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Jude Commentary                              


I. Content of the Chapter


To Be Defenders of the Most Holy Faith

A.  Opening words ---- know oneself (v.1-3);

1.  The identity of the defenders ---- those who are called and beloved and preserved (v.1);

2.  The provision for the defenders ---- mercy and peace and love be multiplied to them (v.2);

3.  The mission of the defenders ---- who contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints (v.3);

B.  Let us distinguish the enemies ---- the apostates (v.4-16);

1.  Characteristics of the apostates (v.4);

2.  The historical examples of the apostates (v.5-7);

a.The unbelieving people of Israel are destroyed (v.5);

b.The angels who did not keep their proper domain were reserved  (v.6);

c.  Sodom and Gomorrah that committed sexual immorality were burnt (v.7);

3.  The apostates do not what (v.8-10);

a.Defile the flesh (v.8a);

b.Reject authority and speak evil of dignitaries (v.8b-10a);

c.  Like brute beasts (v.10b);

4.  Three historical examples of the apostates (v.11);

a.The way of Cain (v.11a);

b.Run greedily in the error of Balaam for profit (v.11b);

c.  Perish in the rebellion of Korah (v.11c);

5.  Six descriptions of the apostates (v.12-13);

a.Spots in your love feasts (v.12a);

b.Serve only themselves (v.12b);

c.  They are clouds without water, carried about by the winds (v.12b);

d.Late autumn trees without fruit (v.12c);

e.Rage waves of the sea (v.13a);

f.   Wandering stars (v.13b);

6.  Enoch prophecies the apostates will be finally judged (v.14-16);

a.The Lord comes with ten thousands of His saints (v.14);

b.To convict all who are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have committed in an ungodly way (v.15a);

c.  And of all the harsh things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him (v.15b-16);

C.  Equip oneself;

1.  Remember the words which were spoken before by the apostles of our Lord (v.17-19);

2.  Equip oneself in three things (v.20-21):

a.Build yourselves up on your most holy faith (v.20a);

b.Pray in the Holy Spirit (v.20b);

c.  Keep yourselves in the love of God (v.21);

3.  Three attitudes that three sorts of men should have (v.22-23);

a.On some have compassion, making a distinction (v.22);

b.Pull them out of the fire (v.23a);

c.  Others save with fear (v.23b);

D.  Closing words ---- praise (v.24-25);

1.   The only God our Savior who is able to keep you from stumbling (v.24);

2.   Be glory and majesty, dominion and power to Him (v.25);


II. Verse by Verse Commentary


Jude 1 “Jude, a bondservant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James, To those who are called, sanctified by God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ:”

YLT: “Judas, of Jesus Christ a servant, and brother of James, to those sanctified in God the Father, and in Jesus Christ kept -- called,”

Meaning of Words: bondservant”: bondman; Jude”: praise;be called”: be appointed;be preserved”: be kept, be guarded;

Literal Meaning: a bondservant of Jesus Christ, “bondservant”: a slave who has sold himself into slavery; the writer Jude did not call himself the brother of the Lord Jesus in the flesh but His bondservant, indicating that the corporeal relationship in the past has been sublimated to heavenly relationship in the new life and Jude would no longer live for himself but live for serving the Lord.

“And brother of James, most of the Bible expositors believe this “James” was the famous “pillar of the church” (see Gal. 2:9) in the early church time, the brother of the Lord Jesus in the flesh (see Matt. 13:55). If it was so, Jude the writer of this book was his younger brother of the Lord Jesus.

To those who are called, “to…”, this epistle is an official letter. We do not know where the recipients were but know their identity. “Those who…”: here it refers to a particular group of people. “Who are called”, we are not saved because of our pursuit, but the call of God (see Gal. 1:15) and inspiration of the Spirit. God has called us out of the world and sanctified us unto Him (see 1Pet. 2:9).

“Sanctified by God the Father, all those who are called by God have been sanctified by God (see 1Cor. 1:2 “called saints”).

Note: the word “call” in the original carries three meanings: 1) “call” somebody to attend a banquet, which is a kind of privilege and enjoyment; 2) “call” somebody to fulfill a mission, which is a kind of duty and responsibility; 3) “call” somebody to receive judgments, which is a kind of appointment and destination. Christians are called to lead a life of being called today and to be rewarded on that day according to our response to the calling now.

“And preserved in Jesus Christ”, it contains two meanings: 1) we believers are preserved in Jesus Christ and Jesus Christ is the premise and power of our being preserved. 2) We are preserved for the sake of Jesus Christ and Jesus Christ is the goal and purpose of our being preserved.

Note: one characteristic of this book is “triangular combinations”. There are three combinations in verse one: 1) Jesus Christ, James and Jude; 2) master, bondservant and brother; 3) be called and be sanctified and be preserved. Christians are now called to follow God and will be called to be rewarded or punished in the future. To be rewarded or not, it is decided by our present response to the calling of God today.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)    As the physical brother of the Lord Jesus, Jude hides this identity and calls him “the bondservant of Jesus Christ”. He humbles himself and has the image of Christ Jesus (see Phil. 2:7).

2)    The greatest glory of Christians is to be “bondservants of Jesus Christ” and be used by the Lord.

3)    Jude had another famous brother James who was the overseer of the church of Jerusalem (see Acts 12:17). Jude was willing to remain in the background, seeking no power but serving silently. Let us also seek not to be at the top but live to the Lord (Rom. 14:8).

4)    All believers are those who are called and sanctified and preserved by God, which shows us that our present position and condition are of God and He has His purpose on us. Therefore, let us ask: “Lord, what shall I do?” (Acts 22:10).

5)    Christians are called and remained in the world to be messengers of Christ here and speak for Him and be witnesses of Him by our life. What an honorable mission!

6)    He has loved his own who were in the world, loved them to the end (see John 13:1). Let us know whom we have believed, and be persuaded that He is able to “keep” for that day the deposit we have entrusted to him (see 2Tim. 1:12).

7)    Christians are never alone all our life, for Jesus Christ “keeps” us. He is the out-sentry as well as the defender who never leaves us but abides with us forever.

8)    Once a Christian is saved, he has been living under God’s attendance. Our weakness and failure and offence are not purposed by God, but caused by our own reliance and pursuit outside of God.

9)    There is an apparent paradox in Christianity: the more liberal we pursue, the more we are bound. The more we are willing to give up all, the more perfect freedom we will obtain. The key problem is: do you want to be your own master or let God govern you all?


