| Back to Home Page | Back to Book Index |


1 Peter Chapter Five


1 Peter 5

The apostle returns to christian details. He exhorts the elders, himself an elder; for it appears that among the Jews this title was rather characteristic than official. (Compare ver. 5.) He exhorts them to feed the flock of God. The apostle designates himself as one who had been a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and who was to be a partaker of the glory that shall be revealed. It was the function of the twelve to be witnesses of the life of Christ (John 15), as it was that of the Holy Ghost to testify of His heavenly glory. Peter places himself at the two ends of the Lord's history, and leaves the interval devoid of all except hope, and the pilgrimage towards an end. He had seen the sufferings of Christ; he was to share His glory when He should be revealed. It is a Christ who puts Himself in relation with the Jews, now known only by faith. During His life on earth, He was in the midst of the Jews, although suffering there and rejected. When He shall appear, He will again be in relation with the earth and with that nation.

Paul speaks differently, while at the same time confirming these truths. He only knew the Lord after His exaltation; he is not a witness of His sufferings; but he seeks for the power of His resurrection and the fellowship of His sufferings. Paul's heart is bound to Christ while He is in heaven, as united to Him above; and, although he desires the Lord's appearing, for the restitution of all things of which the prophets had spoken, he rejoices to know that he shall go with joy to meet Him, and shall return with Him when He is revealed from heaven.

The elders were to feed the flock of God with a ready mind, and not as by constraint, nor for gain, nor as governing an inheritance of their own, but as ensamples to the flock. Loving care was to be lavished upon it, for the sake of Christ, the chief Shepherd, with a view to the good of souls. Moreover it was the flock of God which they were to feed. What a solemn as well as sweet thought! How impossible for anyone to entertain the notion of its being his flock, if he has laid hold of the thought that it is the flock of God, and that God allows us to feed it !

We may observe that the heart of the blessed apostle is where the Lord had placed it. " Feed my sheep" was the expression of the Lord's perfect grace towards Peter, when He was leading him to the humiliating but salutary confession that it needed the eye of God to see that His weak disciple loved Him. At the moment that He convinced him of his utter nothingness, He entrusted to him that which was dearest to Himself.

Thus we see, here, that it is the apostle's care, the desire of the heart, that they should feed the flock. Here, as elsewhere, he does not go beyond the Lord's appearing. It is at that period that the ways of God in government-of which the Jews were the earthly centre-shall be fully manifested. Then shall the crown of glory be presented to him that has been faithful, that has satisfied the chief Shepherd's heart.

The young were to submit themselves to those who were older, and all to one another. All were to be clothed with humility: for God resists the proud, and gives grace to the humble. These are still the principles of His government. Under His hand they were therefore to humble themselves; they should be exalted in due time. This was to commit themselves to God. He knew what was needful. He who loved them would exalt them at the right time. He cared for them: they were to rest on Him, commit all their cares to Him.

On the other hand, they were to be sober and vigilant, because the adversary sought to devour them. Here-whatever may be his wiles, however he may lie in wait for Christians-it is in the character of a roaring lion, one who excites open persecution, that the apostle presents him. They were to resist him, steadfast in the faith. Everywhere the same afflictions were found. Nevertheless the God of grace is the Christian's confidence. He has called us to participate in His eternal glory. The apostle's desire for them is that, after they had suffered for a time, the God of grace should make them perfect, complete-should stablish and strengthen them, building up their hearts on the foundation of an assurance that cannot be shaken. To Him, he adds, be glory and dominion.

We see that the Christians to whom he wrote were suffering, and that the apostle explained these sufferings on the principles of the divine government, with regard especially to the relation of Christians with God, as being His house, whether those sufferings were for righteousness' sake or for the name of the Lord. It was but for a time. The Christian's hope was elsewhere; christian patience was well-pleasing to God. It was their glory, if it was for the name of Christ. Besides which, God judged His house, and watched over His people.

