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Revelation Chapter Eleven


Revelation 11

We are here at once in the centre of prophetic subjects-Jerusalem, the temple, the altar, and worshipers. The worshipers and the altar are recognised and accepted of God-those worshiping in the secret of God within. The general profesion of Judaism is rejected and disowned. It is given up to be trodden down under the Gentiles, and that for the half-week of sorrow. Those who held the place of priests were owned. Real worshipers, according to God's mind, were there and owned; and God gave also an adequate testimony-two witnesses--what was required under the law; and they continue day by day constantly to give witness the whole period, or half-week. The witnesses were in sorrow and reproach, but with power; as Elias and Moses were when the people were in apostacy and captivity. It was not the re-establishment of Israel with royalty and priesthood, as it would be afterwards--the candlestick of Zechariah with the two olive--trees-but the sufficient witness to it. Nor could they be touched while the half-week of their prophecy lasted; their word brought death on their adversaries. We have priesthood and prophecy in the remnant, not of course royalty, but a testimony to it practically: suffering marked its absence, yet none could touch them till their time were come. In this they were like Christ in His humiliation in the midst of Israel; only He did not slay His enemies. In the Psalms we marked it out as the remnant's portion. Complete humiliation and the full answer of God to their prophetic word marked their state. But when they had finished their testimony, the case is different. They had to do with the beast out of the bottomless pit. They stood before the God of the earth-not preachers of heavenly gospel, but witnesses of God's title to the earth-of His love to His people in connection with it. They bore witness to God's claim when hostile Gentiles were in possession. The beast, now their hour is come, slays them, and their bodies are cast into the highways of the city. Those of the nations rejoice over them and make merry. The dwellers upon earth who would have the earth theirs and ease upon it; were delighted: for the witnesses of the God of the earth tormented them; but in three days and a half, quickened by the power of the Spirit of God, they ascended to heaven in a cloud, not as Christ did, apart, but in the sight of their enemies. A tenth of the great city of the world fell at the same time in the convulsion that took place on the earth; and the remnant are affrighted, and give glory to the God of heaven. But God was dealing already as the God of the earth. The second woe was now past.

Thus we get the close of the half week indicated; the seventh trumpet was quickly to sound, which was to finish the mystery of God. It sounds; and there were great voices in heaven declaring that the worldly kingdom of their Lord (Jehovah) and of His anointed (Christ) was come-the greatest woe and terror of all to the inhabitants of the earth. Satan's woe had been specially on Jews; man's woe, specially on the men of the Latin Empire; this is Gods woe when the nations are angry, and Gods wrath is come, and full reckoning and final deliverance come. We have again the elders here announcing the reason of praise and thanksgiving. Voices in heaven announce the fact of the reign of Jehovah and of His Christ according to Psalm 2, and that He (for, as ever, John unites both in one thought) should reign for ever and ever; and so it will be. But both the earthly and eternal kingdom are celebrated. Only in the eternal kingdom the distinction of the worldly kingdom and of Christ's subordination is omitted. In the thanksgiving of the elders, Jehovah Elohim Shaddai is also celebrated; as the great King who takes to Him His power and reigns; for it is God's kingdom. We have two parts in their statement: the nations angry-this brings in the time of God's wrath; and the time of the dead to be judged. This is the first half: man's wrath, and God's judgment. Then He gives reward to prophets, saints, and all that fear His name, and sets aside from the earth those who corrupted it. This is blessing. The first part is general, the time of wrath and judgment; the second is reward and deliverance of the saints on earth. This closes entirely the main symbolic history. The last trumpet has sounded, and the mystery of God is closed.

In what follows we have details: the beast, and the connection of the assembly and Jews with it; Babylon; and then the marriage of the Lamb; judgments of beast and false prophet; binding of Satan; two resurrections, and final judgment; and the description of the heavenly city. But this new prophecy begins (chap 12:19), as to earthly prophetic dealing, with special reference to the Jews. The temple of God is opened in heaven, the ark of His covenant, which refers to Israel is seen there. But judgment characterises it now; judgments of all kinds, those coming down from above, and subversion and disaster below. [1]


[1] Where the throne is set for judgment, it is characterized only by what proceeds directly from God. There are no earth quakes and hail; here there are.

