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Genesis Chapter Twelve


I. Content of the Chapter


Abram Entered into the Land of Canaan

A.  The calling of God (v.1);

B.  The blessing of God (v.2-3);

C.  The guidance of God (v.4-6);

D.  The manifestation and promise of God (v.7);

E.  The life in the presence of God (v.8);


Abram Went down to Egypt and Was Humiliated

A.  Journeyed, going on still toward the South (v.9);

B.  Went down to Egypt for the sake of the famine (v.10);

C.  Planned to keep his life (v.11-13);

D.  Obtain many presents for the sake of his wife (v.14-16);

E.  The protection of God (v.17);

F.   Be rebuked by the Pharaoh (v.18-19);

G.  Went out of Egypt (v.20);


II. Verse by Verse Commentary


Gen. 12:1 “Now the LORD had said to Abram: "Get out of your country, From your family And from your father's house, To a land that I will show you.”

YLT: “Now the LORD had said to Abram: "Get out of your country, From your family And from your father's house, To a land that I will show you.”

Literal Meaning: here God repeated the word again to Abram that had been spoken to him in Mesopotamia (see Acts 7:2-3).

  “Country” refers to the nation or homeland; “family” refers to the kindred; “father’s house” refers to his parents and brothers;

  “To a land that I will show you”, it seemed that God did not tell what land it was, which required that he had to followed the step-by-step guidance of God by faith.

Spiritual Meaning: “country” typifies the world; “family” typifies the race of Adam ---- the flesh; “father’s house”, those who have fleshly association with him, which typifies the evil passions and lusts of the flesh;

  All those who are of Christ Jesus have crucified the world and the flesh with the passions and the lusts (Gal. 6:14; 5:24);

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) We have been Christians, for God has seized us, tightly, and always inspires and calls us.

  2) God is the beginning of all things. If He does not take the initiative, we can do nothing by ourselves.

  3) Since God has begun in us a good work, He will perform it (Phil. 3:6).

  4) Spiritual growth is due to the manifestation of God. The more believers obtain the manifestation and words of God, the further progress will he make in the way of faith.

  5) True faith must be based on the word God has spoken. If God has not spoken, man’s faith becomes “self-confidence”, not the biblical divine faith.

  6) The foundation of faith is not “sight” or “knowledge”, but “the word of God”.

  7) If God has really spoken to you, He will definitely take all responsibilities for you.

  8) If believers desire to enter into the good spiritual realm, they have to be separated from the world and the flesh and the passions and lusts of the flesh.

  9) Believers may be defiled by the evil living environment, so let us try to “get out of it”. If we cannot get out of it physically, let us be get out of it in spirit.

  10) May the Lord often speak to us: “do you love me more than these” (John 21:15)? “These” are the country, and the family and the father’s house.

  11) Habits of life (“country”) and interpersonal relationship (“family and father’s house”) are often the worst obstacles to believers’ spiritual pursuit.

  12) The calling and guidance of God appear in the first step. Will there be the second step only when we follow Him. Therefore, we shall wait and follow step by step.


Gen. 12:2 “I will make you a great nation; I will bless you And make your name great; And you shall be a blessing.”

YLT: “And I make thee become a great nation, and bless thee, and make thy name great; and be thou a blessing.”

Literal Meaning: this verse means that God will look after him and prepare the best portion for him.

 “I will make you a great nation”, it means that God will give Abraham many children, namely, the people of Israel.

I will bless you”, it shows that Abraham will be given the earthly blessings such as material wealth, physical healthy, long lifetime, etc.

And make your name great”, it refers to the widespread reputation of Abraham;

And you shall be a blessing”, it indicates many people are blessed and kept because of him.

In fact, “bless” in this verse is abstract and impractical to Abram; “make you a great nation”, it will not be accomplished in his lifetime on the earth; “make your name great”, it is not detailed; “you shall be a blessing”, the blessings be distributed to others; all of these just reveal that only “faith” can make the blessings of God into realization.