── John DarbySynopsis of 1 Peter


1 Peter 5

Chapter Contents

Elders exhorted and encouraged. (1-4) Younger Christians are to submit to their elders, and to yield with humility and patience to God, and to be sober, watchful, and stedfast in faith. (5-9) Prayers for their growth and establishment. (10-14)

Commentary on 1 Peter 5:1-4

(Read 1 Peter 5:1-4)

The apostle Peter does not command, but exhorts. He does not claim power to rule over all pastors and churches. It was the peculiar honour of Peter and a few more, to be witnesses of Christ's sufferings; but it is the privilege of all true Christians to partake of the glory that shall be revealed. These poor, dispersed, suffering Christians, were the flock of God, redeemed to God by the great Shepherd, living in holy love and communion, according to the will of God. They are also dignified with the title of God's heritage or clergy; his peculiar lot, chosen for his own people, to enjoy his special favour, and to do him special service. Christ is the chief Shepherd of the whole flock and heritage of God. And all faithful ministers will receive a crown of unfading glory, infinitely better and more honourable than all the authority, wealth, and pleasure of the world.

Commentary on 1 Peter 5:5-9

(Read 1 Peter 5:5-9)

Humility preserves peace and order in all Christian churches and societies; pride disturbs them. Where God gives grace to be humble, he will give wisdom, faith, and holiness. To be humble, and subject to our reconciled God, will bring greater comfort to the soul than the gratification of pride and ambition. But it is to be in due time; not in thy fancied time, but God's own wisely appointed time. Does he wait, and wilt not thou? What difficulties will not the firm belief of his wisdom, power, and goodness get over! Then be humble under his hand. Cast "all you care;" personal cares, family cares, cares for the present, and cares for the future, for yourselves, for others, for the church, on God. These are burdensome, and often very sinful, when they arise from unbelief and distrust, when they torture and distract the mind, unfit us for duties, and hinder our delight in the service of God. The remedy is, to cast our care upon God, and leave every event to his wise and gracious disposal. Firm belief that the Divine will and counsels are right, calms the spirit of a man. Truly the godly too often forget this, and fret themselves to no purpose. Refer all to God's disposal. The golden mines of all spiritual comfort and good are wholly his, and the Spirit itself. Then, will he not furnish what is fit for us, if we humbly attend on him, and lay the care of providing for us, upon his wisdom and love? The whole design of Satan is to devour and destroy souls. He always is contriving whom he may insnare to eternal ruin. Our duty plainly is, to be sober; to govern both the outward and the inward man by the rules of temperance. To be vigilant; suspicious of constant danger from this spiritual enemy, watchful and diligent to prevent his designs. Be stedfast, or solid, by faith. A man cannot fight upon a quagmire, there is no standing without firm ground to tread upon; this faith alone furnishes. It lifts the soul to the firm advanced ground of the promises, and fixes it there. The consideration of what others suffer, is proper to encourage us to bear our share in any affliction; and in whatever form Satan assaults us, or by whatever means, we may know that our brethren experience the same.

Commentary on 1 Peter 5:10-14

(Read 1 Peter 5:10-14)

In conclusion, the apostle prays to God for them, as the God of all grace. Perfect implies their progress towards perfection. Stablish imports the curing of our natural lightness and inconstancy. Strengthen has respect to the growth of graces, especially where weakest and lowest. Settle signifies to fix upon a sure foundation, and may refer to Him who is the Foundation and Strength of believers. These expressions show that perseverance and progress in grace are first to be sought after by every Christian. The power of these doctrines on the hearts, and the fruits in the lives, showed who are partakers of the grace of God. The cherishing and increase of Christian love, and of affection one to another, is no matter of empty compliment, but the stamp and badge of Jesus Christ on his followers. Others may have a false peace for a time, and wicked men may wish for it to themselves and to one another; but theirs is a vain hope, and will come to nought. All solid peace is founded on Christ, and flows from him.

── Matthew HenryConcise Commentary on 1 Peter


1 Peter 5

Verse 1

[1] The elders which are among you I exhort, who am also an elder, and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also a partaker of the glory that shall be revealed:

I who am a fellow-elder — So the first though not the head of the apostles appositely and modestly styles himself.

And a witness of the sufferings of Christ — Having seen him suffer, and now suffering for him.

