Revelation Chapter Four
But we have to consider where the fourth chapter commences God's ways. It does not follow necessarily that the assembly has been spued out of Christ's mouth. It had been threatened; but the judgment on Sardis, or even on Thyatira, was not yet come. But it is after Christ has ceased to deal with the professing assembly as such, looking to it as His light-bearer before the world. What it may call itself still is not stated; He is not dealing with it. An open apostacy will come. Its date is not revealed; nor is it revealed as to the rapture. But I gather from 2 Thessalonians 2, that the rapture will be before the apostacy. What we have stated then is, that it is after all dealing with the assemblies by Christ is closed that the subsequent dealings with the world in the Revelation begin. The assemblies are " the things that are;" what follows, "the things after these." Christ is not now seen walking in their midst; He is the Lamb in the midst of the throne. John is not occupied with seeing Him there, or sending messages to the assemblies, but is called up to heaven where all the ways of God are now carried on, and that towards the world, not the assembly. We have the throne too, not the long-robed priest. The kings and priests we read of in chapter 1 are now on high. Others may follow them; but they are in heavenly places, seated on thrones, or worshiping, or presenting their censers full of incense. On the other hand the Lord is not come to judge the world, but about to receive the inheritance. The saints then, who will be caught up to meet Christ, are seen only on high here; they belong to heaven, and are no longer dealt with on earth, but have their own place in heaven.
The connection between the two parts of the Apocalypse is this:-Christ, who was judging in the midst of the professing church, is now seen on high, opening the book of this world's judgment, of which He is about to take the inheritance publicly. From this scene of judgment the saints are far. The apostle's occupation with the assembly now ceases--an important point, for the Holy Spirit must be occupied with it as long as the saints are in it on earth;-and he is taken up to heaven, and there he sees and in covenant with creation, on a throne of government, with a rainbow round about it. The living creatures celebrate Him as the creator, the One for whom all things were created. The throne was not a throne of grace, but the signs of power and judgment broke forth from it; but around it those who represent the saints received at Christ's coming, the kings and priests, are sitting on th rones in a circle round the throne. No altar of sacrifice is in view, as if it were a time of approach; the brazen laver has glass instead of water. It is a fixed accomplished holiness, not cleansing of feet. The elders are crowned, the number twenty-four recalling the courses of the priests. The seven Spirits of God are there in the temple, not Christ's to wield for the assembly, or sent out into the world, but the perfections in attribute which characterise the actions of God in the world. This it is bears light now into the world.
Besides these, four living creatures are there in the circle of the throne itself and around the throne. They may be viewed as forming the throne, or apart from it, though connected with it as a centre. They have some of the characters of the cherubim, some of the seraphim, but somewhat different from both. They were full of eyes, before and behind, to see all things according to God, and willing having also six wings; perfect in inward perception, but given perception, and in the celerity of their motions. They embraced also the four species of creation in the ordered earth: man, cattle, beast of the field, fowl of the air: these symbolizing the powers or attributes of God, them selves worshiped by the heathen, here only the instruments of the throne. Him who sat on it the heathen knew not. The intelligence, firmness, power, rapidity of execution which belong to God were typified as elsewhere by them. They are symbols. Divers agents may be the instruments of their activity. But though there was the general analogy of the cherubim, judicial and governmental power, these had a peculiar character.
The cherubim in the temple had two wings, which formed the throne; they looked on the covenant, and at the same time, as of pure gold, were characterised by the divine righteousness of the throne to be approached. In Ezekiel they were the support of the firmament above which the God of Israel was: it was a throne of executive judgment. They were like burnished brass, and like fire-a symbol we have considered already. They had four wings: two to fly with, two to cover themselves. From Ezekiel 10 it appears they were full of eyes ("it is not said within") it was to govern what was outside, according to God, not divine intelligence within. In Isaiah 6 the seraphim (or burners) have six wings as here; they are above the throne, and cry as here, Holy, holy, holy ! They, with a burning coal, cleansed the prophet's lips; they were above the throne.
The symbols used here become clearer through these cases. The living creatures are in and around the throne; for it is a throne of executory judgment, with the attributes of cherubim united to it. But it is not, as in Israel, mere earth]y providential judgment, a whirlwind out of the north. There is before us the government of all the earth, and executory judgment according to the holiness of God's nature.  There is not only full perception of all, but intrinsic perception morally. It is no seat of gold to be approached, as in the tabernacle. The intrinsic holiness of God is applied to judgment. He is making good His nature and character in all creation. Providence would be no longer a riddle. It was not complex attributes unsolved, so to speak, though applied in special circumstances; each act would have its character.