Jude 2 “Mercy, peace, and love be multiplied to you.”

YLT: “kindness to you, and peace, and love, be multiplied!”

Meaning of Words: mercy”: compassion; peace”: harmony, rest;love”: kindness, “agape”;multiplied”: increase;

Literal Meaning: “mercy” means compassion and sympathy, which indicates us that we shall come to the throne of grace with boldness for seasonable help in spite of our own spiritual condition (see Heb. 4:16), peace, the divine peace guards our hearts and minds (see Phil. 4:7) beyond the present environment and knowledge so that we have peace and rest toward God and others and ourselves and everything. “Love” refers to the ever unconditional and sacrificial love of God. Such divine love can be bound by nothing and poured out into our hearts (see Rom. 5:5). “Be multiplied”: be fully given;

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     Facing the attacks of heresies, we Christians cannot stand firm by our own strength, but by the divine mercy and peace and love.

2)     Mercy enables us to overcome our weakness. Peace helps us to overcome the difficult environments. Love makes us overcome rebellion of others.

3)     Helps from God are “multiplied” according to our specific needs.


Jude 3 “Beloved, while I was very diligent to write to you concerning our common salvation, I found it necessary to write to you exhorting you to contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints.”

YLT: “Beloved, all diligence using to write to you concerning the common salvation, I had necessity to write to you, exhorting to agonize for the faith once delivered to the saints,”

Meaning of Words: “diligent”: earnest, zealous; common”: shared by all or several; salvation”: saving, deliverance; necessary”: constraint, needful; delivered”: commit, give, entrust; faith”: belief; contend”: struggle for;

Literal Meaning: “beloved, while I was very diligent to write to you”, it suggests that the original purpose of Jude is to write a comparatively long and complete epistle concerning “the common salvation” with diligence.

  “Concerning our common salvation”, the common salvation was supposed to be the original theme of Jude’s epistle. However, he was moved by the Spirit and found the truth of salvation was facing crisis. Therefore, he began to first expose the true face of heretical false teachers and then exhorted believers to contend for the truth of salvation.

  “I found it necessary to write to you exhorting you”, “necessary to”: have to; it shows that actions should be immediately taken to prevent deterioration.

  “To contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints”, “once for all delivered to…”, the faith was given once for all, which means nothing shall be added to the faith and no part of the faith shall be taken away (see Rev. 22:18-19). “Faith”: the fundamental truth of the faith; “contend earnestly”, the word in the original describes the athletes in the sports of Olympic Games contend at full blast to win. 

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     Christians shall do everything with “diligence”. Perfunctoriness is not only an evil habit of the common people but also the mistake of common believers.

2)     On one hand, “salvation” is very personal that no one can replace others. On the other hand, “salvation” is open to all. As long as anyone is willing, he can obtain and enjoy the salvation.

3)     Many times, the burden from God forces us to obey. Just as Paul says, a necessity is laid upon me, for it is woe to me if I should not announce the glad tidings (1Cor. 9:16).

4)     The truth of faith (namely, the truth of salvation) was delivered to us once for all. We shall in no wise add or cut down the conditions of salvation. Any addition or cutting down has varied the gospel of Christ (see Gal. 1:6-9).

5)     “Faith delivered to the saints”, it shows that every believer has his responsibility to fulfill, namely, keep the truth that has been delivered to us.

6)     Every believer is responsible to do his best to keep the truth of faith ---- concerning the truth of “the holy Trinity” and “redemption of the cross”. Concerning the interpretations of the details of the truth (e.g. the Rapture, the Great Tribulation, etc.), differences shall be allowed. Otherwise, we should grasp the shadow and let go the substance.

7)     Christians shall not compromise with or yield to heresies, but shall be tolerant of extremity. Heresies have changed the truth of salvation. And extremity is concerned with the truth of “victory”, not “salvation”.


Jude 4 “For certain men have crept in unnoticed, who long ago were marked out for this condemnation, ungodly men, who turn the grace of our God into lewdness and deny the only Lord God and our Lord Jesus Christ.”

YLT: “for there did come in unobserved certain men, long ago having been written beforehand to this judgment, impious, the grace of our God perverting to lasciviousness, and our only Master, God, and Lord -- Jesus Christ -- denying,”

Meaning of Words: creep”: slip; long age”: of old; be marked out”: be prescribed, be evidently set forth; “condemnation”: judgment; “ungodly”: impious; “grace”: graciousness, pleasure; “turn”: change, vary; “lewdness”: unbridled lusts, filthiness; “Lord”: master;

Literal Meaning: “for certain men have crept in unnoticed, “certain men” refer to false believers and false teachers, especially the latter one, namely, the heretical false teachers; “have crept”: slip in secretly under the cloak of hypocrisy; 

“Who long ago were marked out for this condemnation, it indicates that their end was doomed. Note that here it is not that they were appointed to be heretical false teachers, but were destined to be judged and condemned.

“Ungodly men, the rebellious attitude toward God; not fear God in teachings and conversations;

“Who turn the grace of our God into lewdness”, “the grace of God”: the liberty to men in the gracious promise of God; “lewdness”: lasciviousness and lack of morality; here it shows that they misuse the liberty of Christians do just as they desire in spite of moral standards (see Gal. 5:13).

“And deny the only Lord God and our Lord Jesus Christ”, “the only Lord”: the true God who governs all things; “our Lord Jesus Christ”: the incarnated Son of God; there is only one definite article of the two names, so both of them refer to the same one. Jesus Christ we believe is the true God. Here the writer emphasizes the governing power of the Lord Jesus on His believers to correct the fault of the heretical teachers that they confess the humanity of Jesus but deny His divinity.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     Heretical false teachers are deceitful and transform themselves into the apostles of Christ (see 2Cor. 11:13) to deceive true believers that their thoughts should be corrupted from simplicity as to the Christ (see 2Cor. 11:3).

2)     Whoever follows Satan will enter into eternal fire, prepared for the devil and his angels (see Matt. 25:41). Whoever follows heretical false teachers were marked out ungodly men for this condemnation.

3)     Faults of heretical false teachers can be divided into three sorts: a) to God: ungodly; b) to oneself: turn the grace of God into sins; c) to men: teach wrong doctrines.

4)     Sometimes, mistakes we Christians have committed are even quite similar to what heretical false teachers have done: a) be ungodly to fear men instead of God to know one’s faults; b) ignore feelings of conscience after sins with excuse of God’s abundant grace; c) call Jesus Lord by mouth but disobey Him in heart and conduct, denying His sovereignty.