── John DarbySynopsis of Revelation


Revelation 11

Chapter Contents

The state of the church is represented under the figure of a temple measured. (1,2) Two witnesses prophesy is sackcloth. (3-6) They are slain, after which they arise and ascend to heaven. (7-13) Under the seventh trumpet, all antichristian powers are to be destroyed and there will be a glorious state of Christ's kingdom upon earth. (14-19)

Commentary on Revelation 11:1,2

(Read Revelation 11:1,2)

This prophetical passage about measuring the temple seems to refer to Ezekiel's vision. The design of this measuring seems to be the preservation of the church in times of public danger; or for its trial, or for its reformation. The worshippers must be measured; whether they make God's glory their end, and his word their rule, in all their acts of worship. Those in the outer court, worship in a false manner, or with dissembling hearts, and will be found among his enemies. God will have a temple and an altar in the world, till the end of time. He looks strictly to his temple. The holy city, the visible church, is trodden under foot; is filled with idolaters, infidels, and hypocrites. But the desolations of the church are limited, and she shall be delivered out of all her troubles.

Commentary on Revelation 11:3-13

(Read Revelation 11:3-13)

In the time of treading down, God kept his faithful witnesses to attest the truth of his word and worship, and the excellence of his ways, The number of these witnesses is small, yet enough. They prophesy in sackcloth. It shows their afflicted, persecuted state, and deep sorrow for the abominations against which they protested. They are supported during their great and hard work, till it is done. When they had prophesied in sackcloth the greatest part of 1260 years, antichrist, the great instrument of the devil, would war against them, with force and violence for a time. Determined rebels against the light rejoice, as on some happy event, when they can silence, drive to a distance, or destroy the faithful servants of Christ, whose doctrine and conduct torment them. It does not appear that the term is yet expired, and the witnesses are not a present exposed to endure such terrible outward sufferings as in former times; but such things may again happen, and there is abundant cause to prophesy in sackcloth, on account of the state of religion. The depressed state of real Christianity may relate only to the western church. The Spirit of life from God, quickens dead souls, and shall quicken the dead bodies of his people, and his dying interest in the world. The revival of God's work and witnesses, will strike terror into the souls of his enemies. Where there is guilt, there is fear; and a persecuting spirit, though cruel, is a cowardly spirit. It will be no small part of the punishment of persecutors, both in this world, and at the great day, that they see the faithful servants of God honoured and advanced. The Lord's witnesses must not be weary of suffering and service, nor hastily grasp at the reward; but must stay till their Master calls them. The consequence of their being thus exalted was a mighty shock and convulsion in the antichristian empire. Events alone can show the meaning of this. But whenever God's work and witnesses revive, the devil's work and witnesses fall before him. And that the slaying of the witnesses is future, appears to be probable.

Commentary on Revelation 11:14-19

(Read Revelation 11:14-19)

Before the sounding of the seventh and last trumpet, there is the usual demand of attention. The saints and angels in heaven know the right of our God and Saviour to rule over all the world. But the nations met God's wrath with their own anger. It was a time in which he was beginning to reward his people's faithful services, and sufferings; and their enemies fretted against God, and so increased their guilt, and hastened their destruction. By the opening the temple of God in heaven, may be meant, that there was a more free communication between heaven and earth; prayer and praises more freely and frequently going up, graces and blessings plentifully coming down. But it rather seems to refer to the church of God on earth. In the reign of antichrist, God's law was laid aside, and made void by traditions and decrees; the Scriptures were locked up from the people, but now they are brought to the view of all. This, like the ark, is a token of the presence of God returned to his people, and his favour toward them in Jesus Christ, as the Propitiation for their sins. The great blessing of the Reformation was attended with very awful providences; as by terrible things in righteousness God answered the prayers presented in his holy temple now opened.

── Matthew HenryConcise Commentary on Revelation


Revelation 11

Verse 2

[2] But the court which is without the temple leave out, and measure it not; for it is given unto the Gentiles: and the holy city shall they tread under foot forty and two months.