Verse 2

[2] Feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight thereof, not by constraint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind;

Feed the flock — Both by doctrine and discipline.

Not by constraint — Unwillingly, as a burden.

Not for filthy gain — Which, if it be the motive of acting, is filthy beyond expression. O consider this, ye that leave one flock and go to another, merely because there is more gain, a large salary! Is it not astonishing that men can see no harm in this? that it is not only practised, but avowed, all over the nation?

Verse 3

[3] Neither as being lords over God's heritage, but being ensamples to the flock.

Neither as lording over the heritage — Behaving in a haughty, domineering manner, as though you had dominion over their conscience. The word translated heritage, is, literally, the portions. There is one flock under the one chief Shepherd; but many portions of this, under many pastors.

But being examples to the flock — This procures the most ready and free obedience.

Verse 5

[5] Likewise, ye younger, submit yourselves unto the elder. Yea, all of you be subject one to another, and be clothed with humility: for God resisteth the proud, and giveth grace to the humble.

Ye younger, be subject to the elder — In years.

And be all — Elder or younger.

Subject to each other — Let every one be ready, upon all occasions, to give up his own will. Be clothed with humility-Bind it on, (so the word signifies,) so that no force may be able to tear it from you. James 4:6; Proverbs 3:34

Verse 6

[6] Humble yourselves therefore under the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you in due time:

The hand of God — Is in all troubles.

Verse 7

[7] Casting all your care upon him; for he careth for you.

Casting all your care upon him — In every want or pressure.

Verse 8

[8] Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour:

But in the mean time watch. There is a close connexion between this, and the duly casting our care upon him. How deeply had St. Peter himself suffered for want of watching! Be vigilant - As if he had said, Awake, and keep awake. Sleep no more: be this your care.

As a roaring lion — Full of rage.

Seeking — With all subtilty likewise.

Whom he may devour or swallow up — Both soul and body.

Verse 9

[9] Whom resist stedfast in the faith, knowing that the same afflictions are accomplished in your brethren that are in the world.

Be the more steadfast, as ye know the same kind of afflictions are accomplished in - That is, suffered by, your brethren, till the measure allotted them is filled up.

Verse 10

[10] But the God of all grace, who hath called us unto his eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after that ye have suffered a while, make you perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you.

Now the God of all grace — By which alone the whole work is begun, continued, and finished in your soul.

After ye have suffered a while — A very little while compared with eternity.

Himself — Ye have only to watch and resist the devil: the rest God will perform.

Perfect — That no defect may remain.

Stablish — That nothing may overthrow you.

Strengthen — That ye may conquer all adverse power.

And settle you — As an house upon a rock. So the apostle, being converted, does now "strengthen his brethren."

Verse 12

[12] By Silvanus, a faithful brother unto you, as I suppose, I have written briefly, exhorting, and testifying that this is the true grace of God wherein ye stand.

As I suppose — As I judge, upon good grounds, though not by immediate inspiration.

I have written — That is, sent my letter by him.

Adding my testimony — To that which ye before heard from Paul, that this is the true gospel of the grace of God.

Verse 13

[13] The church that is at Babylon, elected together with you, saluteth you; and so doth Marcus my son.

The church that is at Babylon — Near which St. Peter probably was, when he wrote this epistle.

Elected together with you — Partaking of the same faith with you.

Mark — It seems the evangelist.

My son — Probably converted by St. Peter. And he had occasionally served him, "as a son in the gospel."

── John WesleyExplanatory Notes on 1 Peter


1 Pet. 5: 2~4

A farmer pointed out to a friend his thriving crops and healthy livestock. His companion was especially impressed with the beautiful sheep in the pasture. He had seen the same breed before, but never such attractive animals. Curious, he asked the farmer how he had managed to raise such outstanding sheep. The answer was straightforward but profound: “My friend, I just take very good care of the lambs.”