5)     The false conditions mentioned in this verse are ever worse: first they do not respect God and then distort the grace of God and finally deny the Son of God, namely, God Himself.


Jude 5 “But I want to remind you, though you once knew this, that the Lord, having saved the people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed those who did not believe.”

YLT: “and to remind you I intend, you knowing once this, that the Lord, a people out of the land of Egypt having saved, again those who did not believe did destroy;”

Meaning of Words: afterward”: later;destroy”: annul;know”: see, understand;remind”: recall;

Literal Meaning: “that the Lord, having saved the people out of the land of Egypt”, “the Lord” refers to Jehovah God; “the people”: the people of Israel; “out of the land of Egypt”: be brought out of the land of Egypt (see Ex. 3:7-8);

  “Afterward destroyed those who did not believe”, “afterward”: they came to another place later, namely, the wilderness of Sinai (see Num. 14:29, 35-37); “those who did not believe”: those who complained and disbelieved that God enabled them to overcome the Canaanites;

“Though you once knew this”, all Christians who have read the Old Scriptures are familiar with this history; “this”: things the people of Israel had experienced in the past;

  But I want to remind you”, “remind”: it is because we often forget the history;

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     Faith is the source of being favored and blessed. God regards “unfaithfulness” as serious sin, but many Christians even ignore it.

2)     Believers shall keep the faith from the beginning until we see the Lord. The Lord had said, “But when the Son of man comes, shall he indeed find faith on the earth” (Luke 18:8)?

3)     Preachers shall never tire of repeating the well-known teachings to “remind” all believers, for believers are easy to forget the biblical examples that are not supposed to be forgotten (see 1Cor. 10:11). The Lord Jesus also set the bread and cup himself to let us remember His death (see 1Cor. 11:23-26).


Jude 6 “And the angels who did not keep their proper domain, but left their own abode, He has reserved in everlasting chains under darkness for the judgment of the great day;”

YLT: “messengers also, those who did not keep their own principality, but did leave their proper dwelling, to a judgment of a great day, in bonds everlasting, under darkness He hath kept,”

Meaning of Words: not keep”: not preserve; proper domain”: first and primary domain;left”: leave;abode”: dwelling-place;chains”: bands;reserve”: hold, keep;great day”: large day;

Literal Meaning: “and the angels who did not keep their proper domain, but left their own abode, “and…”, here it will raise another example of ungodliness concerning the angels in the heavens. “Did not keep their proper domain”: fail to be faithful; left their own abode”: leave the ministry appointed by God; “the angels”: the fallen angels followed Satan and rebelled against God. “Their”: that of the angels who had committed the particular sins, not all the rebellious angels who followed Satan, for there is still the spiritual of wickedness in the heavenlies (see Eph. 6:12), namely, the evil spirits.

  Here it suggests that God had ever appointed different duties and authorities and positions to the angels.

He has reserved in everlasting chains under darkness”, “”, (see Eph. 6:12); “has reserved in everlasting…”, the angels will not be reserved in darkness forever, but until the day of judgment to receive the eternal judgment; “darkness”, it refers to the place where the angels who had sinned, the deepest pit of gloom which is lower than the hell (see 2Pet. 2:4).

“For the judgment of the great day”, “the judgment of the great day”: very probably it is the judgment before the great white throne (see Rev. 20:10-12).

Referring to other verses, we can infer the conditions of the angels’ sins and end: 1) there were spiritual in the heaven without distinction of sexuality (see Matt. 22:30); 2) they followed Satan and rebelled against God and rejected their proper domain in the heaven (see Jude v.6; Rev. 12:4, 9); 3) some of the rebellious angels came to the earth and came into men’s bodies and had sexual relationship with men and beget abnormal seeds so that God would destroy the earth by flood (see Gen. 6:4-7); 4) their spiritual bodies were kept in the dark pit to be judged (see 2Pet. 2:4); 5) the poison of fornication still remained in the world and was imitated by the Sodomites and became a kind of manner of life (see Jude v.7).

Some Bible expositors believed that “the sons of God” (Gen. 6:4) did not refer to the angels but the children of Seth and “the children of man” referred to the children of Cain. Such inference is somewhat unexplainable: 1) If God desired to hinder such mixed intercourse, he would remove Cain and his children early and did not wait until one thousand years later; 2) why could the children of Seth and that of Cain born beget “Anak”? 3) God commanded the Israel to destroy the Canaanites, for there were “sons of Anak” in the Canaanites (see Num. 13:33).

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)    The fallen angels “were reserved” in darkness because of not keeping in their domain. He who “does not keep” his proper domain will “be reserved” in the worst position, having only himself to blame.

2)    He who rejects the realm appointed by God will be finally limited in a smaller and worse and less free realm and be under greater judgment. How terrible!

3)    The fallen angels were cast down from the heaven to the deepest pit of darkness because of pride and rebellion. And the Lord Jesus was willing to be humbled to the lowest position because of humiliation and finally was exalted by God highly (see Phil. 2:6-9). Whoever shall exalt himself shall be humbled, and whoever shall humble himself shall be exalted (Matt. 23:12). The Lord’s word is truly faithful.


Jude 7 “as Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities around them in a similar manner to these, having given themselves over to sexual immorality and gone after strange flesh, are set forth as an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire.”

YLT: “as Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities around them, in like manner to these, having given themselves to whoredom, and gone after other flesh, have been set before -- an example, of fire age-during, justice suffering.”

Meaning of Words: around”: concerning; cities”: towns; as”: like; sexual immorality”: sexual sin; after”: behind; flesh”: carnal; eternal fire”: everlasting fire; “example”: case;

Literal Meaning: as Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities around them”, “as…” it mentions another case; “Sodom and Gomorrah”, the two cities were judged by God in the ancient times because of grievous sins and then God destroyed the cities by fire (see Gen. 18:20; 19:24-25; 2Pet. 2:6). “Cities around them”: all the cities in the plain (see Gen. 19:25, 28).

“In a similar manner to these, “in a similar manner”: they lived in the same manner;

“Having given themselves over to sexual immorality and gone after strange flesh, “strange flesh”: that is against nature, namely, homosexuality (see Rom. 1:26-27); men of Sodom and Gomorrah were famous for their homosexual deeds, so the word “sodomy” stems from “Sodom”.