But the court which is without the temple — The old temple had a court in the open air, for the heathens who worshipped the God of Israel.

Cast out — Of thy account.

And measure it not — As not being holy In so high a degree.

And they shall tread — Inhabit.

The holy city — Jerusalem, Matthew 4:5. So they began to do, before St. John wrote. And it has been trodden almost ever since by the Romans, Persians, Saracens, and Turks. But that severe kind of treading which is here peculiarly spoken of, will not be till under the trumpet of the seventh angel, and toward the end of the troublous times. This will continue but forty-two common months, or twelve hundred and sixty common days; being but a small part of the non-chronos.

Verse 3

[3] And I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth.

And I — Christ.

Will give to my two witnesses — These seem to be two prophets; two select, eminent instruments. Some have supposed (though without foundation) that they are Moses and Elijah, whom they resemble in several respects.

To prophesy twelve hundred and sixty days — Common days, that is, an hundred and eighty weeks. So long will they prophesy, (even while that last and sharp treading of the holy city continues,) both by word and deed, witnessing that Jesus is the Son of God, the heir of all things, and exhorting all men to repent, and fear, and glorify God.

Clothed in sackcloth — The habit of the deepest mourners, out of sorrow and concern for the people.

Verse 4

[4] These are the two olive trees, and the two candlesticks standing before the God of the earth.

These are the two olive trees — That is, as Zerubbabel and Joshua, the two olive trees spoken of by Zechariah, Zechariah 3:9; 4:10, were then the two chosen instruments in God's hand, even so shall these. be in their season. Being themselves full of the unction of the Holy One, they shall continually transmit the same to others also.

And the two candlesticks — Burning and shining lights.

Standing before the Lord of the earth — Always waiting on God, without the help of man, and asserting his right over the earth and all things therein.

Verse 5

[5] And if any man will hurt them, fire proceedeth out of their mouth, and devoureth their enemies: and if any man will hurt them, he must in this manner be killed.

If any would kill them — As the Israelites would have done Moses and Aaron, Numbers 16:41.

He must be killed thus — By that devouring fire.

Verse 6

[6] These have power to shut heaven, that it rain not in the days of their prophecy: and have power over waters to turn them to blood, and to smite the earth with all plagues, as often as they will.

These have power — And they use that power. See verse 10. Revelation 11:10 To shut heaven, that it rain not in the days of their prophesying - During those "twelve hundred and sixty days." And have power over the waters - In and near Jerusalem.

To turn them into blood — As Moses did those in Egypt.

And to smite the earth with all plagues, as often as they will — This is not said of Moses or Elijah, or any mere man besides. And how is it possible to understand this otherwise than of two individual persons?

Verse 7

[7] And when they shall have finished their testimony, the beast that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit shall make war against them, and shall overcome them, and kill them.

And when they shall have finished their testimony — Till then they are invincible.

The wild beast — Hereafter to be described.

That ascendeth — First out of the sea, Revelation 13:1, and then out of the bottomless pit, Revelation 17:8.

Shall make war with them — It is at his last ascent, not out of the sea, but the bottomless pit, that the beast makes war upon the two witnesses. And even hereby is fixed the time of "treading the holy city," and of the "two witnesses." That time ends after the ascent of the beast out of the abyss, and yet before the fulfilling of the mystery.

And shall conquer them — The fire no longer proceeding out of their mouth when they have finished their work.

And kill them — These will be among the last martyrs, though not the last of all.

Verse 8

[8] And their dead bodies shall lie in the street of the great city, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified.

And their bodies shall be — Perhaps hanging on a cross.

In the street of the great city — Of Jerusalem, a far greater city, than any other in those parts. This is described both spiritually and historically: spiritually, as it is called Sodom Isaiah 1:9 etc. and Egypt; on account of the same abominations abounding there, at the time of the witnesses, as did once in Egypt and Sodom. Historically: Where also their Lord was crucified - This possibly refers to the very ground where his cross stood. Constantine the Great inclosed this within the walls of the city. Perhaps on that very spot will their bodies be exposed.