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) We walk by faith, not by sight (2Cor. 5:7).

  2) The principle of God’s work is to gain “one man” first. And then many people will be begotten by him and become a great nation. 

  3) The rise and decline of a nation are fully depended on God. The greatest contribution of Christians to the nation is not dying for it, but praying for it to God

  4) Men want to “make themselves a name” (Gen. 11:4), but get nothing at last. However, God makes the name of the one who never seeks his own name “great”. Therefore, the dignity of name is reserved for the humble one.

  5) The name of the one, who cares for others and seeks spiritual blessings for others, will not only be proclaimed by men but also more be remembered in the heavens.

  6) When we Christians live on the earth, let us have the noble expectation of hoping to be a blessing to others.


Gen. 12:3 “I will bless those who bless you, And I will curse him who curses you; And in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed."”

YLT: “And I bless those blessing thee, and him who is disesteeming thee I curse, and blessed in thee have been all families of the ground.'”

Literal Meaning: “and in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed”, obviously this blessing does not refer to the earthly blessing only, but the blessing to the world on account of “that seed” ---- Christ (Gal. 3:16).

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) The secret of being blessed by God is to bless others previously.

  2) God protects us to such a perfect degree that all those who are hostile to us will become His enemies.

  3) If believers have realized that both their blessings and troubles are related to God, what fear or envy shall there be then?


Gen. 12:4 “So Abram departed as the LORD had spoken to him, and Lot went with him. And Abram was seventy-five years old when he departed from Haran.”

YLT: “And Abram goeth on, as Jehovah hath spoken unto him, and Lot goeth with him, and Abram a son of five and seventy years in his going out from Charan.”

Literal Meaning: “so”, it indicated that Abram obeyed by faith at once ---- this was his characteristic of his whole life (Gen. 17:23; 21:14; 22:3).

  “As the LORD had spoken”, he did not ask God why he had to go nor where to go. As God commanded, he did it.

  “And Lot went with him”, later, not only did Lot himself become a burden to Abram but also the Moabites and Ammonites begotten by Lot (Gen. 19:37-38) become troubles for the Israelites. This was because Abram did not hear the commandments of God completely ---- get out of the father’s house (v.1).

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) Faith means “doing as Jehovah has spoken to us”. Faith begins from keeping the word of God. The faith without works is dead (James 2:17).

  2) “Seventy-five years old”, whenever God calls, let us obey. The old age should not be the reason for disobedience.

  3) Each step of obedience will bring true blessing to others, for obedience is the fruit of faith. Faith places man into the living fellowship with God.

  4) However, our obedience to God should be absolute and complete, not partial obedience (bring Lot together). 


Gen. 12:5 “Then Abram took Sarai his wife and Lot his brother's son, and all their possessions that they had gathered, and the people whom they had acquired in Haran, and they departed to go to the land of Canaan. So they came to the land of Canaan.”

YLT: “And Abram taketh Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother's son, and all their substance that they have gained, and the persons that they have obtained in Charan; and they go out to go towards the land of Canaan; and they come in to the land of Canaan.”

Meaning of Words: Canaan”: the land of purple and red;

Literal Meaning: we can see from this verse that Abram was rich and he did not go the land of Canaan for the sake of the famine, but the calling of God. He did not depart for the purpose of seeking comfortable life, but for the purpose of keeping the will of God.

Spiritual Meaning: “the land of Canaan” is the Promised Land by God, which typifies the possessions Christians will inherit by faith. However there is a series of lessons that we have to learn before truly enjoying the possession.

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) It is far better that the husband and the wife run the heavenly way with one mind.

  2) Abram answered the calling of God, and did not forsake his wife and possession. When the Israelites went out of Egypt, they also spoiled the Egyptians (Ex. 12:36). It is not a sin for believers to have money, and the problem lies in our heart and attitude to the treatment of the money.

