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1 Peter Chapter One

 

I. Content of the Chapter

 

Know the Salvation We Have Obtained

A.  Those who have been favored and God who grants grace (v.1-2) ---- the holy Trinity;

B.  Blessings to us by salvation v.3-5) ---- regeneration and hope;

C.  The relation of the salvation with our faith (v.6-9) ---- be tried to the end;

D.  The revelation and manifestation of the salvation (v.10-12) ----- the prophets and those who have preached the gospel and the angels;

E.  The attitudes that we are supposed to have toward the salvation (v.13-17) ---- holiness and fear;

F.  Through which we obtain the salvation (v.18-21) ---- through the precious blood of Christ and faith in God;

G.  The nature of the new life brought by the salvation (v.22-25) ---- love;

 

II. Verse by Verse Commentary

 

Pet. 1:1 “Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, To the pilgrims of the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,”

YLT: “Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the choice sojourners of the dispersion of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,”

Meaning of Words: apostle”: messenger, ambassador, the one who is sent; “Dispersion”: scattered abroad; “pilgrims”: sojourners, foreigners, alien;

Literal Meaning: “an apostle of Jesus Christ”, “Jesus Christ”, the name has appeared six times (see v.1, 2, 3, 3, 7, 13) in chapter one. It seems that the author repeatedly declares that Jesus is the Christ anointed by God. There are two sorts of “apostles”: 1) be sent by the Lord to many places to preach the gospel and establish the church (see Gal. 2:7; Acts 13:2; 14:14, 23); 2) be sent by the church to various regions to help the saints (see Acts 11:22; Phil. 2:25); “the apostle Peter” is often firstly listed when the names of the twelve disciples are mentioned in three Gospels (Matt. 10:1-4; Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:12-16). However, he never called himself the first disciple of Jesus Christ.

  “To the pilgrims of the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia”, “Pontus” was the hometown of Aquila (Acts18:2); Galatia, Paul had been preached the gospel there even though he was ill (Gal. 4:13-14); Cappadocia”, in the Pentecost, there were those who inhabited there hearing the disciples speaking in their tongues and the mighty works of God (Acts 2:9); “Asia”, the seven famous churches in Ephesus and Smyrna and Pergamos and Thyatira and Sardis and Philadelphia and Laodicea (Rev. 1:4, 11); “Bithynia”, the Spirit of Jesus had suffered Paul not to preach the gospel there (Acts 16:7). All the above-mentioned five regions at that time were provinces of Rome, in present-day Turkey.

  Peter called the receivers of this epistle in three ways: 1) “pilgrims”: they are sojourners on the earth and the eternal and better home is in the heaven (see Heb. 11:13-16); 2) “Dispersion”, they are just like seeds scattered on the earth, only little flock in different regions (see Luke 12:32); 3) “elect” (v.2): they are chosen by God (see Rom. 9:11).

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)    Peter was called to be an apostle to preach the gospel for the Lord. All believers are called on the earth to represent Christ and be witnesses in various regions. We followers shall take it as the central goal of our life. Anything else is of subordinate importance.

2)    If we have really recognized our identity on the earth, our life attitude and goal of pursuit will be significantly affected.

3)    Though we are living on the earth, it is not our permanent house. Since are merely sojourners here, we are not supposed to be too satisfactory to earthly things to think of heavenly home.

4)    God scatters us everywhere on the earth to fulfill the duty of “salt and light” (Matt. 5:13-16) instead of establishing a large organizational system, just like the city of Babel and tower of Babel (see Gen. 11:1-9).

5)    Christians are “in dispersion” apparently, but have mutual fellowship with one another in inner life actually (“epistle” is a form of fellowship).

 

Pet. 1:2 “elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in sanctification of the Spirit, for obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace be multiplied.”

YLT: “according to a foreknowledge of God the Father, in sanctification of the Spirit, to obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace be multiplied!”

Meaning of Words: foreknowledge”: forethought; elect”: be chosen;sanctification”: holiness, purification;multiplied”: abound, increase;

Literal Meaning: “elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father”, “according to…”, here it refers to the source and foundation of salvation; “the foreknowledge of God the Father”, God the Father foreknew our strength;

  There three steps of predestinarianism: 1) God’s foreknowledge, which means God is able to “foreknow” …, God had foreknown us before the foundation of the world (see Rom. 8:29); 2) God “election”: God had elected us according to His foreknowledge (see Eph. 1:4); 3) God’s “predestination”: the purpose that God has preordained to fulfill in us according to His election ---- adoption (see Rom. 8:29; Eph. 1:5).

“In sanctification of the Spirit”, “in…”, it refers to the work and realm of salvation; “sanctification”, the Spirit has sanctified us according to the foreknowledge and election, including enlightenment, inspiration, knowledge of sins and remission etc. that we shall be saved (see 2Thess. 2:13). Here it emphasizes the sanctifying works that made us turn to God before we were saved, not the sanctification after we have been saved (see Rom. 6:19, 22).

  “For obedience … of Jesus Christ”, “for”, here it refers to the purpose and end of salvation; “obedience … of Jesus Christ”, it means that the election of God the Father and the works of the Spirit in us are for the purpose of making us obedient to Jesus Christ. 

  “Sprinkling of the blood of …”, “the blood” refers to the precious blood of the Lord Jesus shedding on the cross which has the power and effect of redemption (see v.18-19). “Sprinkling”, here it quotes the sign of sprinkling the blood of sacrifices for atonement ---- the blood of sacrifices typify the blood of Jesus Christ (see Heb. 9:12, 19-26). Therefore, “sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ” means the redemption by His precious blood.

  Grace to you and peace be multiplied”, “grace”: enjoy God Himself and God’s provision in man’s experiences; “peace”: the peaceful mood and blessed condition brought by the enjoyment of God’s grace. And here it emphasizes the inner peace more than the outer prosperity (see John 16:33). “Be multiplied”, abound more and more to deal with the situations; 

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     Salvation is completely out of the Holy Trinity ---- the counsel of God the Father and the works of the Spirit and the fulfillment of Jesus Christ.