Here too remark, it is not, as in the first chapter, the God who is, though embracing past and future, God in Himself; but the God of ages, " who was, and is, and is to come." Still He has all Old Testament names: Jehovah, Elohim, Shaddai. His attributes now celebrate His full name, as the Holy One who lives for ever and ever-has no passing power or being, like man at his best estate, vanity And the saints here fall down before the throne, bow themselves before His place in glory, and worship Him in His endless bei ng, and lay down their given glory before His supreme and proper glory, ascribing all glory to Him alone, as alone worthy of it; but here, according to the nature of the celebration of it, the Creator for whom all things are. In all changes these remained true.
It will be remarked here, that the living creatures only celebrate and declare; the elders worship with understanding. All through the Revelation the elders give their reason for worshiping. There is spiritual intelligence in them.
Further, remark, that when thunderings and lightnings and voices, the signs of terror in judgment, go forth from the throne, the throned elders remain unmoved; they are on thrones around when the throne of judgment is introduced. This is their place before God in respect of judgment. Whenever He takes judgment in hand this is their position. They are part of the glory-assessors of the throne from which its terror goes forth. When He that sits on it is celebrated, they are all activity, own all glory to be His, are prostrate on their faces, and cast their crowns before Him, more blessed in owning His glory, than in possessing their own. We do not find the Father here; it is Jehovah. And indeed should we ask in whom He is personally displayed, it would be, as always, in the Son; but it is in itself simply the Jehovah of the Old Testament here.
 For the judgment at the end, though governmental, closing earth's history, was not mercy so (cherubic), but according to God's holiness and nature (seraphic), particularly as in Isaiah 6, a known God in Israel.
── John Darby《Synopsis of Revelation》
A vision of God, as on his glorious throne, around which were twenty-four elders and four living creatures. (1-8) Whose songs, and those of the holy angels, the apostle heard. (9-11)
Commentary on Revelation 4:1-8
(Read Revelation 4:1-8)
After the Lord Jesus had instructed the apostle to write to the churches "the things that are," there was another vision. The apostle saw a throne set in heaven, an emblem of the universal dominion of Jehovah. He saw a glorious One upon the throne, not described by human features, so as to be represented by a likeness or image, but only by his surpassing brightness. These seem emblems of the excellence of the Divine nature, and of God's awful justice. The rainbow is a fit emblem of that covenant of promise which God has made with Christ, as the Head of the church, and with all his people in him. The prevailing colour was a pleasant green, showing the reviving and refreshing nature of the new covenant. Four-and-twenty seats around the throne, were filled with four-and-twenty elders, representing, probably, the whole church of God. Their sitting denotes honour, rest, and satisfaction; their sitting about the throne signifies nearness to God, the sight and enjoyment they have of him. They were clothed in white raiment; the imputed righteousness of the saints and their holiness: they had on their heads crowns of gold, signifying the glory they have with him. Lightnings and voices came from the throne; the awful declarations God makes to his church, of his sovereign will and pleasure. Seven lamps of fire were burning before the throne; the gifts, graces, and operations of the Spirit of God in the churches of Christ, dispensed according to the will and pleasure of Him who sits upon the throne. In the gospel church, the laver for purification is the blood of the Lord Jesus Christ, which cleanses from all sin. In this all must be washed, to be admitted into the gracious presence of God on earth, and his glorious presence in heaven. The apostle saw four living creatures, between the throne and the circle of the elders, standing between God and the people. These seem to signify the true ministers of the gospel, because of their place between God and the people. This also is shown by the description given, denoting wisdom, courage, diligence, and discretion, and the affections by which they mount up toward heaven.
Commentary on Revelation 4:9-11
(Read Revelation 4:9-11)
All true believers wholly ascribe their redemption and conversion, their present privileges and future hopes, to the eternal and most holy God. Thus rise the for-ever harmonious, thankful songs of the redeemed in heaven. Would we on earth do like them, let our praises be constant, not interrupted; united, not divided; thankful, not cold and formal; humble, not self-confident.