  3) If believers have the right attitude towards the worldly things, it will be helpful to our service of God. Therefore, even those who have wives should be as though they had none, and those who use this world as not misusing it. Anyway, take the primary consideration for serving God in everything (1Cor. 7:29, 31, 35).

4) The purpose of believers’ life does not lie in seeking physical or mental satisfaction, but lies in keeping the word of God and fulfilling His good pleasure.


Gen. 12:6 “Abram passed through the land to the place of Shechem, as far as the terebinth tree of Moreh. And the Canaanites were then in the land.”

YLT: “And Abram passeth over into the land, unto the place Shechem, unto the oak of Moreh; and the Canaanite then in the land.”

Meaning of Words: Shechem”: shoulder, a person’s back; “Moreh”: teacher, doctrine, fortress;

Literal Meaning: the Canaanites were then in the land”, this word the Scriptures recorded had a profound meaning ---- in the promised land to Abram, there were even Canaanites that dwelt there, which would definitely make things difficult for Abram. And God would try his faith and endurance and hope through such difficulties.

Spiritual Meaning: Shechem”: it symbolizes being capable of bearing the burden, and also typifies the almighty God will take full responsibility for us.

  “Moreh” symbolizes knowledge; “Terebinth”: it is tall and big and thus provides shade for the sojourners to have a rest;

  “As far as the terebinth tree of Moreh”, the true knowledge of God provides the strength of life to renew the strength of the heavenly pilgrims so that they shall sun and not be weary and walk and not faint (Is. 40:29-31).

  Canaanites”, it typifies Satan’s power of darkness;

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) The devil is hostile to our obtaining possession smoothly. However since we have God to be our stronghold, it is unnecessary to worry about the power of Satan.

  2) No matter how much doctrinal knowledge a believer has, the real important thing for him is how much true knowledge of God he has got and how much power it has exerted on him.

  3) It is the narrow gate and the straitened way that lead to eternal life (Matt. 7:14). Even though believers walk in the will of God, it does not mean everything must be smooth. Tribulations in the world will help us to draw near to God and rely on God.


Gen. 12:7 “Then the LORD appeared to Abram and said, "To your descendants I will give this land." And there he built an altar to the LORD, who had appeared to him.”

YLT: “And Jehovah appeareth unto Abram, and saith, `To thy seed I give this land;' and he buildeth there an altar to Jehovah, who hath appeared unto him.”

Meaning of Words: “altar”: the place where the animal is slaughtered;

Literal Meaning: this is the second time of God’s manifestation to Abram, and the third of speaking to him. Probably, though Abram had arrived at the land of Canaan, he had forgotten his purpose of going there.

Spiritual Meaning: “altar”, it typifies that it is acceptable to God as we present our bodies a living sacrifice (Gen. 8:20; Rom. 12:1-2). And it also typifies worshipping God and having fellowship with God. 

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) It is the first step of living for God of devoting oneself. If believers are unwilling to devote themselves, they cannot be acceptable to God nor run the race before them well.

  2) The world builds the Babel tower for the purpose of reaching unto the heavens (Gen. 11:4). Believers build the alter and bring the heaven to the earth.

  3) If we are not always living in the manifestation of God, we may easily lose the vision of the calling.

  4) It is not enough to see the vision only, for it is one thing of seeing the vision from the heaven and it is another of not disobedient unto the heavenly vision.

  5) By sight, Abram saw “the Canaanites were then in the land” (see v.6). However, by faith, he got the assurance of the manifestation and word of God. Do we choose by sight or by faith?

  6) Believers cannot dwell in safety among the world, but will obtain peace through the fellowship with God (John 16:33).


Gen. 12:8 “And he moved from there to the mountain east of Bethel, and he pitched his tent with Bethel on the west and Ai on the east; there he built an altar to the LORD and called on the name of the LORD”.