2)     If it is not out of God election in His foreknowledge, we can never be saved by our works (see Rom. 9:11). If we have no obedience, the good salvation of God can still not be fulfilled in us.

3)     God’s election and man’s obedience, or God’s sovereignty and man’s will, are seemingly contradictory but are not inconsistent actually. On one hand, we shall fulfill our responsibilities. And on the other hand, we shall rely on the grace of God. We are nothing and can do nothing without God’s grace.

4)     The works of the Spirit is leading us to be separated from sins and the world gradually to the obedience of Christ. Therefore, the Spirit is closely relevant to our salvation. No wonder that the Lord Jesus said “speaking injuriously of the Spirit shall not be forgiven to men” (Matt. 12:31).

5)     The right response of men to the work of the Spirit is obedience to Jesus Christ. God has set Jesus Christ as the object of our obedience in salvation. Obedience to Christ is obedience to God. When we believe in and receive the salvation Jesus Christ has fulfilled, we have obeyed Him.

6)     When a man obeys the gospel, he has inherited all blessings fulfilled by the blood of Christ on Calvary. Though the precious blood of the Lord Jesus shed two thousand years ago, the effect would last forever.

7)     In our daily life, we still need grace and strength. In the turbulent age, we need peace. Danny said, “The whole gospel is full of grace and peace ---- health in spirit is the effect of grace.”

8)     Since the sufferings of believers in the world “are multiplied”, grace and peace shall be “multiplied” (see v.6 “various trials”; John 16:33).

 

Pet. 1:3 “Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who according to His abundant mercy has begotten us again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,”

YLT: “Blessed the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who, according to the abundance of His kindness did beget us again to a living hope, through the rising again of Jesus Christ out of the dead,”

Meaning of Words: blessed”: adorable; mercy”: compassion;resurrection”: raised to life again, rise from the dead, a standing up again;begotten … again”: bear again, regenerate;living”: alive;hope”: expectation;

Literal Meaning: “blessed be the God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ”, “blessed”, it is an expression of utter fear and adoration for God Himself and His works; “the Lord Jesus Christ”: His whole name; “the Lord”: He is the ruler of our life; “Jesus”: He is savior of sinners; “Christ”: He is the One on whom believers rely;

  We believers are submit to the Lord Jesus Christ (see v.2), for He is our God and His Father is our Father.

  “Who according to his abundant mercy”, “mercy”, it is compassion raised by one side to those who are unworthy of mercy. We are not lovable according to our conditions before God, so we need “the abundant mercy” of God so that we may receive the divine grace.

“Through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead”, the “death” of Jesus Christ is redemptive death for our transgressions. “Resurrection”, on one hand, it shows that God has accepted His redemptive works so that we shall be justified through Him (see Rom. 4:25). And on the other hand, it indicates that He has the divine life of God so that we shall be regenerated through Him (see Rom. 6:4).

“Has begotten us again”, “begotten again”, it means that one has obtained the divine life besides his natural life.

“To a living hope”, “living”: alive; “hope”, in the Scriptures, hope does not refer to vain expectation, but firm hope of the future; “a living hope”, it is related to the new life that we have obtained: 1) hope comes from the divine life; 2) it is not hope for objective things, but hope in subjective life; 3) the eternal life of God has substantiated the hope; 4) hope also facilitates the growth of the divine life in believers.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)    Believers shall give the priority to blessings in all tribulations and afflictions. This is the secret of overcoming tribulations (see v.6-7).

2)    Since the sins and wickedness of us are so “great” before God ---- great stubbornness and great rebellion, we need God’s “abundant mercy” to be saved.

3)    Only those who have been regenerated have the living hope, for there is no hope without Christ (see Eph. 2:12; 1Thess. 4:13).

4)    The greatest hope of believers is inheritance reserved for us in heaven (v.4).

5)    The living hope is the way for believers to be perfected and established and strengthened in tribulations (see 5:10).

 

Pet. 1:4 “to an inheritance incorruptible and undefiled and that does not fade away, reserved in heaven for you,”

YLT: “Blessed the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who, according to the abundance of His kindness did beget us again to a living hope, through the rising again of Jesus Christ out of the dead,”

Meaning of Words: incorruptible”: immortal, undecaying; undefiled”: unsoiled, pure;does not fade away”: perpetual;reserve”: keep, preserve;inheritance”: possession;

Literal Meaning: incorruptible and undefiled and that does not fade away”, it shows that the nature of the inheritance is too glorious and rich to describe on the positive side. Therefore, the wittier describes the eternal and glorious and superior nature on the “passive” side only.

  “Incorruptible” emphasizes the abiding nature of the inheritance. “Undefiled” describes the perfect nature of the inheritance. “That does not fade away”, it emphasizes the superior nature of the inheritance.

  “To an inheritance … reserved in heaven for you”, “to …”, it explains the object of the hope (see v.3); “reserved”, it is reserved and kept by God; “in heaven”, it is earthly things, but heavenly and spiritual things. “Inheritance”, it is the essence of believers’ hope. This verse describes the specialties of this inheritance. 

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     Christians do not seek the inheritance that is transient and impure and may devalue, but the inheritance that is abiding and perfect and firm in heaven.

2)     When we walk on the earth now, we shall aim at laying up treasures in heaven (see Matt. 6:20) instead of caring for the earthly gain or loss.

 

Pet. 1:5 “who are kept by the power of God through faith for salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.”

YLT: “who, in the power of God are being guarded, through faith, unto salvation, ready to be revealed in the last time,”

Meaning of Words: kept”: guard, watch; “ready”: prepared; “reveal”: disclose; “salvation”: deliverance, saving; “in the last time”: in the final time;

Literal Meaning: “who are kept by the power of God through faith”, “through faith”, it shows that our faith is the precondition of our being kept by God; “are kept”, it does not equal to not being tried, but means being tried without failure.

  “For salvation ready to be revealed in the last time”, “in the last time”: in the second coming of Christ; “salvation”: salvation in the Scriptures can be classified into three sorts at least (2Cor. 1:10): 1) in the past ---- what believers had obtained when they were saved (see Titus 3:5; Luke 19:9); 2) at present ---- what believers are obtaining and undergoing (see v.9; Phil. 2:12); 3) the future ---- what believers shall receive fully when Christ comes again (see Rom. 13:11; Heb. 9:28). Salvation in this verse refers to the third sort.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     None of the elect of God shall be lost. Those who had been chosen before the foundation of the world are saved in this age and will be kept into the coming eternity. Believers in Christ shall be kept forever.