“Are set forth as an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire”, “eternal fire”: the punishment of the lake of fire and brimstone (see Rev. 20:10, 14-15). Places around Sodom and Gomorrah were punished by the brimstone and fire out of heaven (see Gen. 19:24) and then disappeared from the world, which had become the examples of the vengeance of eternal fire. “Example”, those who committed the same sexual immorality would also be punished as Sodom and Gomorrah.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)    At the end of the world, homosexuality is popular all over the world and the gay persons are allowed to marry and adopt children. And even in the church, the homosexual men are approved to fulfill the holy ministries and there are many homosexual elders and godfathers. How lamentable it is!

2)    He who declares that he knows God justifies what God condemns the church even rebuilds what is burned the heavenly fire of God, which proves that the heretical false teachers now have played the bully in the church and hold the Bible with senseless words. 


Jude 8 “Likewise also these dreamers defile the flesh, reject authority, and speak evil of dignitaries.”

YLT: “In like manner, nevertheless, those dreaming also the flesh indeed do defile, and lordship they put away, and dignities they speak evil of,”

Meaning of Words: dreamer”: he who dreams; likewise”: as; defile”: contaminate; reject”: despise; authority”: dominion, government; speak evil of”: defame, revile, blaspheme; “dignitary”: glory;

Literal Meaning: “likewise also these dreamers defile the flesh, “dream”: it is untrue; “dreamers”: the heretical false teachers; “likewise also”: the three sorts of the rebellious ones from verse five to seven, including the unbelieving people, the fallen angels and the Sodomites who have given themselves over to sexual immorality and gone after strange flesh; “defile the flesh”: sin against one’s body (see 1Cor. 6:18).

“Reject authority, “reject”: despise, see lightly; “authority”: the angel who has authority; here it means despising the word of the Lord and rejecting all restrictions and rebelling against the authority of God (see 2Pet. 2:10).

“And speak evil of dignitaries”, “speak of”: blaspheme; he who speaks of the one who represents God’s authority has spoken evil of God; “dignitaries”: the angel who has authority and power (see 2Pet. 2:10);

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)    The one who is used by the false gods to gain profits has only “today” in heart without “yesterday”, just like a dreamer.

2)    He who walks according to the instinct of flesh and acts presumptuously is mostly characterized by indifference to the laws (see Acts 7:53).


Jude 9 “Yet Michael the archangel, in contending with the devil, when he disputed about the body of Moses, dared not bring against him a reviling accusation, but said, "The Lord rebuke you!"”

YLT: “yet Michael, the chief messenger, when, with the devil contending, he was disputing about the body of Moses, did not dare to bring up an evil-speaking judgment, but said, `The Lord rebuke thee!'”

Meaning of Words: archangel”: the chief of the angels; Michael”: who is like God? body”: corpse; devil”: the accuser, the opponent; contend”: argue, fight, struggle; dare not”: be not brave; accusation”: condemnation; “rebuke”: charge, forbid;

Literal Meaning: “yet Michael the archangel, in contending with the devil, when he disputed about the body of Moses, “Michael the archangel”, who is appointed to protect the elect of God (Dan. 10:13; 12:1; Rev. 12:7); “the body of Moses”, Moses was buried by God and no one knew his sepulcher (Deut. 34:5-6); “the devil” is Satan; it seems that he has the might of death (see Heb. 2:14-15) and knows where the body of Moses is and schemes to rob it. “In contending with”: the present tense indicates that he contends with the devil for a long time, which is not recorded in the Scriptures.

“Dared not bring against him a reviling accusation, here it suggests that the devil was the archangel and higher than Michael in position (see Is. 14:12-14).  

“But said, "The Lord rebuke you!” It shows that he does not go beyond the authority of God and condemns the devil by himself. It does not mean believers should not rebuke others or things (see Eph. 5:11, 13), but that one has to realize the authority of God when rebuking others (see Titus 2:15) and thus brings others to obey the authority of God.

Note the thing mentioned in this verse is quoted from the Assumption of Moses written by a Pharisee from 7 AD to 30 AD. Most of its content is anecdotes that the Jews are familiar with and yet it is scant of authenticity. Here Jude does not quote this tale to prove its authenticity, but shows that man shall not be arrogant by a well-known story.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     The devil rebels against God and desires to ascend and be like God (see is. 14:14) and entices men to seek “to be like God” (see Gen. 3:5). Today, the heretical teaching that “man becomes God” deceives man to fall into the trap of the devil.

2)     The name of Michael means “who is like God?” The more we are humbled and honor the authority of God, the more will we be like God (see Phil. 2:3-5). The more one is pride, the more one is like the devil.

3)     The best way for believers to resist the devil is obedience to God (James 4:7) and to His reigning power on us.


Jude 10 “But these speak evil of whatever they do not know; and whatever they know naturally, like brute beasts, in these things they corrupt themselves.”

YLT: “and these, as many things indeed as they have not known, they speak evil of; and as many things as naturally (as the irrational beasts) they understand, in these they are corrupted;”

Meaning of Words: not know”: not see, not be aware of; naturally”: instinctively; know”: understand; brute”: irrational, unreasonable; beasts”: animals; corrupt”: destroy; 

Literal Meaning: “but these speak evil of whatever they do not know”, “these”: the heretical false teachers; “speak evil of whatever they do not know”: they criticize and judge the spiritual things they do not understand (see 1Cor. 2:14; 2Pet. 2:12).

  “And whatever they know naturally, like brute beasts”, “whatever they know naturally”, it can be seen from their words and deeds that they are ignorant and lack understanding. “Like brute beasts”, they speak and act like brute beasts without any thinking.

  “In these things they corrupt themselves”, “these things”: they speak evil of whatever they do not know; “corrupt themselves”: he who hurts others corrupts himself (see 2Pet. 2:12).

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     Things of the Spirit are spiritual discerned (see 1Cor. 2:14). The heretical false teachers are ignorant and deceive the hearts of the unsuspecting by good words only (see Rom. 16:18). And they do not know spiritual things.

2)     Let us not judge flippantly things that we are ignorant of, lest we fall into sin.

3)     Let us look before we leap. Believers have to think more before speaking and acting rather than do impulsively.


Jude 11 “Woe to them! For they have gone in the way of Cain, have run greedily in the error of Balaam for profit, and perished in the rebellion of Korah.”

YLT: “wo to them! because in the way of Cain they did go on, and to the deceit of Balaam for reward they did rush, and in the gainsaying of Korah they did perish.”