── Matthew Henry《Concise Commentary on Revelation》
 After this I looked, and, behold, a door was opened in heaven: and the first voice which I heard was as it were of a trumpet talking with me; which said, Come up hither, and I will shew thee things which must be hereafter.
After these things — As if he had said, After I had written these letters from the mouth of the Lord. By the particle and, the several parts of this prophecy are usually connected: by the expression, after these things, they are distinguished from each other, Revelation 7:9; 19:1. By that expression, and after these things, they are distinguished, and yet connected, Revelation 7:1; 15:5; 18:1. St. John always saw and heard, and then immediately wrote down one part after another: and one part is constantly divided from another by some one of these expressions.
I saw — Here begins the relation of the main vision, which is connected throughout; as it appears from "the throne, and him that sitteth thereon;" "the Lamb;" (who hitherto has appeared in the form of a man;) " the four living creatures;" and " the four and twenty elders," represented from this place to the end. From this place, it is absolutely necessary to keep in mind the genuine order of the texts, as it stands in the preceding table.
A door opened in heaven — Several of these openings are successively mentioned. Here a door is opened; afterward, "the temple of God in heaven," Revelation 11:19; 15:5; and, at last, "heaven" itself, 19:11. By each of these St. John gains a new and more extended prospect.
And the first voice which I had heard — Namely, that of Christ: afterward, he heard the voices of many others.
Said, Come up hither — Not in body, but in spirit; which was immediately done.
 And immediately I was in the spirit: and, behold, a throne was set in heaven, and one sat on the throne.
And immediately I was in the spirit — Even in an higher degree than before, Revelation 1:10.
And, behold, a throne was set in heaven — St. John is to write "things which shall be;" and, in order thereto, he is here shown, after an heavenly manner, how whatever "shall be," whether good or bad, flows out of invisible fountains; and how, after it is done on the visible theatre of the world and the church, it flows back again into the invisible world, as its proper and final scope. Here commentators divide: some proceed theologically; others, historically; whereas the right way is, to join both together. The court of heaven is here laid open; and the throne of God is, as it were, the centre from which everything in the visible world goes forth, and to which everything returns. Here, also, the kingdom of Satan is disclosed; and hence we may extract the most important things out of the most comprehensive and, at the same time, most secret history of the kingdom of hell and heaven. But herein we must be content to know only what is expressly revealed in this book. This describes, not barely what good or evil is successively transacted on earth, but how each springs from the kingdom of light or darkness, and continually tends to the source whence it sprung: So that no man can explain all that is contained therein, from the history of the church militant only. And yet the histories of past ages have their use, as this book is properly prophetical. The more, therefore, we observe the accomplishment of it, so much the more may we praise God, in his truth, wisdom, justice, and almighty power, and learn to suit ourselves to the time, according to the remarkable directions contained in the prophecy.
And one sat on the throne — As a king, governor, and judge. Here is described God, the Almighty, the Father of heaven, in his majesty, glory, and dominion.
 And he that sat was to look upon like a jasper and a sardine stone: and there was a rainbow round about the throne, in sight like unto an emerald.
And he that sat was in appearance — Shone with a visible lustre, like that of sparkling precious stones, such as those which were of old on the high priest's breastplate, and those placed as the foundations of the new Jerusalem, Revelation 21:19,20. If there is anything emblematical in the colours of these stones, possibly the jasper, which is transparent and of a glittering white, with an intermixture of beautiful colours, may be a symbol of God's purity, with various other perfections, which shine in all his dispensations. The sardine stone, of a blood-red colour, may be an emblem of his justice, and the vengeance he was about to execute on his enemies. An emerald, being green, may betoken favour to the good; a rainbow, the everlasting covenant. See Genesis 9:9. And this being round about the whole breadth of the throne, fixed the distance of those who stood or sat round it.
 And round about the throne were four and twenty seats: and upon the seats I saw four and twenty elders sitting, clothed in white raiment; and they had on their heads crowns of gold.
And round about the throne — In a circle, are four and twenty thrones, and on the thrones four and twenty elders - The most holy of all the former ages, Isaiah 24:23; Hebrews 12:1; representing the whole body of the saints.
Sitting — In general; but falling down when they worship.
Clothed in white raiment — This and their golden crowns show, that they had already finished their course and taken their place among the citizens of heaven. They are never termed souls, and hence it is probable that they had glorified bodies already. Compare Matthew 27:52.