2)     Our being kept is totally because of the power of God. And our faith is also indispensable. We have to hold fast the power of God through faith that the power of God will be worked in us (see Matt. 17:20; Phil. 4:13).

3)     Our faith paves the way the power of God. The train of God’s power is only driven on the rails of faith.

 

Pet. 1:6 “In this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while, if need be, you have been grieved by various trials,”

YLT: “in which ye are glad, a little now, if it be necessary, being made to sorrow in manifold trials,”

Meaning of Words: greatly rejoice”: exult, with exceeding joy; “various”: manifold; “trials”: try; “for a little while”: a short season, a little; “grieve”: distress, be sad;

Literal Meaning: “in this you greatly rejoice”, “in this”, it contains two aspects of meaning: 1) in the condition of various above-mentioned spiritual attainments from verse three to five; 2) at the revelation of the perfect salvation mentioned in verse five; “greatly rejoice”: be with exceeding joy. And the time of joy varies according to different interpretations of “in this…” ---- one is the present joy and the other is the coming joy.

  “Though now for a little while, if need be, you have been grieved by various trials”, “various trials”: trials of all forms; “though now for a little while if need be”, here it indicates three characteristics of trial: 1) with its purpose; 2) uncertain; 3) transient; “be grieved”, it shows that the trials are so heavy that men are made sorrowful.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     Afflictions that men in the world are suffering are merely a herald of the eternal torment they will suffer in hell. However, believers’ afflictions are not without any reason or in vain.

2)     “For a little while”, it indicates the transient nature of “trials”. All trials are merely a way instead of purpose and a process instead of end.

3)     The devil often deprives our eternal blessing (see Philem. 15) by some temporary joy. However, if we look upon the eternal things, we will see lightly the present temporary sufferings or joy.

 

Pet. 1:7 “that the genuineness of your faith, being much more precious than gold that perishes, though it is tested by fire, may be found to praise, honor, and glory at the revelation of Jesus Christ,”

YLT: “that the proof of your faith -- much more precious than of gold that is perishing, and through fire being approved -- may be found to praise, and honour, and glory, in the revelation of Jesus Christ,”

Meaning of Words: tested”: tried; “perish”: destroy, die, lose; “more precious”: more honorable, more esteemed, more valuable;

Literal Meaning: that the genuineness of your faith”, “your faith”, it means that our faith is the object of various trials (see v.6); “it is tested”, it means that the purpose of trials is not destroying our faith, but proving our faith, or purifying the nature of our faith.

  “Being much more precious than gold that perishes, though it is tested by fire”, “it is tested by fire”, here it describes the afflictions of various trials (see v.6) by the fire that tries gold; “gold that perishes”, gold is of no eternal value even though it has been tried. It is a contrast to the permanence of faith. “Being much more precious”, there are two explanations: 1) it relates to faith itself ---- faith that has been tried is much more precious than gold that is tried; 2) it refers to the way ---- the trial of faith is much more precious than the trail of gold. The author prefers to the first one. It is the pure faith that is precious and endures forever.

  “May be found to praise, honor, and glory at the revelation of Jesus Christ”, “at the revelation of Jesus Christ”: in the Lord’s second coming; “praise”: the Lord’s approval (see Matt; 25:21); “honor”: partake of the Lord’s glory (see Rom. 8:17); “glory”: be worthy of glory in the sight of the Lord (see Rev. 3:21).

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     The trial of gold is for the purpose of removing dross and making it purer and more precious. Likewise, our faith will also be much more precious after trials.

2)     Since faith is much more precious after the trials of fire, the trials of fire are also precious, for they can purify our faith.

3)     True faith is not shaken though it passes through tribulations as sorrowful as fire. Any doubt about God in adverse situations shows that faith is not genuine.

4)     True faith will be found to praise, honor and glory at the revelation of Jesus Christ. Every trial of faith of believers will be rewarded by God in the future.

 

Pet. 1:8 “whom having not seen you love. Though now you do not see Him, yet believing, you rejoice with joy inexpressible and full of glory,”

YLT: “whom, not having seen, ye love, in whom, now not seeing and believing, ye are glad with joy unspeakable and glorified,”

Meaning of Words: seen”: be aware, behold; “inexpressible”: unspeakable, unutterable; “full of glory”: obtain glory;

Literal Meaning: “whom having not seen you love”, “you”: believers besides the early disciples; “having not seen”: have not seen the Lord Jesus in the flesh; “love” refers to the love working out of faith (see Gal. 5:6).

  “Though now you do not see Him, yet believing”, “do not see”: enable to see by the physical eyes; “yet believing”: by the eyes of faith (see 2Cor. 5:7; Heb. 12:2);

  “You rejoice with joy inexpressible and full of glory”, “inexpressible”: the joy is too great to describe; “full of glory”: the joy is not common, but full of glory;

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     Faith is our spiritual eyes (see 2Cor. 5:7) that enables us to see the Lord whom cannot be seen by physical eyes so that we can have intimate fellowship with Him and love Him.

2)     “Faith working through love has force” (Gal. 5:6). Love because of faith instead of sight must be accepted by God.

3)     Faith is the reason why we have great joy (see v.6) in various trials. This is just the joy of believers.

4)     Christians’ joy does not rest with the earthly situations, but Christ who has been raised and highly exalted and seated himself at the right hand of God. No one can deprive the joy of saints, just like no one can pull Christ down the glorious throne.

 

Pet. 1:9 “receiving the end of your faith--the salvation of your souls.”

YLT: “receiving the end of your faith -- salvation of souls;”

Meaning of Words: receive”: obtain; “end”: result; 

Literal Meaning: “receiving the end of your faith”, “receiving”: the present tense shows that it does not refer to something that you have received in the past, but something that you are receiving or have received. “The end of your faith”, when our faith is tried (see v.7), there will be en end that we have never received.