Meaning of Words: woe”: alas; have gone”: have walked;way”: path;profit”: gain, payment;error”: delusion;run greedily”: gush out, shed forth; “rebellion”: disobedience, dispute; “perish”: destroy, lose;

Literal Meaning: “woe to them! For they have gone in the way of Cain”, “the way of Cain”, Cain was indifferent to the way of salvation God had revealed by the coats of skin to Adam and Eve (see Gen. 3:21) ---- without blood-shedding there is no remission (Heb. 9:22), but desired to please God by the sacrifice of his own labor (see Gen. 4:3-5) and was finally rejected by God. Therefore, the way of Cain was a type of religious self-righteousness, drawing near to God by good works.

  “Have run greedily in the error of Balaam for profit”, “the error of Balaam”, he disregarded the warning of God, and received the invitation of Balak by money and went to curse the people of Israel. However, he failed because God hindered him (see Num. 22-24), and taught Balak how to offend the people of Israel (see Rev. 2:14), so it became the example of “holding gain to be piety” (1Tim. 6:5; 2Pet. 2:15-16) to later generations.

“And perished in the rebellion of Korah”, “the rebellion of Korah”, Korah and his followers denied the authority of Moses and were against that he was above the people of God. However, finally the ground opened its mouth (see Num. 16). Therefore, he was an example of perishing because of rebellion against the appointed authority to later generations.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     We are saved by grace, through faith. And it is not of our good works (see Eph. 2:8-9; Rom. 11:6).

2)     There are three reasons why the heretical false teachers are condemned: a) despise the gospel truth of justification by faith (see Gal. 3:24); b) covetousness for money; c) resist the authority appointed by God in the church.

3)     The love of money is a root of all kinds of evil, which some having aspired after, have wandered from the faith, and pierced themselves with many sorrows (1Tim. 6:14).

4)     It is a very serious thing of revisiting the authority appointed by God in the church. However, we shall also not obey the authority appointed by man himself lest we run greedily in his error. The right attitude is ---- do not despise prophesying but prove all things (1Thess. 5:20-21).


Jude 12 “These are spots in your love feasts, while they feast with you without fear, serving only themselves. They are clouds without water, carried about by the winds; late autumn trees without fruit, twice dead, pulled up by the roots;”

YLT: “These are in your love-feasts craggy rocks; feasting together with you, without fear shepherding themselves; clouds without water, by winds carried about; trees autumnal, without fruit, twice dead, rooted up;”

Meaning of Words: love feasts”: love “agape”; feast”: entertain sumptuously; spots”: rocky reefs; serve”: feed; without fear”: with boldness; without water”: without rain; cloud”: cloudiness; carry”: convey around, bear about; without fruit”: fruitless; pull up by the roots”: root up, uproot; 

Literal Meaning: “these are spots in your love feasts, “these”: the heretical false teachers; “in your love feasts”: they take advantage of the love of the saints and profit themselves at another’s expense secretly; “spots”: hidden difficulty, it shows that they hurt others secretly;

“While they feast with you without fear, serving only themselves”, “they feast”: the proclaim they are pastures and preachers; “serving themselves”, they care for their own need (see Phil. 2:4); “without fear”: they fear neither men nor God;  

They are clouds without water, carried about by the winds”, “clouds without water”: it means that they have no spiritual reality; “carried about by the winds”: they are tossed and carried about by every wind of teaching in the sleight of men (see Eph. 4:14); 

“Late autumn trees without fruit, “autumn”, it is the season of harvest; “without fruit”: there is no provision when it is in need;

“Twice dead, pulled up by the roots”, “twice dead”, there are two explanations: a) they are dead completely from the root to branches; b) their end is the second death (see Rev. 20:14). “Pulled up by the roots”, there is no chance of regeneration.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     The heretical false teachers have no spiritual reality and are unable to give anyone real provision and are even harmful to others. And yet those who are harmed can only realize what has happened after they have already been deceived.

2)     Though Christians know it is vain of the apparent hypocrisy and beautiful wording and gentle manner and sweet words, there are still numerous Christians falling into the trap wave after wave. Since the fake goods sell well, there must be a gush of fake-goods-makers and thus the false spiritual salesmen (the heretical false teachers) are in the ascendant.

3)     There is an important truth: the promise that cannot be fulfilled profits nothing.


Jude 13 “raging waves of the sea, foaming up their own shame; wandering stars for whom is reserved the blackness of darkness forever.”

YLT: “wild waves of a sea, foaming out their own shames; stars going astray, to whom the gloom of the darkness to the age hath been kept.”

Meaning of Words: raging waves”: swelling billows; foam up”: foam upon, foam out; shame”: disgrace, dishonesty; wander”: rover;blackness”: gloom; darkness”: obscurity, shadiness; reserve”: keep, preserve; 

Literal Meaning: raging waves of the sea, foaming up their own shame”, raging waves of the sea”, it means that they make waves everywhere they go and stir up great troubles in the churches. “Foaming up their own shame”, they leave everything in confusion and make men desolate.

“Wandering stars for whom is reserved the blackness of darkness forever”, “wandering stars”: there is no trail of their walking; “the blackness of darkness forever”, it shows that their future is black and hopeless, only worthy of the eternal punishment in the dark hell (see 2Pet. 2:17).

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     Someone always walks capriciously as the waves of the sea. And someone walks without keeping any rule as stars in the sky. The word of God is the principle of believers’ conversation. We have to keep the word of God rather than act presumptuously.

2)     It is sky-rocking and earth-shaking when the great waves surge forward. However, it is in utter chaos when the waves rage itself out. When the meteor flashes across the sky, it is shining and beautiful. Later it is still full of darkness in the sky, leaving nothing. Christians shall not seek transient performance in conversation, but permanent effect.

3)     Preachers shall not think of his own gratification to talk volubly (like waves) and speak wildly (like meteor) and finally leave irretrievable situation. And it will be too late to be regretful. 


Jude 14 “Now Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied about these men also, saying, "Behold, the Lord comes with ten thousands of His saints,”

YLT: “And prophesy also to these did the seventh from Adam -- Enoch -- saying, `Lo, the Lord did come in His saintly myriads,”

Meaning of Words: seventh”: the seventh generation; prophesy”: exercise the prophetic office, foretell events; ten thousands of”: myriads of; 

Literal Meaning: Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied about these men also, saying, Enoch, the seventh from Adam, it is the Enoch who walked with God three hundred years (see Gen. 5:22); “prophesied about”: this prophecy cannot be found in the Old Scriptures, and there are two probable sources: a) it is quoted from the Apocrypha, I Enoch. Please refer to the following annotation; b) it is quoted from unknown legend or material; no matter which source it is, we believe this material is totally accurate. “These men” refer to the heretical false teachers.