YLT: “And he removeth from thence towards a mountain at the east of Beth-El, and stretcheth out the tent (Beth-El at the west, and Hai at the east), and he buildeth there an altar to Jehovah, and preacheth in the name of Jehovah.”

Meaning of Words: Bethel”: the house of God, the temple of God, the habitation of God; “Ai”: a heap of ruins;

Spiritual Meaning: Bethel typifies the house of God, namely, the church.

“Ai” typifies the natural life and the assembly of the natural life, namely, the world;

“Tent”, there are three meanings in the Scriptures: 1) it is moveable at any moment (Heb. 11:9); 2) it is the place where God meets men (Gen. 18:1), which represents the life of fellowship with God and union with God; 3) it is easy to be torn down, which represents the physical body that will perish (2Cor. 5:1-4).

Abram pitched the tent and built the altar between Bethel and Ai. Spiritually, it means that can we enter into the life of the body of Christ (face Bethel) and have the separated and devoting life to God only when we deal with our natural self-life (back up to Ai).

“Called on the name of the LORD”: it means leading his life through prayer to God and reliance on God.

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) Tent and altar represent the two great characteristics of Christians ---- who are sojourners on the earth and live for God by constant reliance on Him.

  2) The tent is for “what we have”, and the altar is for “our self-life”. The life of faith does not rely on what we have or our self-life, but relies on God solely.

  3) Abram built the altar firstly (v.7) and then pitched the tent. Believers shall firstly establish the right relationship with God and then will have right attitude toward life.

  4) Abram built the second altar after pitching the tent. Our right attitude toward life will lead us to more devotion unto God.

  5) We will not enjoy the riches of the house of God (“Bethel”) unless we deal with the flesh (“Ai”) and present us in the hands of God and have intimate fellowship with Him (build the altar).

  6) It is the best testimony before the vacant world (“Ai”) that believers lead the life of faith (“pitch the tent”) in the church (“Bethel”).

  7) The faith of believers is closely bound to their daily life. No matter where we live, we shall always keep the fellowship with God and rely on Him.


Gen. 12:9 “So Abram journeyed, going on still toward the South.”

YLT: “And Abram journeyeth, going on and journeying towards the south.”

Meaning of Words: “journey”: pull up the tent; “the South”: south, dry, drought;

Literal Meaning: “the South”: the stretch of dry land to the south of Beer-sheba;

Spiritual Meaning: “the South”, it is neither the land of Canaan nor the land of Egypt, which typifies the position neither in Christ nor in the world, but the border area;

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) Today, many Christians live in “the South”, who can be called “boundary Christians”.

  2) Believers do not fall into the world immediately, but “go on still toward the South.

  3) Abram failed severely in Egypt later (see v.10-20), but he did not fail till he got there, but failed when he went on still toward the South.


Gen. 12:10 “Now there was a famine in the land, and Abram went down to Egypt to dwell there, for the famine was severe in the land.”

YLT: “And there is a famine in the land, and Abram goeth down towards Egypt to sojourn there, for the famine grievous in the land;”

The Background: on account of the reliable water source in Egypt, there was often abundant food (see Gen. 41:54) even when other places suffered from famines.

Literal Meaning: “the land” refers to “the South” in verse nine.

  Being faced with the famine, Abram was supposed to go through it by faith. Therefore, “going down to Egypt” revealed his weakness of faith. “And”, it shows that his direct response to “the environment” was going down to Egypt instead of seeking God.

  “To dwell there”, it indicates that he did not purpose to dwell there permanently.

Spiritual Meaning: “famine” symbolized physical need and difficulties in daily life.

  Egypt” typifies the world in which we live (the mental system that Satan uses to occupy men).

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) God often tries our heart by environmental conditions.

  2) When the Lord Jesus began to preach, he also went through the trial of “hunger” (Matt. 4:1-4).

  3) Believers may overcome the religious world (Babel), but may not overcome the material world (Egypt).