  “The salvation of your souls”, when we had believed the Lord Jesus, we had obtained the salvation of spirit, namely, regeneration (see v.3, 23). However, the salvation of our souls is going on. Therefore, the Lord teaches us that if we desire to follow Him, we have to deny ourselves and lose our life for the Lord’s sake and then we will obtain our life (Matt. 16:24-25). It is in keeping with the teaching of this chapter ---- “faith shall be tried by fire (see v.6-7) and then believers shall “obtain the perfect salvation” (see v.5).

  Note: since many theologists in Christianity do not confess the distinction between spirit and soul, they explain “the salvation of soul” as “the salvation of the whole person” to show the difference from “regeneration”

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     Believers have obtained the new spiritual life when they were born again. However, their natural soul life should experience the salvation and be more delivered from “selves”.

2)     The salvation of soul is closely related with our faith. One can only obtain the salvation of soul by strong and firm faith ---- he that has endured to the end, he shall be saved (Matt. 24:13).

 

Pet. 1:10 “Of this salvation the prophets have inquired and searched carefully, who prophesied of the grace that would come to you,”

YLT: “concerning which salvation seek out and search out did prophets who concerning the grace toward you did prophecy,”

Meaning of Words: prophesied”: speak under inspiration; “inquired and searched carefully”; search out, seek after, enquire;

Literal Meaning:of this salvation the prophets who prophesied of the grace that would come to you”, “of this salvation”: the perfect salvation including the salvation of soul; “the prophets who prophesied”: the prophets in the Old Testament, whose prophecies are recorded in the Scriptures; “you”: believers in the New Testament; “of the grace”: obtain the perfect salvation;

  “Have inquired and searched carefully”, “inquired carefully”: seek the answer carefully and earnestly; “searched”: explore and investigate to seek the right answer;

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     The prophets did not prophesy without foundation, but prophesied after careful seeking and searching. Preachers who speak for God today should put in time and effort to search the Scriptures.

2)     The revelation of God tends to here and there. If we desire to understand the will of God, we have to seek and search carefully so as to obtain the perfect and right answer.

 

Pet. 1:11 “searching what, or what manner of time, the Spirit of Christ who was in them was indicating when He testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ and the glories that would follow.”

YLT: “searching in regard to what or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ that was in them was manifesting, testifying beforehand the sufferings of Christ and the glory after these,”

Meaning of Words: sufferings”: afflictions, tribulations; “testified beforehand”: testified previously; 

Literal Meaning: “searching the Spirit of Christ who was in them”, “the Spirit of Christ” suggests Christ had relation with men in the times of Old Testament (see John 8:58) and that the works of the Spirit are for the purpose of glorifying Christ and testifying Christ (see John 15:26; 16:14); “searching the Spirit … in them”, it indicates that seeking and searching the Spirit inspiring them in them until when they had truly understood the Spirit.

  “What, or what manner of time”, “what…time”, the preordained time, e.g. when the Lord Jesus came to the world (see Gal. 4:4) and when he died (see 1Cor. 15:3); “what manner of time”: the condition and process that can be distinguished by men, e.g. how the Lord rose up three days later (see Matt. 27:63) and how he was taken up to the heaven and glorified (see Acts 1:9) and how he revealed in glory in His second coming (see 4:13; Acts 1:11; 1Thess. 4:16).

“Was indicating when He testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ and the glories that would follow”, “sufferings” and “glories” are in the plural, referring to all the sufferings He had suffered (including His suffering in humanity and the suffering of crucifixion etc.) and all gloried He would obtain (including His glory of resurrection (see v.21) and ascension and second coming (see 4:13)).

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     When the evil spirits work rampantly now, Christians should not speak flippantly according to inspirations, but shall make judgment (see 1Cor. 14:29) lest we should be taken in by the evil spirits.

2)     Christians should spend their time in both reading the Scriptures and searching the indwelling spirits so as to understand the will of God.

3)     Christ Himself suffered first and then was glorified. We followers of Him shall still suffer with Him first and then be glorified with Him (Rom. 8:17).

4)     Revelation and guidance of the Spirit are so detailed that even “time” and “manner” are not ignored. Therefore, when we seek the will of God, we shall not be satisfied with the preliminary attainment only.

 

Pet. 1:12 “To them it was revealed that, not to themselves, but to us they were ministering the things which now have been reported to you through those who have preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven--things which angels desire to look into.”

YLT: “to whom it was revealed, that not to themselves, but to us they were ministering these, which now were told to you (through those who did proclaim good news to you,) in the Holy Spirit sent from heaven, to which things messengers do desire to bend looking.”

Meaning of Words: reveal”: disclose, manifest; “minister”: search; “by”: through; “preach”: declare, announce; “look into”: lean over, stoop down, bend beside;

Literal Meaning:to them it was revealed that, reveal by God the hidden secret to men;

“Not to themselves, but to us”, “but to us”, prophecies of the prophets in the Old Testament concerning Christ were for the purpose of men in the Old Testament.

 “Those who have preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven—”, “by the Holy Spirit”, not only were prophets in the Old Testament revealed by the Spirit (see v.11) but also believers in the New Testament preached the gospel by the Spirit. “Gospel” here especially refers to Jesus Christ and the good news of salvation by Him;

“Things which angels desire to look into”, “look into”: bend down to search carefully the thing that one does nor understand (see John 20:5, 11); “things” refer to the sufferings of Christ and the glories that would follow;

Things recorded in the Scriptures that “angels” will look into: 1) the experience of God’s servants (1Cor. 4:9); 2) believers’ attitude (1Cor. 11:10); 3) Incarnation (1Tim. 3:16); 4) sufferings of Christ and the glories that would follow (1Pet. 11-12);

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)    Preacher shall serve in the mind of “serving for men not for oneself”.

2)    No Spirit, no revelation (see v.11). And no Spirit, no efficacious preachment of the gospel.

3)    The angels look into things concerning Christ as well as the saints. Therefore, we shall walk as become saints for the sake of the angels (see Eph. 5:3).