Behold, the Lord comes with ten thousands of His saints”, “His saints” refer to believers (see Eph. 1:1; Phil. 1:1), but here the saints also include the angels (see Matt. 25:31; 2Thess. 1:10). “Come”, it is the past tense in the original (did come), stressing on its certainty that the Lord’s second coming is fact that must be fulfilled.

Note: the prophecy of Enoch (v.14-15) is quoted form the Apocrypha, The First Book of Enoch. This book was written by some Pharisees who collected some fragmentary materials, from 163 BC to 63 BC. The First Book of Enoch consists of five books of the final judgment, parables, astronomy, exhortations, curses, etc., providing materials of the thoughts and histories and transformations of the Jews at that time. Here the quotation is not for the purpose of proving the orthodox of this book, but showing the authenticity of the impending judgment.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     Enoch walked with God, so he prophesied things that would happen. If we believers desire to know the will of God, we have to always be with and walk with God.

2)     The Lord’s second coming is quite definite. Therefore, God prophesies it again and again in different generations and by different persons to call our attention to it.


Jude 15 “to execute judgment on all, to convict all who are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have committed in an ungodly way, and of all the harsh things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him."”

YLT: “to do judgment against all, and to convict all their impious ones, concerning all their works of impiety that they did impiously, and concerning all the stiff things that speak against Him did impious sinners.'”

Meaning of Words: all”: all the people; convict”: reprove, expose;ungodly”: impious;deeds”: works, acts;spoken against”: oppose against, resist against;harsh”: hard, tough;

Literal Meaning: to execute judgment on all, “all”: all those who are ungodly, namely, the heretical false teachers;

“To convict all who are ungodly among them”, “convict”: condemn; “ungodly”: do not honor God and live in a condition of resisting against the will of God;

“Of all their ungodly deeds which they have committed in an ungodly way, “ungodly”: one’s conversation is always not restricted by God.

“And of all the harsh things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him, “harsh things …have spoken against Him, “harsh things”: they speak rudely and fearlessly to God. 

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     A man’s ungodliness can be manifested in two aspects: one is ungodly deeds, and the other is ungodly words.

2)     The Lord’s judgment is also according to two points: one is according to the works of everyone (see 1Pet. 1:17), and the other is according to the words of everyone (see Matt. 12:36).

3)     The tongues and divine healings of someone are clearly man-made tongues and human healings, but they declare they are gifts of the spirits. Obviously, these are harsh words against God.


Jude 16 “These are grumblers, complainers, walking according to their own lusts; and they mouth great swelling words, flattering people to gain advantage.”

YLT: “These are murmurers, repiners; according to their desires walking, and their mouth doth speak great swellings, giving admiration to persons for the sake of profit;”

Meaning of Words: grumbler”: murmurer, malcontent; complainers”: he who is discontented;according to”: following;lusts”: desires, concupiscence;swelling”: proud, insolent;advantage”: profit;flattering”: admiring;

Literal Meaning: “these are grumblers, complainers, “these”: the heretical false teachers; “grumblers”: he who murmurs because of discontent; “complainers”: he who likes to complain others;

“Walking according to their own lusts”: lack of temperance and godliness in conversation;

“And they mouth great swelling words, flattering people to gain advantage”, “swelling words”: bombastic words; “gain advantage”: speak for the purpose of gaining profit, “flattering people”: fawn on others;

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)    Out of abundance of the heart his mouth speaks (Luke 6:45). If one’s heart is not governed by the truth faith, his mouth will speak for his own profit ---- either grumbling because of dissatisfaction or flattering for one’s own profit;

2)    The heretical false teachers like to “utter swelling works” ---- they stir men’s hearts by eloquent words. However, their words turn out to be great swelling words of vanity (see 2Pet. 2:18), heightening the atmosphere swiftly but having no spiritual value.


Jude 17 “But you, beloved, remember the words which were spoken before by the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ:”

YLT: “and ye, beloved, remember ye the sayings spoken before by the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ:”

Meaning of Words: remember”: recall, remind; apostle”: the one who is sent; spoken before”: that have been said; 

Literal Meaning: “remember”, it is not thinking of something occasionally, but bearing it always in mind; “the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ”, the twelve apostles the Lord Jesus set Himself (see Matt. 10:1-4; Acts 1:26), including the apostle Paul (see Acts 9:15); “the words which were spoken before”: teachings that were handed down (see Acts 2:42). Then the words had been compiled into the New Scriptures, which was the foundation of the building of the church (see Eph. 2:20).

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     The Old and New Scriptures are the only books that believers keep as the standard of faith, which are the words God had written by the apostles and prophets in the inspiration of the Spirit. Let us often reach and search the Scriptures and keep them in heart abundantly (see Col. 3:16).

2)     The normal attitude of believers toward the Scriptures should be reading them and keeping them in heart (see Deut. 6:6-9).


Jude 18 “how they told you that there would be mockers in the last time who would walk according to their own ungodly lusts.”

YLT: “that they said to you, that in the last time there shall be scoffers, after their own desires of impieties going on,”

Meaning of Words: the last time”: the end of days; mocker”: scoffer; according to”: according as, after; ungodly”: impious; lusts”: desires; walk”: go, follow;

Literal Meaning: “how they told you that”: what the apostles had said and been written in the epistles (see 2Pet. 3:3); the similar warning words have also been written in other books (see 1Tim. 4:1-3; 2Tim. 3:1-13; 1John 2:18-23; 4:1-6).

  “There would be mockers in the last time”, “in the last time”, broadly, it refers to the gracious times of the New Testament. And narrowly, it refers to the last period of the gracious times of the New Testament, namely, the period of time before the end of days; “there would be...”, it shows that such mockers must appear. “Mockers”: those who like to sneer at those who have the faith of the truth;

  “Who would walk according to their own ungodly lusts”, “their own ungodly lusts”: they disregard the ethical codes set in men by God, but seek to satisfy their own lusts of the flesh.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     All those who think it difficult to receive and keep the words of the Scriptures must have problems in morality, for the Scriptures prevent them from acting presumptuously.

2)     “Their own ungodly lusts”, it is the main factor of one’s apostasy. If we obey the ungodly lusts, we may become the sympathizers of heresies. 


Jude 19 “These are sensual persons, who cause divisions, not having the Spirit.”

YLT: “these are those setting themselves apart, natural men, the Spirit not having.”