 And out of the throne proceeded lightnings and thunderings and voices: and there were seven lamps of fire burning before the throne, which are the seven Spirits of God.
And out of the throne go forth lightnings — Which affect the sight.
Voices — Which affect the hearing.
Thunderings — Which cause the whole body to tremble. Weak men account all this terrible; but to the inhabitants of heaven it is a mere source of joy and pleasure, mixed with reverence to the Divine Majesty. Even to the saints on earth these convey light and protection; but to their enemies, terror and destruction.
 And before the throne there was a sea of glass like unto crystal: and in the midst of the throne, and round about the throne, were four beasts full of eyes before and behind.
And before the throne is a sea as of glass, like crystal — Wide and deep, pure and clear, transparent and still. Both the "seven lamps of fire" and this sea are before the throne; and both may mean "the seven spirits of God," the Holy Ghost; whose powers and operations are frequently represented both under the emblem of fire and of water. We read again, Revelation 15:2, of "a sea as of glass," where there is no mention of "the seven lamps of fire;" but, on the contrary, the sea itself is "mingled with fire." We read also, Revelation 22:1, of "a stream of water of life, clear as crystal." Now, the sea which is before the throne, and the stream which goes out of the throne, may both mean the same; namely, the Spirit of God.
And in the midst of the throne — With respect to its height.
Round about the throne — That is, toward the four quarters, east, west, north, and south.
Were four living creatures — Not beasts, no more than birds. These seem to be taken from the cherubim in the visions of Isaiah and Ezekiel, and in the holy of holies. They are doubtless some of the principal powers of heaven; but of what order, it is not easy to determine. It is very probable that the twenty-four elders may represent the Jewish church: their harps seem to intimate their having belonged to the ancient tabernacle service, where they were wont to be used. If so, the living creatures may represent the Christian church. Their number, also, is symbolical of universality, and agrees with the dispensation of the gospel, which extended to all nations under heaven. And the "new song" which they all sing, saying, "Thou hast redeemed us out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation," Revelation 5:9, could not possibly suit the Jewish without the Christian church.
The first living creature was like a lion — To signify undaunted courage.
The second, like a calf — Or ox, Ezekiel 1:10, to signify unwearied patience.
The third, with the face of a man — To signify prudence and compassion.
The fourth, like an eagle — To signify activity and vigour.
Full of eyes — To betoken wisdom and knowledge.
Before — To see the face of him that sitteth on the throne.
And behind — To see what is done among the creatures.
 And the first beast was like a lion, and the second beast like a calf, and the third beast had a face as a man, and the fourth beast was like a flying eagle.
And the first — Just such were the four cherubim in Ezekiel, who supported the moving throne of God; whereas each of those that overshadowed the mercy-seat in the holy of holies had all these four faces: whence a late great man supposes them to have been emblematic of the Trinity, and the incarnation of the second Person.
A flying eagle — That is, with wings expanded.
 And the four beasts had each of them six wings about him; and they were full of eyes within: and they rest not day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to come.
Each of them hath six wings — As had each of the seraphim in Isaiah's vision. "Two covered his face," in token of humility and reverence: "two his feet," perhaps in token of readiness and diligence for executing divine commissions.
Round about and within they are full of eyes. Round about — To see everything which is farther off from the throne than they are themselves.
And within — On the inner part of the circle which they make with one another. First, they look from the centre to the circumference, then from the circumference to the centre.
And they rest not — O happy unrest! Day and night - As we speak on earth. But there is no night in heaven.