Verse 9

[9] And they of the people and kindreds and tongues and nations shall see their dead bodies three days and an half, and shall not suffer their dead bodies to be put in graves.

Three days and a half — So exactly are the times set down in this prophecy. If we suppose this time began in the evening, and ended in the morning, and included (which is no way impossible) Friday, Saturday, and Sunday, the weekly festival of the Turkish people, the Jewish tribes, and the Christian tongues; then all these together, with the heathen nations, would have full leisure to gaze upon and rejoice over them.

Verse 10

[10] And they that dwell upon the earth shall rejoice over them, and make merry, and shall send gifts one to another; because these two prophets tormented them that dwelt on the earth.

And they that dwell upon the earth — Perhaps this expression may peculiarly denote earthly-minded men.

Shall make merry — As did the Philistines over Samson.

And send gifts to one another — Both Turks, and Jews, and heathens, and false Christians.

Verse 11

[11] And after three days and an half the Spirit of life from God entered into them, and they stood upon their feet; and great fear fell upon them which saw them.

And great fear fell upon them that saw them — And now knew that God was on their side.

Verse 12

[12] And they heard a great voice from heaven saying unto them, Come up hither. And they ascended up to heaven in a cloud; and their enemies beheld them.

And I heard a great voice — Designed for all to hear.

And they went up to heaven, and their enemies beheld them — who had not taken notice of their rising again; by which some had been convinced before.

Verse 13

[13] And the same hour was there a great earthquake, and the tenth part of the city fell, and in the earthquake were slain of men seven thousand: and the remnant were affrighted, and gave glory to the God of heaven.

And there was a great earthquake and the tenth part of the city fell — We have here an unanswerable proof that this city is not Babylon or Rome, but Jerusalem. For Babylon shall be wholly burned before the fulfilling of the mystery of God. But this city is not burned at all; on the contrary, at the fulfilling of that mystery, a tenth part of it is destroyed by an earthquake, and the other nine parts converted.

And there were slain in the earthquake seven thousand men — Being a tenth part of the inhabitants, who therefore were seventy thousand in all.

And the rest — The remaining sixty-three thousand were converted: a grand step toward the fulfilling of the mystery of God. Such a conversion we no where else read of. So there shall be a larger as well as holier church at Jerusalem than ever was yet.

Were terrified — Blessed terror! And gave glory - The character of true conversion, Jeremiah 13:16.

To the God of heaven — He is styled, "The Lord of the earth," verse 4, Revelation 11:4 when he declares his right over the earth by the two witnesses; but the God of heaven, when he not only gives rain from heaven after the most afflicting drought, but also declares his majesty from heaven, by taking his witnesses up into it. When the whole multitude gives glory to the God of heaven, then that "treading of the holy city" ceases. This is the point so long aimed at, the desired "fulfilling of the mystery of God," when the divine promises are so richly fulfilled on those who have gone through so great afflictions. All this is here related together, that whereas the first and second woe went forth in the east, the rest of the eastern affairs being added at once, the description of the western might afterwards remain unbroken. It may be useful here to see how the things here spoken of, and those hereafter described, follow each other in their order. 1. The angel swears; the non-chronos begins; John eats the book; the many kings arise. 2. The non-chronos and the "many kings" being on the decline, that treading" begins, and the "two witnesses" appear. 3. The beast, after he has with the ten kings destroyed Babylon, wars with them and kills them. After three days and an half they revive and ascend to heaven. There is a great earthquake in the holy city: seven thousand perish, and the rest are converted. The "treading" of the city by the gentiles ends. 4. The beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies are assembled to fight against the Great King. 5. Multitudes of his enemies are killed, and the beast and the false prophet cast alive into the lake of fire. 6. while John measures the temple of God and the altar with the worshippers, the true worship of God is set up. The nations who had trodden the holy city are converted. Hereby the mystery of God is fulfilled. 7. Satan is imprisoned. Being released for a time, he, with Gog and Magog, makes his last assault upon Jerusalem.

