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James Chapter Four


James 4

In all that follows we have still the judgment of unbridled nature, of will in its different forms: contentions that arise from the lusts of the natural heart; request made to God proceeding from the same source; the desires of the flesh and of the mind developing themselves and finding their sphere in the friendship of the world, which is thus enmity against God. The nature of man covets enviously, is full of envy with regard to others. But God gives more grace: there is counteracting power, if one is content to be little and humble, to be as nothing in the world. The grace and favour of God are with such an one; for He resists the proud and gives grace to the humble. Upon this, the apostle unfolds the action of a soul directed by the Spirit of God, in the midst of the unbelieving and selfish multitude with whom it was associated. (V 6-10) For he still supposes the believers whom he addressed to be in connection with the law. If they spoke evil of their brother, to whom the law gave a place before God, they spoke evil of the law, [1] according to which his value was so great. Judgment belonged to God, who had given the law, and who would vindicate His own authority as well as grant deliverance and salvation.

Verses 13-16. The same self-will and forgetfulness of God are blamed, the false confidence that flows from reckoning upon being able to do as one pleases-the absence of dependence on God. Verse 17 is a general conclusion, founded on the principle already suggested (chapter 3:1), and on that which is said with regard to faith. The knowledge of good, without its practice, causes even the absence of the work which one could have performed to be a positive sin. The action of the new man is absent, that of the old man is present; for the good is before our eyes--we know what we ought to do, and do not choose to do it; there is no inclination to do it-we will not do it.


[1] Compare 1 Thessalonians 4:8 where the Spirit takes the place of the law here.

── John DarbySynopsis of James


James 4

Chapter Contents

Here are cautions against corrupt affections, and love of this world, which is enmity to God. (1-10) Exhortations to undertake no affairs of life, without constant regard to the will and providence of God. (11-17)

Commentary on James 4:1-10

(Read James 4:1-10)

Since all wars and fightings come from the corruptions of our own hearts, it is right to mortify those lusts that war in the members. Wordly and fleshly lusts are distempers, which will not allow content or satisfaction. Sinful desires and affections stop prayer, and the working of our desires toward God. And let us beware that we do not abuse or misuse the mercies received, by the disposition of the heart when prayers are granted When men ask of God prosperity, they often ask with wrong aims and intentions. If we thus seek the things of this world, it is just in God to deny them. Unbelieving and cold desires beg denials; and we may be sure that when prayers are rather the language of lusts than of graces, they will return empty. Here is a decided warning to avoid all criminal friendships with this world. Worldly-mindedness is enmity to God. An enemy may be reconciled, but "enmity" never can be reconciled. A man may have a large portion in things of this life, and yet be kept in the love of God; but he who sets his heart upon the world, who will conform to it rather than lose its friendship, is an enemy to God. So that any one who resolves at all events to be upon friendly terms with the world, must be the enemy of God. Did then the Jews, or the loose professors of Christianity, think the Scripture spake in vain against this worldly-mindedness? or does the Holy Spirit who dwells in all Christians, or the new nature which he creates, produce such fruit? Natural corruption shows itself by envying. The spirit of the world teaches us to lay up, or lay out for ourselves, according to our own fancies; God the Holy Spirit teaches us to be willing to do good to all about us, as we are able. The grace of God will correct and cure the spirit by nature in us; and where he gives grace, he gives another spirit than that of the world. The proud resist God: in their understanding they resist the truths of God; in their will they resist the laws of God; in their passions they resist the providence of God; therefore, no wonder that God resists the proud. How wretched the state of those who make God their enemy! God will give more grace to the humble, because they see their need of it, pray for it are thankful for it, and such shall have it. Submit to God, verse 7. Submit your understanding to the truth of God; submit your wills to the will of his precept, the will of his providence. Submit yourselves to God, for he is ready to do you good. If we yield to temptations, the devil will continually follow us; but if we put on the whole armour of God, and stand out against him, he will leave us. Let sinners then submit to God, and seek his grace and favour; resisting the devil. All sin must be wept over; here, in godly sorrow, or, hereafter, in eternal misery. And the Lord will not refuse to comfort one who really mourns for sin, or to exalt one who humbles himself before him.