Chapter 5. Examples of Elders

Not to Lord Over
But to Set Example

I. Appeal the Elders

  1. Witness of Suffering
  2. Shepherd the Flock
  3. Willing and Eager

II. The Young Submits to the Old

  1. Clothe with Humility
  2. Humble before God
  3. Lift up in Due Time

III. Cast Anxiety on God

  1. Self-controlled and Alert
  2. Resist the Devil
  3. Stand Fast in Grace

── Chih-Hsin ChangAn Outline of The New Testament

Chapter Five General Review
1) To examine the duties of elders, in their role as shepherds (pastors)
   and overseers (bishops)
2) To note the importance of submission and humility in our relation to
   elders, one another, and God
3) To consider how we might best counter our adversary, the devil
4) To glean how Peter sought to encourage his brethren in their
The final chapter contains charges to elders and their respective
flocks.  As a fellow elder, Peter commands elders to shepherd the flock
of God among them, serving as overseers.  Doing so willingly and
eagerly, they were to serve as examples to the flock. The younger
members of the flock are then commanded to submit to their elders and to
one another, with humility (1-5).
They were to also humble themselves under the mighty hand of God and
cast their cares upon Him, trusting that He would exalt them in due time
because He cares for them.  Since their adversary the devil walks about
like a lion seeking to devour them, they are to be sober and vigilant,
resisting him steadfast in the faith.  They can take courage in knowing
that other brethren are likewise suffering (6-9).
The epistle draws to a close, first with a prayer that God will
eventually perfect, establish, strengthen, and settle them.  Mention is
made of Silvanus, and Peter's purpose in writing.  Greetings are sent by
"she who is in Babylon" and "Mark, my son".  Finally, a command to greet
one another with a kiss of love is given, along with a prayer for peace
to all who are in Christ Jesus (10-14).
      1. As exhorted by a fellow elder
         a. A witness of the sufferings of Christ
         b. A partaker of the glory that will be revealed
      2. To shepherd the flock of God among them
         a. Serving as overseers
            1) Not be compulsion but willingly
            2) Not for dishonest gain but eagerly
            3) Not as lords but as examples
         b. So when the Chief Shepherd appears, they will receive the
            unfading crown of glory
      1. Submit yourselves
         a. To your elders
         b. To one another
      3. Clothe yourselves with humility
         a. For God resists the proud
         b. For God gives grace to the humble
      1. Humble yourselves under His mighty hand, that He may exalt you
         in due time
      2. Cast all your care upon Him, for He cares for you
      1. Be sober and vigilant of your adversary
         a. The devil walks about like a roaring lion
         b. The devil seeks whom he may devour
      2. Resist your adversary
         a. Remaining steadfast in the faith
         b. Knowing that the same sufferings are experienced by brethren
            in the world
   A. CLOSING PRAYER (10-11)
      1. May the God of all grace perfect, establish, strengthen, and
         settle you
         a. Who called us to His eternal glory by Christ Jesus
         b. After you have suffered a while
      2. To Him be the glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen
      1. Peter has written to them briefly
         a. By Silvanus, a faithful brother
         b. Exhorting and testifying that this is the true grace of God
            in which they stand
      2. Greetings from:
         a. She who is in Babylon, elect together with you
         b. Mark, his son
      3. Greet one another with a kiss of love
      4. Peace to you all who are in Christ Jesus. Amen
1) What are the main points of this chapter?
   - The duties of shepherds and the flock (1-5)
   - The duties to God and Satan (6-9)
   - Concluding remarks (10-14)
2) How does Peter identify himself as he exhorts the elders? (1)
   - As a fellow elder
   - As a witness of the sufferings of Christ
   - As a partaker of the glory that will be revealed
3) What is the duty of the elders? (2)
   - To shepherd the flock of God among them
4) How were they to serve as elders? (3-4)
   - As overseers
   - Not by compulsion, but willingly
   - Not for dishonest gain, but eagerly
   - Not as lords, but as examples to the flock
5) What reward can elders look forward to when the Chief Shepherd
   appears? (5)
   - The crown of glory that does not fade away
6) What twofold duty is enjoined upon those who are younger? (5)
   - To submit to the elders and to one another
   - To be clothed with humility
7) What were they commanded to do in relation to God? (6-7)
   - Humble themselves under the mighty hand of God
   - Cast all their care upon Him
8) Why were they to do this? (6-7)
   - That God might exalt them in due time
   - Because He cares for them
9) Who is their adversary?  What is he doing? (8)
   - The devil; walking about like a lion, seeking whom he may devour
10) What should they do in regards to their adversary? (8-9)
   - Be sober, be vigilant
   - Resist him, steadfast in the faith
11) What should encourage them in their suffering? (9-10)
   - Knowing that the same sufferings are experienced by their brethren
     in the world
   - That after they have suffered a while, God will perfect, establish,
     strengthen and settle them
12) By whom has Peter penned this epistle? (12)
   - Silvanus, a faithful brother
13) What has been Peter's purpose in writing this epistle? (12)
   - To exhort and testify that this is the true grace of God in which
     they stand
14) Who sends them greetings? (13)
   - She who is in Babylon, elect together with them
   - Mark, his son
15) What final charge does Peter give?  What final prayer? (14)
   - Greet one another with a kiss of love
   - Peace to all who are in Christ Jesus