Meaning of Words: cause divisions”: dividing apart, separate; sensual”:, animate, natural ; the Spirit”: breath; 

Literal Meaning: “these are sensual persons”, those who are natural, and such men are opposite to those who are spiritual (see 2Cor. 2:14). The mind and affection and will of one’s soul have become the forcing power of one’s walking, and thus all his thoughts and deeds are for the purpose of satisfying his soul life.

  “Cause divisions”, it means drawing some sympathizers because of similar views and hobbies and interests and manners of life and thus establishing some particular fellowships, thus dividing the church.

  “Not having the Spirit”, actually they do not totally have not the Spirit at all, for all men have spirits (see Gen. 2:7; Zech. 12:1). However, men’s spirits are very slim in function and are even dead (see Eph. 2:1). Therefore, it makes no difference from having no Spirit. And therefore they will walk according to their soul life.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     A normal preacher leads men to Christ. However, the extreme and heretical preachers lead men into themselves and cause divisions in the church.

2)     Christians do not ignore “the power of soul”, but the power of soul of the normal Christians are governed by the Spirit. Such Christians are spiritual.

3)     Though those who are natural serve God, they present “strange fire” (Lev. 10:1) and do not please God.

4)     In the present Christianity, many people talk about “returning to God” or “living in Spirit”. However, the majority of them just stir up their soul and mistake soul activities as spiritual activities, and finally they remain still natural rather than spiritual. The key problem is the neglect of the word of the cross and failure of dealing the soul.


Jude 20 “But you, beloved, building yourselves up on your most holy faith, praying in the Holy Spirit,”

YLT: “And ye, beloved, on your most holy faith building yourselves up, in the Holy Spirit praying,”

Meaning of Words: holy”: separated; faith”: belief; build”: edify; pray”: supplicate;

Literal Meaning: “beloved, building yourselves up on your most holy faith”, “most holy”: it is separated by God and different from human words; “holy faith”: the objective gospel truth, namely, the common faith of Christians; “build yourselves”: continue to build up on the right foundation of faith and not allow any heretical words to destroy our faith;

  “Praying in the Holy Spirit”, we shall pray according to the guidance and enlightenment of the Spirit and by the cleaning of the Spirit and cooperate with the Spirit and appropriate the power of the Spirit in prayers, because the Spirit intercedes for saints according to God (see Rom. 8:26-27) and the Spirit is the best help for our battle against the enemies of God by prayer (see Eph. 6:18).

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     Neither is there salvation in any other but Jesus (Acts 4:12). The Lord Jesus Christ we believe on and His redemption of the cross are the way of being saved in the most holy faith.

2)     The faith of truth through which we are saved and the Spirit who helps us to resist heresies by prayer are both “holy” and are of God and are appointed by God. They are needed in both building and fighting.

3)     “The most holy faith” shows that the faith we believe is: a) absolutely true and faithful; b) completely holy and precious; c) utterly complete; all that scheme to vary the faith are heresies.


Jude 21 “keep yourselves in the love of God, looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life.”

YLT: “yourselves in the love of God keep ye, waiting for the kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ -- to life age-during;”

Meaning of Words: keep”: preserve; love”: loving-kindness (agape); look for”: rely on, except; mercy”: compassion; eternal life”: the everlasting life;

Literal Meaning: “keep yourselves in the love of God”, “keep yourselves”, one has to be responsible to himself. Here it is different from verse one. There it is Jesus Christ that keeps us. And here it is we ourselves that keep us. “In the love of God”, it means that the love of God is the fortress and refuge that keep us and is the best way for us to deal with the heretical false teachers.

  “Looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus unto eternal life”, “looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus”, as long as we try our best to keep ourselves, what we have done is still limited. We are unable to satisfy God perfectly, so we have to look for the Lord’s mercy to supply us. “Unto eternal life”, we look for the mercy of the Lord until we see Him.

  In the commands of exhorting believers how to actively resist the heretical false teachers in verse 20 and 21, there are four things that we shall do: building, praying, keep and looking for. “Keep” is a verb, and “building and praying and looking for” are participles to modify verbs. In other words, the main condition of resisting the heretical false teachers is to keep oneself in the love of God. We believers shall be best kept in the love of God. If we turn aside from the love of God, we will lose.

  And if we want to keep ourselves in the love of God, we have three things to do: a) build yourselves on your most holy thing; b) pray in the Holy Spirit; c) look for the mercy of our Lord Jesus unto eternal life; the first two things are our duties and the last one is our necessary attitude.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     We shall love in truth (see Eph. 4:15). If we lack the love of God in the battle concerning the truth, we can in no wise gain men’s hearts. However, if we keep the love of God, we will not lose.

2)     Building oneself in the most holy faith (see v.20) is building “faith”. Keeping oneself in the love of God is being filled with “love”. Looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life is holding fast the “hope”. Now abide faith, hope, love, these three; but the greatest of these is love (1Cor. 13:13).

3)     He who holds fast the truth of Christ has to exalt the truth diligently and explain the truth clearly and preach the truth in love.

4)     God, the Lord Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit (v.20) ---- the Holy Trinity helps us. As long as we cooperate with the divine works, we will be enabled to strive earnestly the good conflict of faith.


Jud 22 “And on some have compassion, making a distinction;”

YLT: “and to some be kind, judging thoroughly,”

Meaning of Words: have compassion”: have mercy; distinction”: difference;

Literal Meaning: “have compassion”, “compassion” refers to mercy. To those deceiving heretical false teachers, we have to steadfastly oppose them. However, to believers who are ignorant and easily deceived, we have to show mercy to them.

  “Making a distinction”, the young believers are easily to be tossed to and fro and carried by every wind of doctrine (see Eph. 4:14);

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     He who “should be made a distinction” is not the ungodly one “who has crept in unnoticed” (see v.4). The former one is he who is deceived, and we shall have compassion on him. And the latter one is deceiver, and we shall resist against him.

2)     The immature believers are characterized by self-arrogance and rebellion against their leaders. Therefore, it is more suitable for their leaders to treat with believers with mercy and patience rather than prevent them from drawing near the heretical false teachers in a reproachful way.

3)     Ministers in the church shall not serve the saints in an inflexible way, but serve according to their respective conditions and help them to deal with problems with proper words and in a flexible manner.


Jude 23 “but others save with fear, pulling them out of the fire, hating even the garment defiled by the flesh.”

YLT: “and some in fear save ye, out of the fire snatching, hating even the coat from the flesh spotted.”