Verse 14

[14] The second woe is past; and, behold, the third woe cometh quickly.

The second woe is past — The butchery made by the Saracens ceased about the year 847, when their power was so broken by Charles the Great that they never recovered it.

Behold, the third woe cometh quickly — Its prelude came while the Roman see took all opportunities of laying claim to its beloved universality, and enlarging its power and grandeur. And in the year 755 the bishop of Rome became a secular prince, by king Pepin's giving him the exarchate of Lombardy. The beginning of the third woe itself stands, Revelation 12:12.

Verse 15

[15] And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in heaven, saying, The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever.

And the seventh angel sounded — This trumpet contains the most important and joyful events, and renders all the former trumpets matter of joy to all the inhabitants of heaven. The allusion therefore in this and all the trumpets is to those used in festal solemnities. All these seven trumpets were heard in heaven: perhaps the seventh shall once be heard on earth also, 1 Thessalonians 4:16.

And there were great voices — From the several citizens of heaven. At the opening of the seventh seal "there was silence in heaven;" at the sounding of the seventh trumpet, great voices. This alone is sufficient to show that the seven seals and seven trumpets do not run parallel to each other. As soon as the seventh angel sounds, the kingdom falls to God and his Christ. This immediately appears in heaven, and is there celebrated with joyful praise. But on earth several dreadful occurrences are to appear first. This trumpet comprises all that follows from these voices to Revelation 22:5.

The kingdom of the world — That is, the royal government over the whole world, and all its kingdoms, Zechariah 14:9.

Is become the kingdom of the Lord — This province has been in the enemy's hands: it now returns to its rightful Master. In the Old Testament, from Moses to Samuel, God himself was the King of his own people. And the same will be in the New Testament: he will himself reign over the Israel of God.

And of his Christ — This appellation is now first given him, since the introduction of the book, on the mention of the kingdom devolving upon him, under the seventh trumpet. Prophets and priests were anointed, but more especially kings: whence that term, the anointed, is applied only to a king. Accordingly, whenever the Messiah is mentioned in scripture, his kingdom is implied.

Is become — In reality, all things (and so the kingdom of the world) are God's in all ages: yet Satan and the present world, with its kings and lords, are risen against the Lord and against his Anointed. God now puts an end to this monstrous rebellion, and maintains his right to all things. And this appears in an entirely new manner, as soon as the seventh angel sounds.

Verse 16

[16] And the four and twenty elders, which sat before God on their seats, fell upon their faces, and worshipped God,

And the four and twenty elders — These shall reign over the earth, Revelation 5:10.

Who sit before God on their thrones — which we do not read of any angel.

Verse 17

[17] Saying, We give thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, which art, and wast, and art to come; because thou hast taken to thee thy great power, and hast reigned.

The Almighty — He who hath all things in his power as the only Governor of them.

Who is, and who was — God is frequently styled, "He who is, and who was, and who is to come." but now he is actually come, the words, "who is to come," are, as it were, swallowed up. When it is said, We thank thee that thou hast taken thy great power, it is all one as, "We thank thee that thou art come." This whole thanksgiving is partly an enlargement on the two great points mentioned in the fifteenth verse; Revelation 11:15 partly a summary of what is hereafter more distinctly related. Here it is mentioned, how the kingdom is the Lord's; afterwards, how it is the kingdom of his Christ.

Thou hast taken thy great power — This is the beginning of what is done under the trumpet of the seventh angel. God has never ceased to use his power; but he has suffered his enemies to oppose it, which he will now suffer no more.

Verse 18

[18] And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth.

And the heathen nations were wroth - At the breaking out of the power and kingdom of God. This wrath of the heathens now rises to the highest pitch; but it meets the wrath of the Almighty, and melts away. In this verse is described both the going forth and the end of God's wrath, which together take up several ages.

And the time of the dead is come — Both of the quick and dead, of whom those already dead are far the more numerous part.

That they be judged — This, being infallibly certain, they speak of as already present.