Commentary on James 4:11-17

(Read James 4:11-17)

Our lips must be governed by the law of kindness, as well as truth and justice. Christians are brethren. And to break God's commands, is to speak evil of them, and to judge them, as if they laid too great a restraint upon us. We have the law of God, which is a rule to all; let us not presume to set up our own notions and opinions as a rule to those about us, and let us be careful that we be not condemned of the Lord. "Go to now," is a call to any one to consider his conduct as being wrong. How apt worldly and contriving men are to leave God out of their plans! How vain it is to look for any thing good without God's blessing and guidance! The frailty, shortness, and uncertainty of life, ought to check the vanity and presumptuous confidence of all projects for futurity. We can fix the hour and minute of the sun's rising and setting to-morrow, but we cannot fix the certain time of a vapour being scattered. So short, unreal, and fading is human life, and all the prosperity or enjoyment that attends it; though bliss or woe for ever must be according to our conduct during this fleeting moment. We are always to depend on the will of God. Our times are not in our own hands, but at the disposal of God. Our heads may be filled with cares and contrivances for ourselves, or our families, or our friends; but Providence often throws our plans into confusion. All we design, and all we do, should be with submissive dependence on God. It is foolish, and it is hurtful, to boast of worldly things and aspiring projects; it will bring great disappointment, and will prove destruction in the end. Omissions are sins which will be brought into judgment, as well as commissions. He that does not the good he knows should be done, as well as he who does the evil he knows should not be done, will be condemned. Oh that we were as careful not to omit prayer, and not to neglect to meditate and examine our consciences, as we are not to commit gross outward vices against light!

── Matthew HenryConcise Commentary on James


James 4

Verse 1

[1] From whence come wars and fightings among you? come they not hence, even of your lusts that war in your members?

From whence come wars and fightings — Quarrels and wars among you, quite opposite to this peace? Is it not from your pleasures - Your desires of earthly pleasures.

Which war — Against your souls.

In your members — Here is the first seat of the war. Hence proceeds the war of man with man, king with king, nation with nation.

Verse 2

[2] Ye lust, and have not: ye kill, and desire to have, and cannot obtain: ye fight and war, yet ye have not, because ye ask not.

Ye kill — In your heart, for "he that hateth his brother is a murderer." Ye fight and war - That is, furiously strive and contend.

Ye ask not — And no marvel; for a man full of evil desire, of envy or hatred, cannot pray.

Verse 3

[3] Ye ask, and receive not, because ye ask amiss, that ye may consume it upon your lusts.

But if ye do ask, ye receive not, because ye ask amiss - That is, from a wrong motive.

Verse 4

[4] Ye adulterers and adulteresses, know ye not that the friendship of the world is enmity with God? whosoever therefore will be a friend of the world is the enemy of God.

Ye adulterers and adulteresses — Who have broken your faith with God, your rightful spouse. Know ye not that the friendship or love of the world - The desire of the flesh, the desire of the eye, and the pride of life, or courting the favour of worldly men, is enmity against God? Whosoever desireth to be a friend of the world - Whosoever seeks either the happiness or favour of it, does thereby constitute himself an enemy of God; and can he expect to obtain anything of him?

Verse 5

[5] Do ye think that the scripture saith in vain, The spirit that dwelleth in us lusteth to envy

Do you think that the scripture saith in vain — Without good ground. St. James seems to refer to many, not any one particular scripture. The spirit of love that dwelleth in all believers lusteth against envy - Galatians 5:17; is directly opposite to all those unloving tempers which necessarily flow from the friendship of the world.

Verse 6

[6] But he giveth more grace. Wherefore he saith, God resisteth the proud, but giveth grace unto the humble.

But he giveth greater grace — To all who shun those tempers.

Therefore it — The scripture.

Saith, God resisteth the proud — And pride is the great root of all unkind affections. Proverbs 3:34

Verse 7

[7] Submit yourselves therefore to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you.

Therefore by humbly submitting yourselves to God, resist the devil - The father of pride and envy.

Verse 8

[8] Draw nigh to God, and he will draw nigh to you. Cleanse your hands, ye sinners; and purify your hearts, ye double minded.

Then draw nigh to God in prayer, and he will draw nigh unto you, will hear you; which that nothing may hinder, cleanse your hands - Cease from doing evil.

And purify your hearts — From all spiritual adultery. Be no more double minded, vainly endeavouring to serve both God and mammon.