Meaning of Words: pull ...out of”: snatch, pull, take by force, pluck; save”: heal, deliver; defile”: defect, stain; garment”: robe; hate”: detest;

Literal Meaning: “but others save with fear”, “others”: those who are in fire; since they have fallen into the fire, the most urgent task is not trying to teach or correct them, but “pull them out of fire” immediately, just like the angels laid hold upon Lot’s hand to deliver him out of Sodom (see Gen. 19:16). “With fear”, we have to watch when we help them, lest we should be dragged into it.

  “Hating even the garment defiled by the flesh”, it indicates that our attitude toward men and things are different. Let us have compassion on men and yet hate things of lusts. Compassion means showing mercy on man’s weakness, and hating means not bearing sins.

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     We ourselves had also been in deep distress and were unable to escape from it. However, God came to saved us, and we were as a brand plucked out of the burning (see Amos 4:11; Zech. 3:2). Therefore, we shall also have compassion on others and try to pluck them out.

2)     When we help others, we have to sure our own safety. We shall not make ourselves involved and suffer the loss of ourselves.

3)     We shall have clear distinction between sinners and sins. Let us love sinners but not their sins, and let us have compassions on sinners but bear not their sins.


Jude 24 “Now to Him who is able to keep you from stumbling, And to present you faultless Before the presence of His glory with exceeding joy,”

YLT: “And to Him who is able to guard you not stumbling, and to set in the presence of His glory unblemished, in gladness,”

Meaning of Words: keep”: preserve; stumble”: offend; faultless”: without blemish, spotless; exceeding joy”: gladness, exultation;

Literal Meaning: “Him who is able keep you from stumbling”, verse 21 tells us that we have to keep carefully and this verse shows us God is able to keep us. “Stumbling”, stumble because of false knowledge and deeds, not the heretical false teachers; “keep you from stumbling”, it does not mean we will never make mistakes, but that He is able to keep for that day the deposit I have entrusted to Him (see 2Tim. 1:12). As long as we are willing to repent and renew our devotion constantly, we will be kept in Him as we have never stumbled.

  “And to present you faultless”, it means that He is able to make us attain to perfection.

  “Before the presence of His glory with exceeding joy”, “Exceeding joy”: be filled with exultations; “glory”: the condition of His second coming (see Matt. 25:31); “before the presence of His glory”, it means passing His judgment and not leaving His presence and being cast out into the outer darkness of the weeping and the gnashing of teeth (see Matt. 25:30).

Enlightenment in the Word:

1)     Everyman shall try his best to keep himself (see v.21) and help to keep others (see v.22-23). However, it is only our Savior that has the preserving power. (Heb. 7:25). He is able to save completely those who approach by Him to God (Heb. 7:25).

2)     The more we see ourselves, the more will we find we are unworthy of standing before the glory of God. However, since the Lord’s word is “to present you faultless”, He will surely make us perfect, for nothing shall be impossible with God (Luke 1:37) and no word has failed (see Jos. 23:14).


Jude 25 “To God our Savior, Who alone is wise, Be glory and majesty, Dominion and power, Both now and forever. Amen.”

YLT: “to the only wise God our Saviour, glory and greatness, power and authority, both now and to all the ages! Amen.”

Meaning of Words: majesty”: divinity; forever”: all the ages; amen”: firm, surely; 

Literal Meaning: “to God our Savior, Who alone is wise”, “our Savior”, the Savior is not only the Savior of all but also our personal Savior. “God ... who alone”, He is the only true God (see Zech. 14:9; John 17:3). There is no savior besides God (see Hos. 13:4).

  “Be glory and majesty, Dominion and power”, “glory”: the manifestation of God; “majesty”: the honor of God; “dominion”: the works of God; “power”: the position of God (see Heb. 1:2-3; John 14:6).

  “Both now and forever. Amen”, He is the Almighty, who was, and who is, and who is to come and lives for ever and ever (see Rev. 4:8-9). Only He is worthy of eternal worship (see Rev. 5:13-14).


III. Outlines of the Spiritual Lessons


Preservations and Reservations (The Same Word or Words in the Same Meaning in the Original)

  A. Positive preservation:

1.    Be preserved by Jesus Christ (v.1);

2.    “Keep” oneself (v.21);

3.    God who is able to “Keep” (v.24);

  B. Passive reservation:

1.    The angels who did not keep their proper domain has been reserved in everlasting chains under darkness for the judgment (v.6);

2.    Wandering stars for whom is reserved the blackness of darkness forever (v.13);


Works of the Heretical False Teachers

A.  Who have crept in unnoticed (v.4);

B.  Who commit lewdness(v.4) and walk according to their own lusts (v.16) and walk according to their own ungodly lusts (v.18);

C.  Who defile the flesh (v.8);

D.  Who reject authority (v.8);

E.  Who committed in an ungodly way (v.15);

F.   Who cause divisions (v.19);


Historical Examples Imitated by the Heretical False Teachers

A.  The unbelieving people of Israel (v.5);

B.  The angels who did not keep their proper domain (v.6);

C.  Sodom and Gomorrah, having given themselves over to sexual immorality and gone after strange flesh (v.7);

D.  The way of Cain (v.11a);

E.  The way of Balaam running for the error of profit (v.11b);

F.  The rebellion of Korah (v.11c);


Words of the Heretical False Teachers

A.  Who speak evil of dignitaries (v.8);

B.  Who speak evil of whatever they do not know (v.10);

C.  Who have spoken against the Lord (v.15);

D.  Who are grumblers and complainers (v.16a);

E.  Who mouth great swelling words (v.16b);

F.  Who flatter people to gain advantage (v.16c);


Parables Concerning the Heretical False Teachers

A.  Dreamers (v.8);

B.  Brute beasts (v.10);

C.  Spots in your love feasts (v.12a);

D.  Serving only themselves (v.12b);

E.  Clouds without water (v.12b);

F.  Late autumn trees without fruit (v.12c);

G.  Raging waves of the sea (v.13a);

H.  Wandering stars (v.13b);


Ways of Defending the Word

A.  Distinguish the enemies through reading the Bible (v.17-19);

B.  Keeping oneself through praying (v.20-21);

C.  Saving others through compassion (v.22-23);


Keep Oneself in the Love of God

A.  Build yourselves up on your most holy faith (v.20a);

B.  Pray in the Holy Spirit (v.20b);

C.  Look for our Lord (v.21);


── Caleb HuangChristian Digest Bible Commentary Series

   Translated by Mary Zhou