And say, Holy, holy, holy — Is the Three-One God. There are two words in the original, very different from each other; both which we translate holy. The one means properly merciful; but the other, which occurs here, implies much more. This holiness is the sum of all praise, which is given to the almighty Creator, for all that he does and reveals concerning himself, till the new song brings with it new matter of glory. This word properly signifies separated, both in Hebrew and other languages. And when God is termed holy, it denotes that excellence which is altogether peculiar to himself; and the glory flowing from all his attributes conjoined, shining forth from all his works, and darkening all things besides itself, whereby he is, and eternally remains, in an incomprehensible manner separate and at a distance, not only from all that is impure, but likewise from all that is created. God is separate from all things. He is, and works from himself, out of himself, in himself, through himself, for himself. Therefore, he is the first and the last, the only one and the Eternal, living and happy, endless and unchangeable, almighty, omniscient, wise and true, just and faithful, gracious and merciful. Hence it is, that holy and holiness mean the same as God and Godhead: and as we say of a king, "His Majesty;" so the scripture says of God, "His Holiness," Hebrews 12:10. The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of God. When God is spoken of, he is often named "the Holy One:" and as God swears by his name, so he does also by his holiness; that is, by himself. This holiness is often styled glory: often his holiness and glory are celebrated together, Leviticus 10:3; Isaiah 6:3. For holiness is covered glory, and glory is uncovered holiness. The scripture speaks abundantly of the holiness and glory of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. And hereby is the mystery of the Holy Trinity eminently confirmed. That is also termed holy which is consecrated to him, and for that end separated from other things: and so is that wherein we may be like God, or united to him. In the hymn resembling this, recorded by Isaiah, Isaiah 6:3, is added, "The whole earth is full of his glory." But this is deferred in the Revelation, till the glory of the Lord (his enemies being destroyed) fills the earth.
 And when those beasts give glory and honour and thanks to him that sat on the throne, who liveth for ever and ever,  The four and twenty elders fall down before him that sat on the throne, and worship him that liveth for ever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying,
And when the living creatures give glory-the elders fall down — That is, as often as the living creatures give glory, immediately the elders fall down. The expression implies, that they did so at the same instant, and that they both did this frequently. The living creatures do not say directly, "Holy, holy, holy art thou;" but only bend a little, out of deep reverence, and say, "Holy, holy, holy is the Lord." But the elders, when they are fallen down, may say, "Worthy art thou, O Lord our God."
 Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honour and power: for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created.
Worthy art thou to receive — This he receives not only when he is thus praised, but also when he destroys his enemies and glorifies himself anew.
The glory and the honour and the power — Answering the thrice-holy of the living creatures, verse 9. Revelation 4:9 For thou hast created all things - Creation is the ground of all the works of God: therefore, for this, as well as for his other works, will he be praised to all eternity.
And through thy will they were — They began to be. It is to the free, gracious and powerfully-working will of Him who cannot possibly need anything that all things owe their first existence.
And are created — That is, continue in being ever since they were created.
── John Wesley《Explanatory Notes on Revelation》
Chapter 4. The Throne in Heaven
Serve Day and Night
I. The Throne in Heaven
II. Establishment of the Throne
III. People Surrounding the Throne
── Chih-Hsin Chang《An Outline of The New Testament》
Chapter Four General Review
OBJECTIVES IN STUDYING THIS CHAPTER
1) To consider the implication of the vision of God on His throne
2) To note that this vision along with the one in chapter five will set
the stage for what follows
The visions of Revelation now begin in earnest. Upon seeing a door
standing open in heaven and hearing a trumpet-like voice promising to
show him of things which must take place, John is transported to the
throne room of God. He describes what he sees and hears with vivid and
colorful imagery. The One on the throne radiates like white and red
sparkling stones and is surrounded by an emerald rainbow. The colors
may reflect the characteristics of God, such as His holiness,
righteousness, justice, and mercy (1-3).
John takes special note of twenty-four elders clothed with white robes
and crowns of gold, sitting on thrones around the throne of God.
Summers and Hailey suggest that they depict the twelve patriarchs of
and the twelve apostles, who represent the redeemed of both Israel
covenants now united in Christ. Note that in 5:8-9 they do seem to
speak in behalf of the redeemed (4).
From the throne proceed lightnings, thunderings, and voices, which may
illustrate the divine power and judgments coming from God. Before the
throne are seven lamps of fire, explained as the seven Spirits of God.
This likely symbolizes the Holy Spirit in His work of illumination and
revelation of God's word to man (Summers). A sea of glass like crystal
is also before the throne, perhaps symbolizing the transcendence of God
that presently separates God and His people (5
Then there are four living creatures, similar in some respects and yet
different in others, united in their constant praise of God for His
eternal holiness. Though not exactly like the cherubim seen by Ezekiel
(cf. Ezek 1, 10), they appear to serve similar functions. Hailey
suggests they may be a special order of heavenly beings, perhaps the
highest and closest to the throne, who serve God's majestic will
(6b-8). As the four living creatures praise Him who sits on the
throne, the twenty-four elders join in by falling down, casting their
crowns before the throne, and praising God as the Eternal Creator
This scene, along with the one in chapter five, appears designed to set
the stage for what follows. At the outset, we are shown the first
guarantee of ultimate victory: God is on His throne! (Summers) The
praise offered by the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders
reinforce the truth that the One on the throne (and therefore in
ultimate control) is none other than the Lord God Almighty, Eternal and
Holy, the Creator who holds all things together. He is therefore
worthy of glory, honor and power! He is the one to revere, not man!