And to give a reward — At the coming of Christ, Revelation 22:12; but of free grace, not of debt, 1. To his servants the prophets: 2. To his saints: to them who were eminently holy: 3. To them that fear his name: these are the lowest class. Those who do not even fear God will have no reward from him.

Small and great — All universally, young and old, high and low, rich and poor.

And to destroy them that destroyed the earth — The earth was destroyed by the "great whore" in particular, Revelation 19:2; 17:2,5; but likewise in general, by the open rage and hate of wicked men against all that is good; by wars, and the various destruction and desolation naturally flowing therefrom; by such laws and constitutions as hinder much good, and occasion many offences and calamities; by public scandals, whereby a door is opened for all dissoluteness and unrighteousness; by abuse of secular and spiritual powers; by evil doctrines, maxims, and counsels; by open violence and persecution; and by sins crying to God to send plagues upon the earth. This great work of God, destroying the destroyers, under the trumpet of the seventh angel, is not the third woe, but matter of joy, for which the elders solemnly give thanks. All the woes, and particularly the third, go forth over those "who dwell upon the earth;" but this destruction, over those "who destroy the earth," and were also instruments of that woe.

Verse 19

[19] And the temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in his temple the ark of his testament: and there were lightnings, and voices, and thunderings, and an earthquake, and great hail.

And the temple of God-The inmost part of it. Was opened in heaven - And hereby is opened a new scene of the most momentous things, that we may see how the contents of the seventh trumpet are executed; and, notwithstanding the greatest opposition, (particularly by the third woe,) brought to a glorious conclusion.

And the ark of the covenant was seen in his temple — The ark of the covenant which was made by Moses was not in the second temple, being probably burnt with the first temple by the Chaldeans. But here is the heavenly ark of the everlasting covenant, the shadow of which was under the Old Testament, Hebrews 9:4. The inhabitants of heaven saw the ark before: St. John also saw it now; for a testimony, that what God had promised, should be fulfilled to the uttermost.

And there were lightnings, and voices, and thunders, and an earthquake, and great hail — The very same there are, and in the same order, when the seventh angel has poured out his phial; Revelation 16:17-21: one place answers the other. What the trumpet here denounces in heaven, is there executed by the phial upon earth. First it is shown what will be done; and afterwards it is done.

