:17).
Enlightenment in the Word:
1) Though the breath and fire are terrible and fearful when executing their duty, they are under the government of God. We servants of God should absolutely obey the commandments of God instead of walking presumptuously.
2) The servants of the Lord shall be as swift and powerful as breath, and be as bright and shining as the flame of fire.
3) The servants of the Lord shall also move by hidden ways as breath ---- leaving no reputation or position for them, and as fervent as fire ---- in spirit fervent, serving the Lord (Rom.12:11).
Heb. 1:8 “But to the Son He says: "Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom.”
YLT: ”and unto the Son: `Thy throne, O God, to the age of the age; a scepter of righteousness the scepter of thy reign;”
Literal Meaning: “but to the Son He says: … O God”, it indicates that the Son is God.
“Your throne … is forever and ever”, it is quoted from the Book of Psalm (45:6). “Your”: that of the Son of God; “throne” represents reigning power; “forever and ever”: never change or move (see v.11-12);
It mentions the position of Christ in the kingdom ---- He sits down and reigns on the throne.
“A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom.” “Scepter”, the word originally refers to the token of the ruler of a country, and then it relates to the principles and guidelines of running a country; “righteousness”, it is opposite to guile or perversity, containing the meaning of integrity and honesty.
Enlightenment in the Word:
1) God had delivered us from the authority of
darkness, and translated into the kingdom of the Son of his love (Col. 1:13).
And we are fellow-partakers in the
2) “The throne of the Lord is for ever and ever”. The kingdom that we have received from Him cannot be shaken. Therefore, let us be grateful and serve God acceptably with reverence and fear (Heb. 12:28).
3) Christ reigns in our spirits forever and ever, so His power is also endless and never decreases. Therefore, we shall draw His great power by faith at any time.
4) “A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of the Lord”. All those who desire to please Him in His kingdom shall prepare them the way of the Lord and make straight His paths (Matt. 3:3).
5) Who walks in integrity shall be saved. But he that is perverted in double ways shall fall in one (Pro. 28:18).
Heb. 1:9 “You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness; Therefore God, Your God, has anointed You With the oil of gladness more than Your companions."”
YLT: ”thou didst love righteousness, and didst hate lawlessness; because of this did He anoint thee -- God, thy God -- with oil of gladness above thy partners;'”
The Background: “the oil of gladness”, in the Old Testament, when the servants fulfill their ministry, they will receive the anointment of the oil. This is a joyful occasion. Therefore, the oil that is anointed is called “oil of gladness”.
Literal Meaning: “you have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness”, the word is quoted from the Book of Psalm (45:7). “You” refers to the Son of God (see v.8); “righteousness”: justice, integrity; “lawlessness”, not be governed by the law;
“Therefore God, Your God”, it indicates that your works are totally according to the will of God. Therefore, God is happy to confirm that your ministry is out of Him.
“Has anointed You With the oil of gladness”, it indicates that God approves His Son’s works with a joyful heart.
“More than Your companions”, “companions” here refer to the angels. Though the angels have not been anointed, since the following verses mention the comparison between the Son of God and the angles, here it unveils that the Son of God is greater than the angels.
Enlightenment in the Word:
1) Our Lord is a just and righteous God. He takes delight in righteousness and hates lawlessness. Therefore, we shall walk in integrity and pursue holiness so as to please God.
2) There is no acceptance of persons with God. Therefore, all those who are of Him shall not be with respect of persons (James 2:1).
3) He will reign in our hearts and remove all sins and uncleanness so that we shall enjoy heavenly peace and joy.
5) The Holy Spirit is God’s “oil of gladness”. God will grant the Spirit (Acts 2:33) to those who trust in Him so that they will be filled with joy because of the oil of gladness (see Is. 61:3).
Heb. 1:10 “And: "You, LORD, in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth, And the heavens are the work of Your hands.”
YLT: ”and, `Thou, at the beginning, Lord, the earth didst found, and a work of thy hands are the heavens;”
Literal Meaning: “and: "You, LORD, in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth”, it is quoted from the Book of Psalm (102:25), “the beginning”: the beginning of time; “the foundation of the earth”, it refers to “creation”. In many scriptures of the Old Testament, it is used as a synonym of “creation” (Job. 38:4; Ps. 89:11; 104:5; Pro. 8:29; Is. 48:13; 51:13, 16; Zech. 12:1).
“And the heavens are the work of Your hands.” “Heavens” and the earth refer to all creation.
Enlightenment in the Word:
1) He stretches out the heavens, and lays the foundation of the earth and forms the spirit of man within him (Zech. 12:1). The heavens are for the earth, and the earth is for men. Therefore, men are the central purpose of all creation.
2) The heavens declare the glory of God. And the expanse shows the work of his hands. Through the things that are made, both God’s eternal power and divinity can be understood (Rom. 1:20).