I. THE THRONE SCENE (1-8)
A. JOHN TAKEN TO HEAVEN (1)
1. After seeing the Lord and hearing the letters addressed to the
2. Upon seeing a door standing open in heaven, and hearing a
a. Being told "Come up here"
b. In which he will see "things which must take place after
B. HE DESCRIBES THE THRONE SCENE (2-8)
1. The One on the throne
a. Like a jasper (sparkling white)
b. And a sardius stone (fiery red) in appearance
c. With an emerald rainbow (various shades of green) around
2. The twenty-four elders
a. Sitting on twenty-four thrones around the throne
b. Clothed in white robes
c. With crowns of gold on their heads
3. Other elements around the throne
a. Lightnings, thunderings, and voices proceeding from the
b. Seven lamps (the Seven Spirits of God) burning before the
c. A sea of glass, like crystal, before the throne
d. Four living creatures in the midst and around the throne
4. The four living creatures
a. Unique characteristics
1) The first was like a lion
2) The second was like a calf
3) The third had a face like a man
4) The fourth was like a flying eagle
b. Similar characteristics
1) Each had six wings
2) Full of eyes in front and back, around and within
3) Do not rest day or night, praising the holiness of the
II. GOD PRAISED AS THE CREATOR (9-11)
A. PROMPTED BY THE LIVING CREATURES (9)
1. Whenever they give glory, honor, and thanks
2. To Him who sits on the throne, the Eternal One
B. OFFERED BY THE TWENTY-FOUR ELDERS (10-11)
1. Who fall down before Him who sits on the throne
2. Who worship Him who lives forever
3. Who cast their crowns before the throne
4. Who proclaim God worthy to receive glory, honor, and power
a. For He created all things
b. And by His will they exist and were created
REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE CHAPTER
1) What are the main points of this chapter?
- The throne scene (1-8)
- God praised as the Creator (9-11)
2) When the Lord has finished with His letters to the churches, what
does John see? (1)
- A door standing open in heaven
3) What does John hear? What is he told he will see? (1)
- A voice like a trumpet, saying "Come up here..."
- Things which must take place after this
4) What is the first thing he notices? (2)
- A throne set in heaven, and One sitting on the throne
5) How does John describe the appearance of the One on the throne? (3)
- Like a jasper (sparkling white like a diamond) and a sardius stone
6) What is the color of the rainbow around the throne? (3)
- Like an emerald (various shades of green)
7) What is around the throne? (4)
- Twenty-four elders with crowns of gold, clothed in white robes,
siting on thrones
8) What proceeds from the throne? (5)
- Lightnings, thunderings, voices
9) What stands before the throne? (5)
- Seven lamps of fire burning (the seven Spirits of God)
10) What lies before the throne? (6)
- A sea of glass like crystal
11) What is seen in the midst and around the throne? How are they
- Four living creatures
- One like lion, one like a calf, one with a face like a man, and
one like a flying eagle
- They have all have eyes in front and back, around and within, and
12) What do they proclaim without rest, day and night? (8)
- "Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, Who was and is and is to
13) Whenever the four creatures offer glory, honor, and thanks to God,
what happens? (9-10)
- The twenty-four elders fall down before God on the throne
- They worship Him, casting their crowns before the throne
14) Why do the twenty-four elders deem God worthy of glory, honor, and
- He created all things, and by His will they exist
The throne in heaven
Before the throne
Serve day and night
I. Show what must take place
1. See the heaven open
2. Hear the voice
3. In the spirit immediately
II.Establishment of the throne
1. Sit on the throne
2. Describe the appearance
3. Encircled by a rainbow
III. People surrounding the throne
1. Twenty-four elders
2. Seven Spirits of God
3. Four living creatures
── Chih-Hsin Chang《an Outline of The New Testament》