Peter's Exhortation To Elders (5:1-4)
1. At all times, but especially during persecution, the people of God 
   need good leadership
2. In His Divine wisdom, the Lord saw fit to organize His church in 
   such a way that the condition He witnessed during His earthly 
   ministry ("like sheep having no shepherd" - Mt 9:36) should not 
   last for long
3. His plan calls for local congregations to be overseen by qualified 
   men, known as "elders", and whose responsibilities were to "shepherd
   the flock of God"
4. In our text (1 Pe 5:1-4), we read of such men, and Peter's 
   exhortation to them.  In this lesson, we shall...
   a. Briefly summarize what is said about elders in the Lord's church 
      throughout the Scriptures
   b. Consider the exhortation given by Peter to the elders in 1 Pe 5:
[We begin, therefore, with...]
      1. Local congregations as soon as possible were organized under 
         the leadership of elders - cf. Ac 14:23
      2. In every example we have, there was a "plurality" of elders in
         each church, never just one elder - e.g., Ac 20:17; 21:17-18
      1. Can be seen by the use of terms that are used interchangeably
         in the Scriptures
         a. Such terms as "elder, pastor, bishop, shepherd, overseer"
         b. That they refer to the same position is evident by their 
            use in:
            1) Ac 20:17,28 -- where elders are called "overseers"
               (bishops), and charged to "shepherd" (pastor) the church
            2) Ti 1:5-7 -- where "elder" and "bishop" (overseer) are
               used together
            3) 1 Pe 5:1-2 -- where "elders" are told to "shepherd"
               (pastor) the flock of God, serving as "overseers" 
      2. As "older men", therefore, they are to watch over (bishop, 
         overseer) the flock, and to tend (shepherd, pastor) the sheep
      1. With such an awesome responsibility to watch over and tend the
         flock of God, one can understand that it takes men with who
         are truly qualified
      2. Two lists of qualifications for elders are found in 1 Ti 3:
         1-7; Ti 1:5-9
      1. Is to recognize and respect them - 1 Th 5:12-13; 1 Ti 5:17-20
      2. To obey and be submissive when they lead scripturally - He 13:
         17; 1 Pe 5:5
[Think of elders, then, as your "spiritual advisors", as "shepherds"; 
who are to be mature, experienced Christian men charged by God to 
"watch out for your souls"!
With this brief summary fresh in our minds, let's now consider...]
      1. As coming from one who is a fellow elder
         a. Peter could have "commanded" them, using his apostolic 
         b. But practicing what he will preach in verse 3, Peter chose
            to "exhort" them as a "fellow elder"
      2. As coming from one who is a witness of the sufferings of 
         Christ, and a partaker of the glory that will be revealed
         a. He has certainly been an eyewitness of Christ's suffering
         b. But he has also been a personal partaker of the suffering 
            of Christ as described earlier in 1 Pe 4:13; cf. Ac 5:
         c. And so will be a partaker of the same glory referred to 
            later in verse 4
      1. "Shepherd the flock of God"
         a. To tend (pastor) to the people of God; for this reason,
            elders must be...
            1) "able to teach" - 1 Ti 3:2