 

Pet. 1:13 “Therefore gird up the loins of your mind, be sober, and rest your hope fully upon the grace that is to be brought to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ;”

YLT: “Wherefore having girded up the loins of your mind, being sober, hope perfectly upon the grace that is being brought to you in the revelation of Jesus Christ,”

Meaning of Words: gird up”: bind, tie up; “sober”: discreet; “fully”: without wavering; “hope”: expectation;

Literal Meaning: “therefore gird up the loins of your mind”, “the loins of your mind”, “gird up the loins”, be ready to do something with mighty strength (see 1King 18:46; 2King 4:29; Ex. 12:11; Lev. 1:17). The whole verse means we shall wait for the master as the servants “who gird up the loins” (Luke 12:35) and prepare our mind like the soldiers “who gird up their loins with truth” (Eph. 6:14).

  “Be sober”, keep watching and discreet in mind and not be distracted by earthly affairs nor be deceived by heresies (see 2Pet. 2:1; Gal. 3:1). Let us be sober and watch in everything (see 2Tim. 4:5; 1Thess. 5:6). 

  “And rest your hope fully upon the grace that is to be brought to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ”, “hope fully”: hope without wavering; “at the revelation of Jesus Christ”: in the second coming of the Lord; “the grace that is to be brought to you”: the perfect salvation (see v.5);

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)    Temperance instead of overindulgence should be given to our mind.

2)    All works of men are out of their mind. Therefore, we have to prepare our mind and gird up it so as to be guidance of others.

3)    The loins of our mind should be girded up with truth. That is to say, our mind shall be limited and controlled by the truth. Thus, we are counted as men who really hope for and wait for the Lord.

4)    Once the loins of mind are girded up, our mind will not wander and we will certainly rest our hope fully upon the Lord.

5)    It is the way of defense in spiritual warfare of keeping sober in mind and not being confused by any deceit.

6)    The greatest hope of believers is the revelation of Jesus Christ and the grace that is to be brought to us at His revelation.

 

Pet. 1:14 “as obedient children, not conforming yourselves to the former lusts, as in your ignorance;”

YLT: “as obedient children, not fashioning yourselves to the former desires in your ignorance,”

Meaning of Words: obedient”: submissive; “conform”: transform, fashion self according to…, conform to the same pattern; “lusts”: concupiscence, desires;

Literal Meaning: “as obedient children”, “obedient children”: it means that we have become the children of God (see John 1:12) by the union with God in life because of obedience to Jesus Christ (see v.2).

  “Not conforming yourselves to the former lusts, as in your ignorance”, “former”: when we did not believe the Lord; “ignorance”: the spiritual darkness and ignorance of those who have not known God in the power of darkness (see Acts 26:18); “lusts”: walk according to the flesh, not conscience (see Eph. 2:3; 4:19);

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     On one hand, we have firstly got the holy life and then obey God (see v.2). And on the other hand, we have firstly obeyed the truth of Christ and then obtain holy conversation.

2)     “As obedient children”, it does not mean blind obedience to anyone, but obedience to the will of God the Father and the truth. When man’s views and acts are against the will of God and the truth, God must be obeyed rather than men (Acts 5:29; see 4:19).

3)     Christians are no longer those who “are in ignorance”, for the unction of the Lord teaches us of all things (1John 2:27). Therefore, we shall walk according to the teaching of the unction.

 

Pet. 1:15 “but as He who called you is holy, you also be holy in all your conduct,”

YLT: “but according as He who did call you holy, ye also, become holy in all behaviour,”

Meaning of Words: holy”: separated, hallowed; “conduct”: walking, conversation;

Literal Meaning: “but as He who called you is holy”, “called”, it means that he who is called shall seek the goal set by the one who calls him; “holy”, holiness is that goal;

  “Holy” means separation unto God from all things outside of God, namely, not be defiled by the world nor have friendship with the world (2Cor. 6:17; James 4:4).

  “You also be holy in all your conduct”, “all your conduct”: all your daily conversation; “be holy”, here “holy” is different from “sanctification” in verse two. The former (holy) refers to the holiness in subjective experience, and the latter (sanctification) refers to the holiness in objective position. In other words, the former (holy) relates to the holy conversation, and the latter (sanctification) relates to the holy life.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     God has not called us to uncleanness, but in sanctification (1Thess. 4:7),

2)     The special point of Christianity is provision first and then demand. God has firstly given us the holy life and then demands us to be holy in our daily conversation.

3)     The life given by God has the holy nature. If we live according to the holy life, the holy conversation will be naturally manifested.

 

Pet. 1:16 “because it is written, "Be holy, for I am holy."”

YLT: “because it hath been written, `Become ye holy, because I am holy;'”

Meaning of Words: written”: recorded;

Literal Meaning: “because it is written”, the following word is quoted from the Book of Leviticus (11:44; 19:2; 20:7 etc.)

  “Be holy”, this is the requirement of God for those who are of Him; we believers have been sanctified in position (see v.2), but we still have to seek holiness in life experience (Heb. 12:14).

  “For I am holy”, “I am holy”, holy is the disposition of God, and He pleases all those who are of Him are holy (see 1Thess. 4:3).

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     Holiness plays an important role in the relationship between believers and God. Without holiness, no one shall see the Lord (Heb. 12:14).

2)     There are two secrets of Christians’ holiness in daily conversation: the Holy Spirit and the Holy Bible. The Spirit in us provides us the power of holiness (see 2Thess. 2:13), and the Holy Bible leads us to be holy (see v.22; John 17:17).

 

Pet. 1:17 “And if you call on the Father, who without partiality judges according to each one's work, conduct yourselves throughout the time of your stay here in fear;”

YLT: “and if on the Father ye do call, who without acceptance of persons is judging according to the work of each, in fear the time of your sojourn pass ye,”

Meaning of Words: conduct”: walk, act; “throughout the time of”: during; 

Literal Meaning: “and if you call on the Father, who without partiality judges according to each one’s work”, “without partiality”: without respect of persons (see James 2:1, 4), namely, impartiality --- without acceptance of persons (see Rom. 2:9-11); “according to each one’s work”, God judges according to the real situations of each one (see Rom. 2:6-8); “work”: the sum of all thoughts and words and acts of a man; “the Lord” emphasizes the relationship in administration, and “Father” emphasizes the relationship in life.