Verse 9

[9] Be afflicted, and mourn, and weep: let your laughter be turned to mourning, and your joy to heaviness.

Be afflicted — For your past unfaithfulness to God.

Verse 11

[11] Speak not evil one of another, brethren. He that speaketh evil of his brother, and judgeth his brother, speaketh evil of the law, and judgeth the law: but if thou judge the law, thou art not a doer of the law, but a judge.

Speak not evil one of another — This is a grand hinderance of peace. O who is sufficiently aware of it! He that speaketh evil of another does in effect speak evil of the law, which so strongly prohibits it.

Thou art not a doer of the law, but a judge — Of it; thou settest thyself above, and as it were condemnest, it.

Verse 12

[12] There is one lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy: who art thou that judgest another?

There is one lawgiver that is able — To execute the sentence he denounces.

But who art thou — A poor, weak, dying worm.

Verse 13

[13] Go to now, ye that say, To day or to morrow we will go into such a city, and continue there a year, and buy and sell, and get gain:

Come now, ye that say — As peremptorily as if your life were in your own hands.

Verse 15

[15] For that ye ought to say, If the Lord will, we shall live, and do this, or that.

Instead of your saying — That is, whereas ye ought to say.

Verse 17

[17] Therefore to him that knoweth to do good, and doeth it not, to him it is sin.

Therefore to him that knoweth to do good and doeth it not — That knows what is right, and does not practise it.

To him it is sin — This knowledge does not prevent, but increase, his condemnation.