            2) "able, by sound doctrine, both to exhort and convict
               those who contradict" - Ti 1:9
         b. As Paul told the elders of the church in Ephesus, this
            involves "taking heed" to themselves as well - cf. Ac 20:
      2. "which is among you"
         a. Their responsibility is for the sheep in the congregation
            where they serve
         b. Even as Paul told the Ephesian elders:  "the flock, among
            which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers" - Ac 20:28
         c. The concept of one or more elders (bishops, pastors) over a
            plurality of churches is foreign to the New Testament
      3. "serving as overseers"
         a. Here the work of elders is summarized:  to oversee the
            flock of God
         b. But notice that Peter calls such oversight as "serving"
         c. In keeping with what is said later, the role of elder is 
            one of a servant, not a lord
      4. "not by constraint but willingly"
         a. A man cannot be appointed to serve against his will
         b. Indeed, there is nothing wrong with "desiring the position"
             - cf. 1 Ti 3:1
         c. But the moment he loses the desire to serve willingly, he 
            should step down, for he will not be able to serve as he 
      5. "not for dishonest gain but eagerly"
         a. An elder may be financially supported for his work - cf.
            1 Ti 5:17-18
         b. But the motive for service is not to be money, but an
            eagerness to save souls!
      6. "nor as being lords over those entrusted to you"
         a. As implied before, the oversight is a position of service,
            not to be abused by assuming a dictatorial role
         b. A sobering thought is that elders are "entrusted" with the
            souls under their care, and they will be called to give an
            account! - He 13:17
      7. "but being examples to the flock"
         a. Just as sheep are best led, and not driven, so it is with
            the people of God
         b. Qualified elders will have less problem getting people to
            follow them and submitting to their care
         c. When elders do not provide examples of spirituality, the
            flock is more likely to rebel against their leadership
      1. First, perhaps a subtle reminder that "elders" are also under
         a. There is one who is "the Chief Shepherd" (Jesus) who will 
            one day appear
         b. One to whom they will have to give an account - He 13:17
      2. But more positively, a promise of recognition for faithful 
         a. "you will receive the crown of glory that does not fade 
         b. Like the "inheritance" reserved in heaven that "does not 
            fade away" - cf. 1 Pe 1:4
1. Those who serve well as elders are certainly worthy of "the crown of
   glory" that awaits them
2. Hopefully, as we better understand the exhortation given by Peter,
   we will appreciate the work they do in the kingdom of God...
   a. We will "esteem them very highly in love for their work's sake"
      (1 Th 5:13)
   b. We will "obey", and "be submissive", so they can watch out for
      our souls "with joy and not with grief" (He 13:17)
In our next lesson, we shall consider Peter's exhortations to those who
are younger (1 Pe 5:5-9)...