── John WesleyExplanatory Notes on Revelation


Chapter 11. Two Witnesses

Turn the Waters into Blood
Shut Up the Sky from Raining

I. Trample on the Holy City

  1. Measure the Temple
  2. Wars and Plagues
  3. Forty-two Months

II. Preaching of the Two Prophets

  1. Testify the Truth
  2. Martyred for the Truth
  3. Raised from the Dead and Risen to Heaven

III. The Third Woe of the Seventh Trumpet

  1. Declare in Heaven
  2. Echoed by the Elders
  3. The Appearance of the Ark of the Covenant

── Chih-Hsin ChangAn Outline of The New Testament

Chapter Eleven General Review
1) To examine the remaining visions in the interlude between the 
   sounding of the sixth and seventh trumpets, and what happens when
   the seventh trumpet sounds
2) To offer explanations concerning the significance of these visions,
   and to summarize what we have seen in the first half of the book of
As the interlude between the sixth and seventh trumpets continues, two
more visions are seen.  The first involves John himself as he is given
a reed and told to measure the temple of God, the altar, and those
worshipping there.  He is instructed, however, not to measure the court
outside the temple, for it has been given to the Gentiles who will
tread underfoot the holy city for forty-two months (1-2).  This vision
may illustrate that while the church will undergo great persecution, 
and outwardly appear to be trodden underfoot, its inner spirit will not
be harmed.
Then there is the vision of the two witnesses, which falls into three
sections.  With power they prophesy 1,260 days, clothed in sackcloth.
Identified as the two olive trees and the two lampstands standing
before the throne of God, they have the power to devour with fire from
their mouths those who wish to harm them.  They also have power to stop
the rain during the days of their prophesying, to turn water to blood,
and to strike the earth with plagues (3-6).  But when their testimony
is completed, the beast from the bottomless pit makes war with them and
kills them.  For three and half days their bodies lies in the street of
the great city that is spiritually called Sodom and Egypt (where Jesus
was crucified).  Those who had been tormented by the two prophets
rejoice, make merry and exchange gifts (7-10).  However, after three
and a half days they are raised to life and ascend into heaven,
bringing great fear on those who saw them.  In the same hour a great
earthquake occurs in which a tenth of the city fell and 7000 men were
killed.  The rest were afraid and gave glory to God (11-13).
The two witnesses are certainly reminiscent of Moses and Elijah, but I
do not believe they portend two literal persons.  Rather, they 
represent the witness of the church, with the number two signifying the
strength of their witness (e.g., "two or more witnesses").  As 
suggested by Hailey, the first period may be the apostolic age during
which the witnesses could not be destroyed.  When their testimony is
completed, there will be a time of persecution by "the beast" and those
of "the great city" (who will be identified later).  Ultimately,
however, the witnesses (i.e., the church) will be victorious, 
symbolized by their resurrection and ascension to heaven.
The interlude ended, it is time for the third woe, and the final
trumpet.  As the seventh angel sounded, loud voices in heaven
proclaimed "The kingdoms of this world have become the kingdoms of our
Lord and of His Christ, and He shall reign forever and ever!"  The 
twenty-four elders then fell on their faces and worshiped God, giving 
thanks to Him for having taken His great power and reigned.  While the
nations were angry, His wrath has come. So has the time for the dead to
be judged, for His servants the prophets and the saints to be rewarded,
and for the destruction of those who destroy the earth.  Then the
temple of God was opened in heaven, with the ark of the covenant in the
temple, accompanied by lightnings, noises, thunderings, an earthquake
and hail (15-19).
With the seventh trumpet we reach the climax of the first half of the
Revelation, in which we have been shown an overall look at the
conflict.  In general terms, the conflict between the Lamb and His
enemies has been described, without really mentioning who those enemies
are.  What has been stressed is that the wrath of God and His Lamb was
coming!  Through the visions of the seven seals and seven trumpets we 
learn of the arsenal at God's disposal:  military conquest, civil war,
famine, pestilence, natural calamities, internal and moral decay,
external invasion.  Just as God used such instruments in His dealings
with the nations in the Old Testament, so His Son would use His power 
to reign over the nations with a rod of iron (cf. 1:5; 2:27; 3:21).
We have also seen visions designed to comfort the saints being 
oppressed by their enemies.  God has taken notice of their suffering,
and while persecution may temporarily be their lot, victory will
ultimately be theirs!  Even those who suffer death at the hands of
their enemies are promised salvation and the blessing of being in the
presence and care of the Lord.  But nothing can totally stop their
witness, and nothing can keep God from remaining true to His covenant
with them!
      1. John is given a reed like a measuring rod
      2. Told to measure the temple of God, the altar, and those who 
         worship there
      1. Told not to measure the court outside the temple
      2. For it has been given to the Gentiles, who will tread the holy
         city under foot forty-two months
      1. Two witnesses given power to prophesy, clothed in sackcloth
      2. Identified as the two olive trees and two lampstands standing
         before God
      3. Those trying to harm them are devoured by fire from their