── John WesleyExplanatory Notes on James


Chapter 4. Knowledge and Action

Do Not Have When You Do Not Ask
Do Not Receive When You Ask

I. Three Enemies of Believers

  1. The Battle of Desires
  2. Friendship with the World
  3. Resist the Devil

II. Slander One Another

  1. From the Viewpoint of Brothers
  2. From the Viewpoint of the Law
  3. From the Viewpoint of Authority

III. Knowing Yet Not Doing Is Sin

  1. Take Liberties
  2. Plan about Tomorrow
  3. Boast and Brag

── Chih-Hsin ChangAn Outline of The New Testament

Chapter Four General Review
1) To gain insight into the source of wars and fighting, even among
2) To see the importance and means of befriending God, of not speaking
   evil of brethren, and planning for the future with the Lord's will
   in mind
James asks his readers to consider the source of wars and fights among
themselves.  He identifies the problem as their own desires for
pleasure which war within themselves.  Perhaps exaggerating for the
sake of emphasis, he describes their lust and coveting (even murder!)
for things they do not have and cannot obtain.  It renders their 
prayers fruitless, for they have selfish motives in mind.  Sounding 
like an Old Testament prophet, James charges them with adultery for 
trying to befriend the world.  Becoming a friend of the world leads to
enmity with God, who jealously desires us.  But if they are willing to
humble themselves, God is willing to show more grace (1-6).
James therefore counsels them to draw near to God in humble submission,
with clean hands, purity of heart, and true contrition.  He warns
against speaking evil of brethren and judging one another, lest they
become judges and not doers of the law.  The chapter ends with a call
to make plans with the Lord's will in mind, for we have no idea what
the morrow holds and life is short. Otherwise we boast in our arrogance
and sin when we fail to do what we know is good (7-17).
      1. From within, from desires that war in one's members
      2. Such as lust (envy), murder (hate?), coveting, which do not
         give what one seeks
      3. Leading to unanswered prayers, due to selfishness
      1. Whoever wants to be a friend of the world becomes an enemy of
      2. Even as the Scripture warns, and not in vain
      3. While God resists the proud, He is willing to give grace to
         the humble
      1. Submit to God, resist the devil and he will flee
      2. Draw near to God and He will draw near to you
         a. Cleanse your hands, sinners
         b. Purify your hearts, double-minded
         c. Mourn and weep for your sins
         d. Humble yourself before God, and He will lift you up
      3. Let God be the Lawgiver and Judge
         a. Do not speak evil of one another and judge one another
            1) Otherwise you speak evil of the law and judge the law
            2) Otherwise you are not a doer of the law, but a judge
         b. When there is really only one Lawgiver who is able to save
            and destroy
      1. We should be careful in making plans for the future
         a. We do not know what will happen tomorrow
         b. Life is but a vapor that appears for a little while and
            then vanishes
      2. Therefore we should acknowledge "If the Lord wills" in our 
         a. Otherwise we boast in arrogance, which is evil
         b. For one to know to do good and not do it, that is sin
1) What are the main points of this chapter?
   - True religion does not befriend the world (1-6)
   - True religion draws near to God (7-17)
2) Where do wars and fights find their origin? (1-2)
   - Our desires for pleasure that war in our members
   - Lusting and coveting for things we do not have and cannot obtain
3) Why do some not receive what they ask for? (3)
   - They ask for the wrong reason, e.g., for personal pleasures
4) What does James call those who would be a friend of the world? (4)
   - Adulterers and adulteresses
   - An enemy of God
5) What possible translations for the Scripture quoted in verse 5?
   - "The Spirit who dwells in us yearns jealously" (NKJV)
   - "The spirit that dwelleth in us lusteth to envy" (KJV)
   - "the spirit he caused to live in us envies intensely" (NIV)
   - "He jealously desires the Spirit which He has made to dwell in us"
6) Whom does God resist?  To whom does He give more grace? (6)
   - The proud
   - The humble
7) What counsel does James give to those tempted by the world? (7-10)
   - Submit to God
   - Resist the devil and he will flee from you
   - Draw near to God and He will draw near to you
   - Cleanse your hands
   - Purify your hearts
   - Lament, mourn, and weep
   - Let your laughter be turned to mourning and your joy to gloom
   - Humble yourselves in the sight of the Lord and He will lift you up
8) Why should one not speak evil of a brother? (11)
   - They then speak evil of the law and judge the law
   - They become a judge, rather than a doer of the law
9) What other reasons does James give for not judging one another? (12)
   - There is one Lawgiver who is able to save and destroy
   - Who are we to judge another?
10) Why should we be careful about the plans we make? (13-14)
   - We do not know what will happen tomorrow
   - Our life is only a vapor that appears for a short while
11) With what qualification can one make plans for the future? (15)
   - If the Lord wills
12) Of what is one guilty when plans are made without considering the
    Lord's will? (16)
   - Boasting in one's arrogance
13) Of what is one guilty if they know what is good, but fail to do it?
   - Sin
How To End Wars (4:1-12)
1. Have you ever heard of:
   a. "The War of the Whiskers?"
   b. "The War of the Oaken Bucket?"