Heb. 1:11 “They will perish, but You remain; And they will all grow old like a garment;”
YLT: ”these shall perish, and Thou dost remain, and all, as a garment, shall become old,”
Meaning of Words: “perish”: die, lose, destroy fully; “remain”: stay constantly;
Literal Meaning: “they will perish”, the words in this verse are quoted from the Book of Psalm (Ps. 102:26). Here, it indicates that the heavens and the earth will be dissolved (2Pet. 3:10) and unable to remain.
“But You remain”, “You”: the Son of God; “remain”: exist forever;
“Ant they will all grow old like a garment”, “like a garment”, it suggests that the heavens and the earth exist for the purpose of human existence (see Zech. 12:1), for garments are one of the necessities of men’s existence. “Grow old”, it includes natural obsolescence and artificial consumption, showing that the value of the existence and usage gradually decreases and shall be done away.
Enlightenment in the Word:
1) Our eyes shall be focused on what is incorruptible, but not pursue what is corruptible (see Matt. 6:19-20).
2) All things are growing old and corruptible
and even our old men corrupt gradually (Eph. 4:22). Only the old man will be
gradually renewed according to the image of him that has created him (
Heb. 1:12 “Like a cloak You will fold them up, And they will be changed. But You are the same, And Your years will not fail."”
YLT: ”and as a mantle Thou shall roll them together, and they shall be changed, and Thou art the same, and Thy years shall not fail.'”
Literal Meaning: “like a cloak You will fold them up”, it is quoted from the Book of Psalm (102:26b-27). “Cloak”, it can be folded up when it is unnecessary.
“And they will be changed”. “they”, according to the Scriptures, the heavens and the earth will be dissolved by fire (2Pet. 3:10-12). The old heavens and the earth will pass away, and the new heavens and the earth will appear before us (Rev. 21:1; 2Pet. 3:13).
“And Your years will not fail."” It means that your years always endure forever and ever.
Enlightenment in the Word:
1) All things in the world are changing, and even the heavens and the earth will be changed. Nothing is worthy of our pursuit or reliance with whole heart.
2) Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, and today, and to the ages (Heb. 13:8). Therefore, we shall hold fast Him and His words instead of being drawn by anyone or any doctrine to follow them (Heb. 13:9; Eph. 4:14).
Heb. 1:13 “But to which of the angels has He ever said: "Sit at My right hand, Till I make Your enemies Your footstool"?”
YLT: ”And unto which of the messengers said He ever, `Sit at My right hand, till I may make thine enemies thy footstool?'”
Literal Meaning: “but to which of the angels has He ever said”, “to which has He ever said”, it has been mentioned thrice in this chapter, which indicates the angels are absolutely unable to be compared with Christ.
“Sit at My right hand, Till I make Your enemies Your footstool"?” It is quoted from the Book of Psalm (110:1). It carries the following four aspects of meaning: 1) He has already accomplished the great redemption with nothing left for us to fulfill (see v.3); 2) He is now rest on the praise and upholding of God; 3) however, such rest is still not perfect, for God has not made His enemies His footstool; 4) the time of God has not come yet. Though the enemy’s head is crushed (see Gen. 3:15), it has still not been totally destroyed.
Enlightenment in the Word:
1) Since the redemption of the Lord Jesus Christ has already completed, we need only enjoy the fruit of His works at rest rather than be made perfect by the flesh (Gal. 3:1-4).
2) Though the enemy Satan is rampant, it will undoubtedly end in failure. Therefore, we resist the devil with steadfast faith, he will flee from us (1Pet. 5:9; James 4:7).
Heb. 1:14 “Are they not all ministering spirits sent forth to minister for those who will inherit salvation?”
YLT: ”are they not all spirits of service -- for ministration being sent forth because of those about to inherit salvation?”
Literal Meaning: “are they not all ministering spirits”, “ministering”, it means the ministration as the servant to the master.
“Sent forth to minister for those who will inherit salvation”, “those who will inherit salvation”: we believers; the angels are sent forth to serve believers (see Acts 12:7-11, 15).
Enlightenment in the Word:
1) The position of believers is higher than the angels. Today, we are served and protected by the angels, and we will judge the angels in the future (1Cor. 6:3).
2) Today, we believers are viewed by the angels (see 1Cor. 4:9; 11:10), so we shall have good performance for the sake of the angels.