  4) Once believer’s heart is toward the world, he will immediately feel the thirst, which cannot be satisfied by the objective doctrine or knowledge.

  5) When Christians who are “on the way” cannot be satisfied by doctrines or knowledge, they will surely fall into the world.

  6) It is better to suffer hunger in the land of Canaan than to make good cheer in splendor in Egypt. It is better to be painful on the way of God than to be cozy on the way of Satan. It is better to enjoy the Lord’s presence in impoverishment than to lose God in wealth.

  7) When trials come, let us not turn to Egypt but wait for God. Let trials unfold our obedience to God instead of our failure.

  8) Being faced with crisis, if we do not seek the guidance of God but find a “temporary” solution, even though the present problems are solved, we may fall into a worse crisis with ignorance.


Gen. 12:11 “And it came to pass, when he was close to entering Egypt, that he said to Sarai his wife, "Indeed I know that you are a woman of beautiful countenance.”

YLT: “and it cometh to pass as he hath drawn near to enter Egypt, that he saith unto Sarai his wife, `Lo, I pray thee, I have known that thou a woman of beautiful appearance;”

Literal Meaning: at that time, Sarai was sixty-five years old. However, according to the age of the ancient people, she was in a bloomy age, and besides the Hebrews were gifted a fair complexion. Therefore, she still appealed to the Egyptians.


Gen. 12:12 “Therefore it will happen, when the Egyptians see you, that they will say, "This is his wife'; and they will kill me, but they will let you live.”

YLT: “and it hath come to pass that the Egyptians see thee, and they have said, `This his wife,' and they have slain me, and thee they keep alive:”

Literal Meaning: if the Pharaoh wanted to take Sarai as a concubine and yet he knew she was Abram’s wife, probably he would firstly kill Abram.

Enlightenment in the Word: if one chooses a spouse on the basis of the “beautiful countenance”, there must be full of crises in his marriage life.


Gen. 12:13 “Please say you are my sister, that it may be well with me for your sake, and that I may live because of you."”

YLT: “say, I pray thee, thou my sister, so that it is well with me because of thee, and my soul hath lived for thy sake.'”

Literal Meaning: it was saving his own life by sacrificing his wife. Abram only cared for himself, not Sarai. Wife was the weaker vessel (1Pet. 3:7). However, once the father of faith left the appointed land by God, he became weak even to a point that he needed the protection of his wife.

  “You are my sister”, Sarai the daughter of Abram’s father, but not the daughter of his mother (Gen. 20:12). Such sort of marriage was allowed in the ancient times. This word was half true and half false. Abram’s intended to cover his conjugal relation with Sarai with his brother-sister relation with her. It is a lie of covering one half of the fact with the other half. 

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) It is the commonest mistake of believers of fearing men instead of God. 

  2) Abram seemed to care for his own life, but not the virginity of Sarai. However, let each of us look out not only for his own interests but also for the interests of others (Phil. 2:4).

  3) Whoever is enveloped in the material world, he will inevitably make the mistake of dishonesty and taking advantages of others.

  4) Let the one who thinks of himself strong take heed, lest he should fall down.

  5) Let Christians keep in mind closely that sin is the “effect” and the departure from the Lord’s presence is the “cause”.

  6) Some people think it is right to utter a “white lie” if necessary to solve the present crisis. However, it is just the chance of being caught by the devil to make us not a good Christian.


Gen. 12:14 “So it was, when Abram came into Egypt, that the Egyptians saw the woman, that she was very beautiful.”

YLT: “And it cometh to pass, at the entering of Abram into Egypt, that the Egyptians see the woman that she exceeding fair;”

Literal Meaning: note that the name of Sarai was not mentioned from verse fourteen to sixteen, and it only mentions “the woman”, which indicates that she was a married woman and also showed respect for Sarai.


Gen. 12:15 “The princes of Pharaoh also saw her and commended her to Pharaoh. And the woman was taken to Pharaoh's house.”