  “Conduct yourselves throughout the time of your stay here in fear”, “in fear”: it refers to being in fear of God the Father and being afraid of sinning against Him to hurt His heart more than fearing the punishment after judgment; “throughout the time of your stay”, Christians live in the world with the attitude that the world is not my home (see v.1; Heb. 11:13, 16);

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     If we do not walk according to the life given by the “Father”, we will be under the severe judgment of the “Lord” according to His righteousness.

2)     Many believers fall in grace for they have only godly appearance but no power of godliness. However, salvation does not lie in appearance but in heart.

3)     If the children of God have normal and sound fear in God’s administration, they will surely have normal and sound life.

4)     Christians are sojourners in the world, so they that use this world, as not abusing it: for the fashion of this world passes away (1Cor. 7:31). Let us seek things that can be brought to eternal world.

 

Pet. 1:18 “knowing that you were not redeemed with corruptible things, like silver or gold, from your aimless conduct received by tradition from your fathers,”

YLT: “having known that, not with corruptible things -- silver or gold -- were ye redeemed from your foolish behaviour delivered by fathers,”

Meaning of Words: redeem”: delivered, set free; “by tradition from your fathers”: successional; “aimless”: vain, empty, fruitless;  

Literal Meaning: “knowing that you were …redeemed”, “were redeemed”: be delivered to freedom at a price; here according to the context, the price refers to the precious blood of Christ (see v.19); we are redeemed from the aimless conduct received by tradition from our fathers.

  “From your aimless conduct received by tradition from your fathers”, “aimless conduct received by tradition from your fathers”: the evil conduct of idolatry by tradition from fathers; note that the aimless conduct is opposite to holy conduct in verse 15.

  “Not with corruptible things like silver or gold”, “silver or gold” represents priceless wealth in the world; no matter it is tangible or intangible, it will be depreciated, so it is “corruptible”.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     The redemption of the Lord Jesus has delivered us from not only the bondage of sins but also the slavery to rules and traditions and customs.

2)     The old conduct of us had been yielded to the lusts (see v.14), so it is meaningless and aimless. Let us turn to the holy life thereafter.

 

Pet. 1:19 “but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot.”

YLT: “but with precious blood, as of a lamb unblemished and unspotted -- Christ's --”

Meaning of Words: without blemish”: faultless, without fault; “without spot”: unspotted; 

Literal Meaning: “but with the precious blood of Christ”, “the precious blood of Christ” refers to the blood shedding from the cross: 1) sinless; 2) priceless; 3) precious;

  “As of a lamb without blemish and without spot”, “without blemish”: the perfection by nature; “without spot”: the perfect in appearance; “lamb”, it shows that Christ is the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world (John 1:29). The blood of Christ is unblemished and unspotted, so it is able to purify the conscience of men (Heb.9:14) and redeem men.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     The crucified Christ is the lamb of the Passover for us (1Cor. 5:7). We are enabled to enter into the holies by the blood of Jesus with boldness (Heb. 10:19).

2)     The priceless nature of the blood of Christ decides the peerless effect of it. The more believers cherish and appreciate the value of the precious blood, the more believers shall be in fear, daring not to despise the redemption by the precious blood.

 

Pet. 1:20 “He indeed was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you”

YLT: “foreknown, indeed, before the foundation of the world, and manifested in the last times because of you,”

Meaning of Words: foreordained”: foreknown; “manifest”: reveal;  

Literal Meaning: “He indeed was foreordained before the foundation of the world”, “the foundation of the world”: in the past eternity and long before the history of human beings; “foreordained”: Christ not only existed in the past eternity but also was foreordained to fulfill the ministries appointed by God.

  “But was manifest in these last times for you”, “in the last times”, it is different from “the last time” in verse five. Here, the last times refer to the last days (see Acts 2:17) ---- the Lord’s first coming had already brought the last days (see 2Tim. 3:1); “manifest”: Christ was incarnated and came to the world (see 1Tim. 3:16; John 1:31; 1John 3:5, 8; Heb. 9:26).

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     The incarnation and sufferings of Jesus Christ are not a sudden though of God, but are according to the determinate counsel and foreknowledge ---- everything of Jesus Christ had been early ordained in eternity in the counsel of God (Eph. 1:9-10; 3:9-11; 2Tim. 1:9; Mark 8:31; Luke 22:22; 24:26, 44; Acts 26:23).

2)     In the eternal sight of God, Jesus Christ had been slain for the sin of men from the foundation of the world (see Rev. 13:8) and is as slain till now (Rev. 5:6).

3)     Christ was manifested “for us”. All His activities and words are for the sake of us and are related to us, so let us not neglect His words and deeds recorded in the four Gospels.

4)     Since the works Christ had fulfilled on the earth were preordained before the foundation of the world, they have eternal value. 

 

Pet. 1:21 “who through Him believe in God, who raised Him from the dead and gave Him glory, so that your faith and hope are in God.”

YLT: “who through him do believe in God, who did raise out of the dead, and glory to him did give, so that your faith and hope may be in God.”

Literal Meaning: “who through Him believe in God, who raised Him from the dead and gave Him glory”, “through Him believe in God”, “Him” refers to Christ who was manifested (see v.20). We are enabled to know and believe in God through Christ; “who raised Him from the dead”, it meant that the mighty power of God was working in Christ so that He was raised from the dead (see Eph. 1:20); “gave Him glory”, it means that God shares glory with Christ  (see John 17:1, 22, 24).

  “So that your faith and hope are in God”, “faith” enables us to receive everything God has prepared for us (see John 1:12) and will substantiate them (see Heb. 11:1). “Hope” enables us to suffer everything that God has appointed to us and turns them to our profit (see 1Thess. 1:3; Rom. 8:25, 28). “Are in God”, it means that all things are of Him and through Him and to Him (Rom. 11:36). That is to say, all our faith and hope are of Him and through Him and unto Him.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     Christ is the way and the truth and the life. No one can come to God unless by Christ (John 14:6). Christ is the leader and finisher of our faith. No one can believe in God unless by Christ (see Heb.2:2).

2)     Christ is everything of us (see Col. 3:11). We can do nothing without Him (John 15:5).