   c. "The War of Jenkin's Ear?"
   -- These were actual wars fought between nations, and you can read
      about them in many history books
2. War is too often a fact of life in spite of treaties, world peace
   organizations, and even the threat of nuclear weapons
   a. Not only wars between nations
   b. But there are wars of one kind or another on almost every level of
      life - even "gas wars" between gas stations!
3. In our text, we find James discussing this important theme of "War"
   a. He describes three types of wars going on in the world
   b. He also tells how these wars can be stopped
[For example, there is...]
      1. Surely "brethren" ought to live together in love and harmony
         - cf. Ps 133:1
      2. Yet often they do not
         a. Lot quarreled with Abraham
         b. Absalom created a war with his father David
         c. The disciples of Jesus argued over who would be greatest
         d. Paul and Barnabas had great contention over John Mark
      3. Even churches in the New Testament often had problems...
         a. At CORINTH
            1) Brethren were suing each other
            2) They were competing in the public assemblies
         b. In GALATIA - brethren were "biting and devouring" one 
         c. Even at PHILIPPI - two women were having trouble getting
            along with each other
      1. Class wars - 2:1-9
      2. Employment wars - 5:1-6
      3. Church fights - 1:19-20; 3:13-18
      4. Personal wars
         a. Notice 4:11-12
         b. Where we are admonished not to speak evil of one another,
            nor to judge (condemn) one another
[And so, we can easily be at war with one another.  WHY?  James begins
to answer this question by explaining a second war that is going on...]
      1. It is the "war in the heart" that causes the wars in the church
         and elsewhere!
      2. Our desire for things to satisfy our pleasures (like power,
         possessions, etc.) is what makes us fight with others
      3. Putting it simply, the key problem is "SELFISHNESS"
      1. Wrong Actions (2)
         a. "you murder...you fight and war"
         b. Perhaps not literally, but certainly so in God's sight - cf.
            1 Jn 3:15
      2. Wrong Praying (3)
         a. The kind of praying that goes unanswered
         b. Because the prayers are for selfish motives
[This is why people are often at war with one another.  Every war or
angry disagreement has people who are first at war within themselves!
Why is this so?  Why are people at war within themselves?  Once again,
James gives us the answer when he describes another war that is going
      1. Rebellion against God!
      2. In some way...
         a. ...those at war with others...
         b. ...are also at war within themselves...
         c. ...because they are first at war with God!
      1. By being friendly with God's enemies!
      2. James mentions three enemies we must not fraternize with if we
         want to be at peace with God:
         a. The World (4)
            1) That is, human society that is contrary to God
               a) Any conduct, belief, thought...
               b) ...which is anti-God, anti-Christ
            2) To be a friend of such...
               a) Makes one an enemy of God!
               b) Makes one a spiritual adulterer or adulteress!
         b. The Flesh (1,5)
            1) The unlawful desires that would lead us away from God
            2) These desires wage war within us, but we must not give
               in to them - cf. 1 Pe 2:11
            3) Such desires are in direct conflict to what the Spirit of
               God would have us to be and do - cf. 4:5; Ga 5:16-26
            4) To submit to these unlawful desires (works) of the flesh
               sets one contrary to God and His Spirit!
         c. The Devil (6-7)
            1) Pride is Satan's greatest temptation
            2) When we give into pride, we become friends of the devil
               and enemies of God - 4:6
      1. Submit To God (7)
         a. Literally, "get into your proper rank"
         b. When a buck private acts like the general, there is going
            to be trouble!
         c. Unconditional surrender to God is the only way to victory!
         d. Submission is saying: "Not my will, but Thine be done"
      2. Resist The Devil (7)
         a. He is behind every war that we have
         b. But if we just resist, then he will flee!
      3. Draw Near To God (8)
         a. And He will draw near to us!
         b. How do we do this?
            1) "Cleanse your hands" - Get your sins forgiven!
            2) "Purify your hearts" - Be single-minded in your devotion
               to God! (not double-minded, like a spiritual adulterer)
      4. Humble Yourselves In The Sight Of God (9-10)
         a. It's possible to submit outwardly and not be humble inwardly
         b. True mourning for our sins (cf. 4:9) is how we can humble
            ourselves before God
         c. The end result of such humility?  God will lift you up!
            - 4:10
1. If we obey these four instructions, then God will draw near to us,
   cleanse us, and forgive us!
   a. For we will not be at war with God
   b. So we will not be at war within ourselves
   c. And we will not be at war with others!
3. As Solomon wrote in the Book of Proverbs:
   When a man's ways please the LORD, he maketh even his enemies to be
   at peace with him. (Proverbs 16:7)
Are we diligent in making sure our ways are pleasing to the Lord?
Note:  Much of the material for this outline was adapted heavily
from The Bible Exposition Commentary, Volume 2, by Warren W. Wiersbe,
pages 366-370.