      4. Having power:
         a. To shut heaven so no rain falls during their prophesying
         b. To turn water to blood
         c. To strike the earth with plagues as they desire
      1. Their testimony finished, the beast will kill them
         a. The beast that ascends from the bottomless pit
         b. Who will make war against them and overcome them
      2. Their dead bodies will lie in the street of the great city
         a. Spiritually called Sodom and Egypt
         b. Where our Lord was crucified
      3. The peoples, tribes, tongues, and nation who dwell on the
         a. Will see their bodies three and a half days
         b. Will not allow them to be put into graves
         c. Will rejoice over them, make merry, and exchange gifts, 
            because the two prophets had tormented those who dwell on
            the earth
      1. After three and a half days, the breath of life from God 
         entered them
      2. They stood, and great fear fell on those who saw them
      3. A loud voice from heaven tells them to "Come up here"
      4. They ascend to heaven in a cloud as their enemies saw them
      5. In that same hour there was an earthquake
         a. A tenth of the city fell
         b. Seven thousand men were killed
         c. The rest were afraid and gave glory to the God of heaven
      6. The second woe is past; the third woe is coming quickly
      1. The seventh angel sounded his trumpet and there were loud 
         voices in heaven
      2. Saying, "The kingdoms of this world have become the kingdoms
         of our Lord and of His Christ, and He shall reign forever and
      1. The elders fell on their faces and worshiped God
      2. Giving thanks to the Lord God Almighty, the One who is and who
         was and who is to come
      3. Because He has taken His great power and reigned
      4. The nations were angry, and His wrath has come
      5. The time has come
         a. That the dead should be judged
         b. That His servants the prophets, the saints, and those who
            fear His name, should be rewarded
         c. That He should destroy those who destroy the earth
      1. The temple of God was opened in heaven, and the ark of His 
         covenant was seen in His temple
      2. There were lightnings, noises, thunderings, an earthquake, and
         great hail
1) What are the main points of this chapter?
   - Measuring the temple of God (1-2)
   - The two witnesses (3-14)
   - The seventh trumpet:  the kingdom proclaimed (15-19)
2) What was John given and told to measure? (1)
   - A reed like a measuring rod; the temple of God, the altar, and
     those who worship there
3) What was he told to leave out?  Why? (2)
   - The court outside the temple
   - It has been given to the Gentiles who will tread the holy city
     underfoot for forty-two months
4) What were the two witnesses to do? (3)
   - Prophesy for 1,260 days, clothed in sackcloth
5) How are they identified? (4)
   - As the two olive trees and two lampstands standing before God
6) What happens to those who try to harm them during this time of
   prophesying? (5)
   - They are devoured by fire from their mouth
7) What power do these two witnesses have? (6)
   - To shut heaven, so that no rain falls in the days of their
   - To turn water to blood
   - To strike the earth with plagues, as often as they desire
8) What will happen when they finish their testimony? (7)
   - The beast that ascends out of the bottomless pit will make war
     with them and kill them
9) Where will their dead bodies lie? (8)
   - In the street of the great city spiritually called Sodom and 
     Egypt, where Jesus was crucified
10) How long will people see their dead bodies? (9)
   - Three and a half days
11) How will those on the earth react to their deaths?  Why?  (10)
   - They will rejoice, make merry, exchange gifts
   - Because the two prophets had tormented them
12) What happened to the two witnesses after three and a half days?
   - The breath of life from God entered them, and they stood on their
   - A loud voice from heaven called them to come up and they ascended
     to heaven in a cloud
13) What happened in that same hour? (13)
   - A great earthquake, in which a tenth of the city fell and seven
     thousand men were killed
   - The rest were afraid and gave glory to God
14) What was heard when the seventh angel sounded his trumpet? (15)
   - Loud voices in heaven saying "The kingdoms of this world have 
     become the kingdoms of our Lord and of His Christ, and He shall
     reign forever and ever!"
15) What did the twenty-four elders do? (16)
   - Fell on their faces and worshiped God
16) For what did they give thanks? (17)
   - The Lord God Almighty took His great power and reigned
17) As expressed in their praise, what had come? (18)
   - His wrath
   - The time of the dead, that they should be judged
   - That He should reward His servants the prophets and the saints
   - That He should destroy those who destroy the earth
18) What was then opened in heaven, and what was seen in it? (19)
   - The temple of God; the ark of the covenant
19) What then followed? (19)
   - Lightnings, noises, thunderings, an earthquake, and great hail


--《Executable Outlines


Two Witnesses

Turn the waters into blood

Shut up the sky from raining


I.  Trample on the holy city

1.    Measure the temple

2.    Wars and plagues

3.    Forty-two months

II.Preaching of the two prophets

1.    Testify the truth

2.    Martyred for the truth

3.    Raised from the dead and risen to heaven

III.       The third woe of the seventh trumpet

1.    Declare in heaven

2.    Echoed by the elders

3.    The appearance of the ark of the covenant

── Chih-Hsin Changan Outline of The New Testament