Peter's Exhortation To The Young (5:5-9)
1. In this fifth and final chapter, we find Peter concluding with a
   series of exhortations...
   a. In our last lesson, we saw that he first directed his remarks
      toward "elders" - 1 Pe 5:1-4
   b. Now, in 1 Pe 5:5-9, the exhortation is geared toward "younger 
      people", though much of it certainly applies to all Christians
2. The gist of his remarks reflect themes mentioned previously in his 
   epistle, but Peter was one who understood the value of repetition 
   and reminding - cf. 2 Pe 1:12-15
[The first exhortation, therefore, is one we have seen stressed 
throughout 1st Peter...]
      1. Christians in general, to government authorities - 1 Pe 2:
      2. Christian slaves, to their masters - 1 Pe 2:18
      3. Christian wives, to their husbands - 1 Pe 3:1
      1. Younger Christians, to their elders - 1 Pe 5:5a
         a. This may be a reference to those "elders" described in 
            verses 1-4
         b. Or it may refer to all older Christians
      2. Christians in general, to one another - 1 Pe 5:5b; cf. Ep 5:21
      1. The word in Greek is hupotasso {hoop-ot-as'-so}
      2. Various shades of meaning include:
         a. to arrange under, to subordinate
         b. to subject, put in subjection
         c. to subject one's self, obey
         d. to submit to one's control
         e. to yield to one's admonition or advice
         f. to obey, be subject
      3. It was also a Greek military term meaning "to arrange [troop 
         divisions] in a military fashion under the command of a 
      4. In non-military use, it is "a voluntary attitude of giving in,
         cooperating, assuming responsibility, and carrying a burden"
[The quality of submission goes a long way towards preserving unity and
peace in churches, especially when all are submissive to one another.
Yet true submission comes only if we heed Peter's next exhortation...]
      1. The word Peter uses is tapeinophrosune {tap-i-nof-ros-oo'-nay}
      2. It means to have a humble opinion of one's self; lowliness of
      3. It is an important quality of that which makes up "the mind of
         Christ" - cf. Ph 2:3-5
      1. Not only to preserve peace and unity in our relationships with
         one another
      2. But also to preserve a proper relationship with God...
         a. "God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble"
         b. A quotation based upon Pr 3:34, and quoted also by James 
            in Ja 4:6
         c. A person with a humble spirit is highly esteemed by God 
            - cf. Isa 57:15; 66:1-2
      3. Understanding God's high estimation of a humble and contrite 
      1. "humble yourselves under the mighty hand of God" - 1 Pe 5:6
         a. That is, to submit to His providential workings in our 
         b. Even if it means enduring persecution, as was the case in 
            Peter's day!
      2. "cast all your care upon Him" - 1 Pe 5:7
         a. Don't fret or worry about things over which you have no 
         b. Let your Heavenly Father worry about such things
         c. Even as Jesus taught in Mt 6:31-34
      1. God will give grace (show unmerited favor) to the humble - 
         1 Pe 5:5
      2. He will exalt the humble in due time - 1 Pe 5:6
[When the time is right, then, God will exalt His people who place 
their faith and trust in Him, by humbly submitting to His Will and to 
one another.
In the meantime, lest Satan cheat us of our reward, Peter enjoins us 
      1. He is called the "devil"
         a. The Greek word is diabolos {dee-ab'-ol-os}
         b. Meaning "one prone to slander, slanderous, accusing 
      2. Peter's describes him as a "roaring lion, seeking whom he may
         a. What bearing does this verse have on the doctrine of "once 
            saved, always saved"?
         b. If such a doctrine is true...
            1) Why does Peter bother to warn Christians who cannot be 
            2) Why does Satan bother to seek out those whom he cannot 
            3) Indeed, why ANY warnings (and they are legion) to 
               Christians? - e.g., He 3:12-15
         c. Because there IS a very real danger of apostasy, we have 
            such warnings!
      1. We need to be serious ("be sober"), and watchful ("be 
         vigilant") - 1 Pe 5:8a; cf. Lk 21:34-36
      2. We need to resist the devil - 1 Pe 5:9a; cf. Ja 4:7
      3. We need to remain steadfast in the faith - 1 Pe 5:b; cf. Co 
      4. It helps to realize that we are not alone in our struggle - 
         1 Pe 5:9c; cf. 1 Co 10:13
1. Why God allows such struggle will be more apparent when we consider 
   Peter's "benediction" in verse 10, but we will save that for the
   next and final lesson in this series
2. While Peter's exhortations in verses 5-9 certainly apply to all 
   Christians, they have special value to those who are "younger"
   a. They are often the most tested by our adversary, the devil
   b. They have not had the time or experience to learn the value of 
      such virtues as "submission", "humility", and "watchfulness"
3. But for those who are willing to listen, both young and old, heeding
   the exhortations of Peter can ensure that we will...
   a. Receive the grace we need to withstand and overcome the devil
   b. In due time be exalted by God Himself!