3)     Faith and hope granted by God to Christians are vital source of joy for them to be sojourners in the world (see v.8, 3) as well as the source of power for them to live our salvation (see Heb. 10:22-23). Besides, faith and hope are the guarantee for Christians to seek the salvation that will reveal (see v.5, 13).

 

Pet. 1:22 “Since you have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit in sincere love of the brethren, love one another fervently with a pure heart,”

YLT: “Your souls having purified in the obedience of the truth through the Spirit to brotherly love unfeigned, out of a pure heart one another love ye earnestly,”

Meaning of Words: purify: cleanse; “soul”: life; “sincere”: true; “fervently”: earnestly; “love one another”: love one another with the divine love;

Literal Meaning: “since you have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit”, “obeying the truth”: believe in and obey the truth that sanctifies men, namely, trust and obey the word of God’s truth (see John 17:17); “have purified your souls”: it is different from cleansing sins (see Heb. 1:3; John 1:7) ---- purifying one’s soul is purifying our inner disposition, and cleansing sins is cleaning our outer deeds.

“In sincere love of the brethren”, “love of the brethren (philadelphia)”, it refers to the love in the condition of profiting oneself; “sincere”, it reveals love of men is often vain insincere.

“Love one another fervently with a pure heart”, “love (agapao) one another”, it is unconditional love that one is willing to love others in spite of sacrificing of himself. Therefore, the second “love” is a contrast to the previous “love of the brethren”.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     If we know the truth but do not do the truth, the truth profits us nothing. Many people receive the truth with brain, not by heart. It is no wonder that the truth has little influence on them.

2)     Obedience to the truth is obedience to Christ (2Cor. 10:5). Obedience to Christ is magnifying the Lord (Luke 1:46) and letting Him rule and dominate our life and activities.

3)     The purification of our inner life and daily life should be started from the purification of “heart”, for all filthy words are uttered from heart (Matt. 15:18-20).

4)     Our obedience to God should be manifested in love of men. The first is the conditional “friendly love” and then is the unconditional “divine love”; and the first is sincere love and then is the fervent love; and the first is the love profiting both oneself and others, and then is the love profiting others only.

5)     Let us not love with word, nor with tongue, but in deed and in truth (1John 3:18).

 

Pet. 1:23 “having been born again, not of corruptible seed but incorruptible, through the word of God which lives and abides forever,”

YLT: “being begotten again, not out of seed corruptible, but incorruptible, through a word of God -- living and remaining -- to the age;”

Meaning of Words: corruptible”: perishable; “incorruptible”: inperishable; “lives”: living, alive; “abide”: dwell;

Literal Meaning: “having been born again”, “having been born”, it is passive in the original, which shows that rebirth is not in man’s works but in the divine power; there are two aspects of such power: 1) resurrection through Jesus Christ from the dead (see v.3); 2) through the word of God which lives and abides forever;

  “Not of corruptible seed but incorruptible”, “corruptible seed” refers to all the seeds of life on the earth, all of which will decay; “incorruptible seed” refers to the word of God which lives and abides, namely, the living word of God (Luke 8:11; James 1:18). The word of God has the life of God (see John 6:63), and the life of God enters into men through the word of God.

  “Through the word of God which lives and abides forever”, “word”: the abiding word (logos): the objective word; the word of God is living and abiding.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     The word of God not only makes us reborn but also keeps our life. Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God (Matt. 4:4).

2)     The word of God is living and operative and sharper than any two-edged sword and is able to manifest and discern all (see Heb. 4:12).

3)     The word of God is abiding (see Is. 48:8). And His word shall in no wise pass away (Matt. 24:35).

 

Pet. 1:24 “because "All flesh is as grass, And all the glory of man as the flower of the grass. The grass withers, And its flower falls away,”

YLT: “because all flesh as grass, and all glory of man as flower of grass; wither did the grass, and the flower of it fell away,”

Meaning of Words: glory”: honor; “wither”: dry up, pine away; “falls away”: drop away, fail;

Literal Meaning: because "All flesh is as grass, “because” here the quotation of the word of the Book of Isaiah (40:6-8) is a contrast with “the living and abiding word of God” as well as “the incorruptible sees”; “all flesh” refers to the life of men in the flesh; “as grass”: man’s life is like the grass, fragile and transient (see Ps. 90:5-6; Is. 51:12).

And all the glory of man as the flower of the grass”, “glory”: things worthy of boast in this age, e.g. beauty, fame, treasure and achievements etc. “As the flower of the grass”, the appearance is beautiful but cannot endure forever.

The grass withers, And its flower falls away”, “grass withers”, it indicates that life is impermanent; “its flower falls away”, it shows that things of this age can not endure.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)    Wealth and rank that men have obtained in life and all the honor that men boast of are only as the flowers of the grass, turning out to be transitory and vain (Eccl. 2:11).

2)    Everything out of the flesh done for the fleshly life cannot be brought into eternity. However, everything out of the word of God or done for the new life shall endure forever.

3)    Things that are apparently good may not be good in fact. Concerning spiritual things, inner reality is more important than outer appearance (see Matt. 23:23-28).

 

Pet. 1:25 “But the word of the LORD endures forever." Now this is the word which by the gospel was preached to you.”

YLT: “and the saying of the Lord doth remain -- to the age; and this is the saying that was proclaimed good news to you.”

Meaning of Words: word”: “rhema” in the original; 

Literal Meaning: “but the word of the LORD endures forever”, it is the quotation of the verse of the Book of Isaiah (40:8) again (see v.24); “the word of the LORD” refers to the word of God. Here, it is the ongoing word of God, which is different from the general and abiding word of God; “endure forever”: the word of God abides forever (Is. 40:8).

  “Now this is the word which by the gospel was preached to you”, “the word”, the word which by the gospel was preached by the apostles had become the word of God, for what they preached was “the word of Christ” (see Rom. 10:17).

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     Our salvation and life principles must be built upon the word of God. Faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.

2)     Preachers who speak for God should firstly be inspired by the Spirit and receive the word of God and then preach it out so that the hearers will hear the word of God.