III. Outlines of the Spiritual Lessons
Two Phases of God’s Revelation
A. In time past (v.1):
1. By the prophets ---- the servants of God;
2. At various times and in various ways ---- many parts and many ways;
3. Spoke to the fathers ---- the elect of God in the past generations;
B. In these last days (v
1. By his Son ---- the only medium;
2. Has spoken to us ---- those whom He has saved;
Seven Things of the Son of God
A. He has the closest relationship with God ---- the Son (v.1-2, 5, 8);
B. His word is powerful (v.3);
C. His name is exceedingly honorable (v.4);
D. His throne is forever and ever (v
E. A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of His kingdom (v
F. His person never changes (v.11);
G. His overcomes the enemies completely (v.13);
The Son of God is the Full Manifestation of God
A. The Son of God is the substantiating and manifestation of God’s full thought:
1. The way of the Old Testament is passed (v.1).
2. The ultimate revelation of God is through
His Son ---- the full Christ (v
B. Christ is the only answer to all things according to the eternal will of God:
1. Christ is the origin of all things (v
2. Christ is the conclusion of all things (v.2b).
3. Christ is the premise of the existence of all things (v.3b).
C. Christ is God Himself:
1. Christ is the true expression of God’s
2. Christ is the manifestation of God (v.3b).
3. Christ has completed the redemption and has
been exalted in glory (v
Prophet and Priest and King
A. The Son of God is a prophet ---- God has spoken to us by Him (v.1-2):
1. He is the One who completely reveals God.
2. In the past, He was the creator of the worlds.
3. At present, He is the sustainer of all things.
4. In the future, He is the heir of all things.
B. The Son of God is a priest ---- He purged our sins, sat down … (v.3);
1. He is the effective sacrifice ---- purge our sins;
2. His perfect works ---- sat down;
3. His honorable position ---- at the right hand of the Majesty on high (v.8)
C. The Son of God is a king ---- Your throne is forever and ever (v.8);
1. He is the ruler of the eternal kingdom.
2. He is the ruler of righteousness and justice.
The Honorable Person of the Son of God
A. His relationship with all things:
1. He is the heir of all things (v.2b);
2. He made the worlds (v
3. He upholds all things (v.3b);
B. His relationship with God the Father:
1. He is the brightness of His glory (v
2. He is the express image of His person (v.3b);
C. His relationship with believers:
1. He is the Savior who purged our sins (v.3b);
2. He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high ---- our mediator in the heavens (v.3b; see 8:1, 6);
Christ from Eternity to Eternity
A. In the past eternity:
1. He is God (v
2. He is the creator (v
B. In the time:
1. He had been incarnated and had fulfilled the redemption on the cross (v.3b).
2. He was raised up (v.5) and has ascended into the heavens (v3b).
3. God spoke to us through Him (v
4. He upheld all things (v.3b).
5. He will come again (v.6).
6. He will establish His kingdom and sit as king for ever and make the enemies His footstool (v.8-9, 13).
C. In the coming eternity:
1. His throne is forever and ever (v.8).
2. He will never be changed and His years will not fail (v.12).
The Son of God is More Excellent than the Angels
A. A more honorable name (v.4);
B. A more intimate relationship ---- begotten by God (v.5);
C. A higher position:
1. The angels worship Him (v.6);
2. The angels serve Him (v.7);
D. Own more scepter:
1. His throne is forever and ever (v
2. The scepter of righteousness is the scepter of His kingdom (v.8b-9);
E. Own the creating power (v.10);
F. Own the changeless and eternal divinity (v.11-12);
G. Own the glory of victory (v.13);
H. The angels are sent forth to minister for those whom the Son of God has saved (v.14);
Christ is the Vision
A. The honorable name of the Son of God is more excellent than the names of the angels (v.4).
B. The Son of God is more excellent than the angels (v.5).
C. The Son of God will come again and receive the worship of the angels (v.6).
D. The Son of God is more excellent than the angels because of the anointment and the inheriting of God’s kingdom:
1. The Son of God receives the service of the angels (v.7).
2. The throne of the Son of God is forever and ever (v.8).
3. The scepter of the Son of God is righteous
4. God gives His Son infinite Spirit to overcome His companions (v.9b).
I. The Son of God is more excellent than the angels:
1. The Son of God is the creator of all things (v.10);
2. The Son of God remains forever (v.11);
3. The Son of God shall remove the old and renew (v.12);
J. The Son of God is more excellent than the angels:
1. The Son of God has overcome the enemies and sits down in the heavens on high (v.13);
2. The Son of God sends forth to minister for those who will inherit salvation (v.14);
The Comparisons between the Son of God and the Angels
A. Concerning the person ---- He is the Son, the angels are ministers (v.4-5);
B. Concerning the worship ---- He is the One who receives the worship, the angels shall worship Him (v.6);
C. Concerning the authority ---- He is the ruler, the angels are ministers who are sent by God (v.7-9);
D. Concerning the creation ---- He is the creator, the angels are created beings (v.10-12);
E. Concerning the war ---- He is the One who overcomes, and the angels are those who minister for believers (v.13-14);
A More Honorable Name
A. The Son (v.5);
B. The firstborn (v.6);
C. God (v.8);
D. The Lord (v.10);
── Caleb Huang《Christian Digest Bible Commentary Series》
Translated by Mary Zhou