Making Our Plans (4:13-17)
1. In the text for this study, James discusses the subject of making
   13 Go to now, ye that say, To day or to morrow we will go into such
   a city, and continue there a year, and buy and sell, and get gain:
   14 Whereas ye know not what [shall be] on the morrow. For what [is]
   your life? It is even a vapour, that appeareth for a little time,
   and then vanisheth away. 15  For that ye [ought] to say, If the Lord
   will, we shall live, and do this, or that. 16  But now ye rejoice in
   your boastings: all such rejoicing is evil. 17  Therefore to him
   that knoweth to do good, and doeth [it] not, to him it is sin.
   (James 4)
2. This subject is very relevant for us today, for we all make plans of
   one sort or another...
   a. Plans for college, jobs
   b. Plans for marriage, family
   c. Plans for vacation, retirement
3. Making plans, in of itself, is not wrong...
   a. Paul often made plans in regard to his travels - Ac 15:36; 18:
      20-21; 1 Co 16:5-9
   b. In fact, making plans (or setting goals) is a key to success in
      any venture we may undertake in life
4. But there is a "right" way to plan, and a "wrong" way; and James
   discusses both!
[First, let's consider the "right" way to "Making Our Plans"...]
      1. We can make our plans, but we should make them contingent to
         God's approval - "if the Lord wills" (15)
      2. This is what Paul did
         a. "God willing" - Ac 18:21
         b. "if the Lord permits" - 1 Co 16:7
      3. Saying "if the Lord wills" assumes our faith in two things:
         a. That God does have a will for us (even in mundane matters)
         b. That God can intervene (via providence) to carry out His
      4. The wisdom of making our plans contingent upon the will of God
         will become evident later, when we consider the "wrong" way to
      1. To a great degree, this is possible, for God wants us to:
         a. Understand His Will - Ep 5:17
         b. Be filled with His Will - Co 1:9
         c. Prove His Will - Ro 12:2
      2. Of course, this relates especially to His "revealed" will
         a. Which pertains to matters right and wrong
         b. Which is found in the pages of the Bible
         c. When we know God's "revealed" will (from our study of the
            Bible), then we can act or plan accordingly
         d. Until then, the right way to plan is to show our submission
            to God by leaving our plans subject to His will
      3. There is also God's "permissive" will
         a. Which pertains to matters not right or wrong, but good and
         b. Even so, we should still show our trust and dependence upon
            God in such matters by committing our plans to His Will
[Now let's look at the "wrong" way in "Making Our Plans"...]
      1. Because life is COMPLEX (13)
         a. There are the complexities of TIME (today, tomorrow, when?)
         b. There are the complexities of ACTIVITIES (buy, sell?)
         c. So many decisions to make, so many mistakes might be made
         d. If it's possible to know God's will on any matter, that
            would increase the likelihood that our decisions and plans
            will be correct
      2. Because life is UNCERTAIN (14a)
         a. No one has a guarantee of tomorrow
            1) Whether there will even be one
            2) Or what will happen
         b. Only God can bring about what He wills for the future without
         c. Since this is true, we should certainly desire to make plans
            that are in keeping with "His" plans!
      3. Because life is FRAIL (14b)
         a. It is like a "vapor" - cf. Ps 39:5-6,11
         b. How substantial is a "vapor" or "shadow"?
         c. How quickly we can succumb to sickness or an accident
            illustrates how frail we really are
         d. It is foolish, then, to think "we" have the strength within
            ourselves to "make" our plans happen - remember Ja 1:10-11
      4. Because life is BRIEF (14c)
         a. "appears for a little time"
         b. This is something Job observed - Job 9:25-26; 14:1
         c. Since life is so short, it is important that we do God's
            will and not our own - cf. 1 Jn 2:17
      1. To plan without taking into consideration God's will is to set
         ourselves up above God Himself!
      2. How could one be more arrogant than that?
      1. It is sin because it involves arrogance and boasting which is
         evil - 16
      2. It is sin because we who are Christians know better - 17
         a. We know what is good:  to plan with God's Will in mind
         b. To do otherwise is to sin!
1. How do we make our plans?
   a. If we plan without considering the will of God, then we are
      foolish, arrogant, and sinful!
   b. If we make our plans subject to the approval of God, then we are
      wise, submissive, and righteous in God's sight!
   c. If we endeavor to plan as much as we can within the framework of
      God's "revealed" will, then we increase the likelihood of success!
2. What about your "plans" for eternity?
   a. There is no doubt what the Lord's will is on this subject - cf.
      Mt 28:19-20; Mk 16:15-16; Ac 2:38; Ro 10:9-10; 2 Pe 1:5-11;
      Re 2:10
   b. We can be certain of "success" if we submit to God's will in the
      matters of faith, repentance, confession, baptism, and living a
      faithful Christian life
   c. But to ignore it is folly in view of life's UNCERTAINTY, FRAILTY,
      and BREVITY!
Have you done "as" the Lord wills? (i.e., as "He" would have you do it?)
Note:  Parts of the material for this outline was adapted heavily
from The Bible Exposition Commentary, Volume 2, by Warren W. Wiersbe,
pages 366-370.


--《Executable Outlines


Knowledge and action

Do not have when you do not ask

Do not receive when you ask


I.  Three enemies of believers

1.    The battle of desires

2.    Friendship with the world

3.    Resist the devil

II.Slander one another

1.    From the viewpoint of brothers

2.    From the viewpoint of the law

3.    From the viewpoint of authority

III.       Knowing yet not doing is sin

1.    Take liberties

2.    Plan about tomorrow

3.    Boast and brag

-- Chih-Hsin ChangAn Outline of The New Testament