3)     The Bible is the word of God abiding and general word. If we read the Bible with a right attitude, it will become the ongoing word of God and manifest its effect on us, and thus we will receive and experience God’s word personally

 

III. Outlines of the Spiritual Lessons

 

Identities of Christians in the World

A.  Who are in dispersion ---- “of the Dispersion” (v.1);

B.  Who are pilgrims ---- “pilgrims” (v.1), “throughout the time of your stay” (v.17);

C.  Who are elect of God ---- “elect” (v.2);

D.  Who are obedient people  ---- “obedience to Jesus Christ”(v.2), “as obedient children” (v.14), “obeying the truth” (v.22);

E.  Who are saints ---- “sanctification” (v.2), “be holy” (v.15-16);

F.  Who are new people  ---- “has begotten us again” (v.3), “having been born again” (v.23);

G.  Who are blessed people  ---- “who are kept by the power of God through faith” (v.5);

 

The Relationship of the Holy Trinity with us

A.  God the Father:

1.  Elect according to God the Father (v.2);

2.  Ha has begotten us again according to His abundant mercy (v.3-4);

3.  He kept us by the power of God (v.5);

4.  Our faith and hope are in God (v.21);

B.  Jesus Christ:

1.  Christ has completed the salvation by sufferings (v.11);

2.  He has redeemed us by His blood (v.2, 18-19);

3.  He has begotten us again by His resurrection (v.3, 23);

4.  He will reveal again and bring grace to us (v.7, 13);

C.  The Holy Spirit:

1.  The gospel is preached to us by the Spirit (v.12);

2.  Sanctification of the Spirit (v.2);

3.  The Spirit dwells in believers (v.11);

 

Reasons Why Christians Have to Suffer Tribulations

A.  Because it is the will of God, who has chosen us (v.2-5);

B.  Because our faith shall be tried to be much more precious (v.6-9);

C.  Because the Lord Jesus had set us an example of sufferings first and the glories that would follow (v.10-12);

 

Three Stages of the Salvation

A.  Fulfillment in the past ---- regeneration (v.3);

B.  Provision at present ---- living hope (v.3);

C.  Inheritance in the future ---- obtain the inheritance reserved in heaven (v.4);

 

Four Real Incorruptible Spiritual Things

A.  Incorruptible inheritance reserved for us in heaven (v.3-4);

B.  The genuineness of faith is much more precious than gold that perishes (v.7);

C.  The precious blood rather than corruptible things like silver or gold redeemed us (v.18-19);

D.  Incorruptible seed is the living and abiding word of God (v.23);

 

The Nature of Christians’ “Hope”

A.  Which is “a living hope” (v.3);

B.  Which is a hope “of obtaining the inheritance in heaven”(v.4);

C.  Which is a hope of salvation ready to be revealed in the last time (v.5, 13);

D.  Which is a hope of God (v.21);

 

Reasons for Believers’ Regeneration

A.  According to the great mercy of God the Father (v.3);

B.  Through the resurrection of Jesus Christ (v.3);

C.  Because of the incorruptible seed ---- the living and abiding word of God (v.23);

D.  The gospel preached to us is the word (v.25);

 

Four Kinds of Obtainment of Believers

A.  Obtain grace: obtain the salvation ready to be revealed in the last time (v.5);

B.  Obtain power: be kept by the power of God (v.5);

C.  Obtain joy: rejoice with joy inexpressible by faith in Him (v.8);

D.  Obtain glory: be found to praise, honor and glory (v.7);

 

Four Reasons for Christians’ Joy

A.  Rejoice because of hope (v.5-6);

B.  Rejoice because of trials (v.6; see Zech. 1:2);

C.  Rejoice because of love (v.8);

D.  Rejoice because of faith (v.8);

 

Three Aspects of Faith

A.  Preservation of faith ---- “who are kept by the power of God through faith” (v.5);

B.  Trials of faith ---- “the genuineness of faith …being much more precious” (v.7);

C.  Effect of faith ---- “receiving the end of your faith – the salvation of your souls” (v.9);

 

The Amazing Salvation

A.  Which is prophesied by the prophets:

1. They had obtained revelation (v.12);

2. They had inquired and searched carefully … the Spirit of Christ (v.10-11);

3. They testified beforehand and preached (v.11-12);

B.  Which is preached by the apostles:

1. By the Holy Spirit sent from heaven;

2. Have preached the gospel to you ---- things which now have been reported to you (v.12);

C.  Which is the thing that the angels desire to look into (v.12);

 

Steps of Preaching the Word of God

A.  Inquired and searched carefully things of one is inspired (v.10);

B.  Search “the Spirit of Christ” who was in the preacher (v.11);

C.  Be revealed and testify beforehand the revelation (v.11-12);

D.  Know the objects of preachments (v.12b);

E.  By the Holy Spirit sent from heaven (v.12b) ---- by the pouring out and anointing of the Holy Spirit;

F.  “Preach” these things to proper target audience (v.12c);

 

Gird up the Loins of Mind

A.  Be sober and rest one’s hope fully upon the revelation of Jesus Christ (v.13);

B.  Purify one’s soul and be holy in all his conduct (v.15-16, 22);

C.  Conduct oneself throughout the time of his stay here in fear (v.17);

D.  Love one another fervently with a pure heart (v.22);

 

Works that the Obedient Children Are Supposed to Have

A.  Not conforming yourselves to the former lusts as in your ignorance (v.14);

B.  You also be holy in all your conduct (v.15);

C.  Be redeemed from our aimless conduct received by tradition from the fathers (v.18);

D.  In sincere love of the brethren and love one another fervently with a pure heart (v.22);

 

Why Shall We Be in Fear?

A.  For it is the holy God that called us (v.15-16);

B.  For God is without partiality (v.17);

C.  For God judges according to each one’s work (v.17);

D.  For the price of our redemption is precious ---- the precious blood of Christ (v.18-19);

 

Three Aspects of Holy Life

A.  Toward God: obey the truth in fear (v.17, 22);

B.  Toward oneself: purify one’s soul (v.22);

C.  Toward men: love one another fervently (v.22);

 

── Caleb HuangChristian Digest Bible Commentary Series

   Translated by Mary Zhou