Be Hopeful! (5:10-14)
1. In an epistle written to Christians undergoing severe persecution, 
   Peter chooses to close on a positive note - 1 Pe 5:10-14
2. For no matter how terrible the "fiery trials" may become, Christians
   can always have "hope"!
3. In these last few verses of this epistle, Peter offers...
   a. A benediction (10)
   b. A doxology (11)
   c. A summary (12)
   d. A few words of greeting (13)
   e. A final command to love one another (14a)
   f. A final prayer for peace (14b)
[Throughout this "collage" of concluding remarks, we find several 
reasons why Christians can always "Be Hopeful", even in the midst of 
terrible trials.
For example, we are reminded of the fact that...]
      1. Indeed, His grace is "manifold" - 1 Pe 4:10
      2. Just as His gifts are varied, so He provides whatever we need
         in any circumstance - cf. He 4:16
      1. Our salvation is because of His grace - cf. 1 Pe 1:10
      2. Those who are saved have "tasted that the Lord is gracious" 
         - 1 Pe 2:3
[With the knowledge that by remaining faithful to Christ we "stand in 
the true grace of God", we can take comfort knowing that the "God of 
all grace" will be with us all the way.
Which leads to another comforting thought...]
      1. This is the purpose of our calling, to receive the glory that 
         awaits us
      2. That glory involves the "inheritance incorruptible and 
         undefiled and that does not fade away, reserved in heaven for
         you" - 1 Pe 1:4
      1. It is no different than what Jesus experienced - cf. Lk 24:26
      2. And we can look forward to participating in His glory, if we 
         are willing to suffer with Him - cf. 1 Pe 4:13-14
[Knowing what lies ahead for those persevere can help us remain 
steadfast in the faith.  So can knowing that...]
      1. Earlier, Peter had said "a little while" - 1 Pe 1:6
      2. By their very nature, physical sufferings cannot last forever
      1. Suffering is for "a while", glory is "eternal"
      2. Is not the "glory" worth the "suffering"?
      3. The apostle Paul thought so - cf. 2 Co 4:16-18
[But not only can we remain hopeful knowing that suffering is 
temporary to be replaced by glory that is eternal, in the meantime we
can take consolation in knowing that...]
      1. The word used by Peter means "to equip, to adjust, to fit 
      2. God "perfects" His people using several tools...
         a. One is the Word of God - cf. 2 Ti 3:16-17
         b. Gifts were given to the church toward the same end - cf. 
            Ep 4:11-16
      3. And suffering is certainly another tool - cf. Ro 5:3-4; Ja 1:
      1. This means "to fix firmly, to set fast"
      2. Christians need to be steadfast in the faith - cf. 1 Pe 5:9; 
         2 Pe 3:17
      3. Through persecution often comes steadfastness, for the one who
         has endured suffering for the cause of Christ is not likely to
         led away from the truth
      1. Make one stronger
      2. Which is a normal consequence of enduring trial
      1. That is, "to lay a foundation"
      2. The Lord would have us to be solid, like that house built on a
         rock - cf. Mt 7:24-27
1. Peter is confident that for those who remain faithful in suffering, 
   God will bless them in the four ways listed in verse 10
2. We too can have confidence, knowing that...
   a. We have God's grace
   b. We are going to glory
   c. Our suffering is only temporary
   d. With suffering comes blessing
3. It is with such confidence that Peter closes with:
   a. A collection of greetings, from...
      1) "Silvanus" - Silas, a traveling companion of Paul
      2) "She who is in Babylon, elect together with you" - likely a 
         a) Either in literal Babylon, located in modern day Iraq
         b) Or in figurative Babylon, which could be a reference to 
            either Rome or Jerusalem
      3) "Mark my son" - John Mark, nephew of Barnabas, and author of 
         the gospel of Mark
   b. An exhortation to love:  "Greet one another with a kiss of love"
   c. And a prayer for peace:  "Peace to all who are in Christ Jesus"
May the example of Peter's confidence and hope, as well as his actual
teaching found throughout this epistle, serve to help us remain full of
hope during our sojourn as pilgrims of God!
      "To Him be the glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen."
                                    -- 1 Pe 5:11

--《Executable Outlines


Examples of elders

Not to Lord over

But to set example


I.  Appeal the elders

1.    Witness of suffering

2.    Shepherd the flock

3.    Willing and eager

II.The young submits to the old

1.    Clothe with humility

2.    Humble before God

3.    Lift up in due time

III.       Cast anxiety on God

1.    Self-controlled and alert

2.    Resist the devil

3.    Stand fast in grace

-- Chih-Hsin ChangAn Outline of The New Testament