YLT: “and princes of Pharaoh see her, and praise her unto Pharaoh, and the woman is taken Pharaoh's house;”

The Background: “Pharaoh”, it was a dignitary title of the ancient king of Egypt. About five hundred years before Abram, a clan leader of the Arabian nomadic people went down to Egypt and became the king of Egypt.

Enlightenment in the Word: the pursuit of the passions and lusts of the flesh is the depravity of the world, from the nobles of the upper classes to the lower classes of society.


Gen. 12:16 “He treated Abram well for her sake. He had sheep, oxen, male donkeys, male and female servants, female donkeys, and camels.”

YLT: “and to Abram he hath done good because of her, and he hath sheep and oxen, and he-asses, and men-servants, and handmaids, and she-asses, and camels.”

The Background: in the ancient times, the domestic animals and servants are important measurement of wealth.

Literal Meaning: probably there was a problematic servant among the female servants of Abram got from Pharaoh, namely, Hagar, the handmaid of Sarai (Gen. 16:1). She delayed the promised son Isaac by God and caused many troubles to the offspring of Isaac.

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) Earthly blessings tend to hinder spiritual blessings.

  2) By worldly sight, it is probably right of going down to Egypt because of the great gain of Abram in Egypt. However, by spiritual sight, his gain could not compensate his loss.

  3) There was no altar, nor is there fellowship in Egypt. It is not a place of God’s presence. Even though we have gained the whole world, if we loss the presence of God, what do we profit?

  4) Let believers learn “to rejoice in Jehovah and joy in the God of our salvation”, even though “the flock shall be cut off from the fold and there shall be no herd in the stalls” (Haba. 3:17-18).


Gen. 12:17 “But the LORD plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai, Abram's wife.”

YLT: “And Jehovah plagueth Pharaoh and his house -- great plagues -- for the matter of Sarai, Abram's wife.”

Literal Meaning: “plague”, it means “smiting through various strange disasters”. 

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) The natural and man-made disasters in the world may relate to the people of God. Therefore, let believers know the change of the environment and know the works and will of God.

  2) The world is not worked by man’s stratagems and means. Everything is in the hand of God.

  3) “The LORD” is much greater than “Pharaoh”. God Himself is the best stronghold of believers.


Gen. 12:18 “And Pharaoh called Abram and said, "What is this you have done to me? Why did you not tell me that she was your wife?”

YLT: “And Pharaoh calleth for Abram, and saith, `What this thou hast done to me? why hast thou not declared to me that she thy wife?”

Literal Meaning: note that Abram did not answer the three questions of Pharaoh, for he knew he was in the wrong and answered nothing.

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) He who lies to someone is just hurting the man.

  2) It is the very thing that most dishonors God that believers are reproached by the world because of their faults in deeds.


Gen. 12:19 “Why did you say, "She is my sister'? I might have taken her as my wife. Now therefore, here is your wife; take her and go your way."”

YLT: “Why hast thou said, She my sister, and I take her to myself for a wife? and now, lo, thy wife, take and go.'”

Literal Meaning: “as my wife”, it showed that the Pharaoh had not drawn near to her.

  “Take her and go your way”, Abram was afraid of being killed for the sake of his wife (see v.12). Here it was revealed that his fear was unnecessary.

Enlightenment in the Word: man’s fear is often redundant. It is better to trust in God wholeheartedly and commit oneself to Him than being troubled and bound by fear.


Gen. 12:20 “So Pharaoh commanded his men concerning him; and they sent him away, with his wife and all that he had.”

YLT: “And Pharaoh chargeth men concerning him, and they send him away, and his wife, an all that he hath.”

Literal Meaning: God did not make void of His faithfulness because of the faults of Abram.

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) Not only should the governor himself not hurt others but also those who are under him should not hurt others.

  2) The leaders of the church may dare not to do evil or speak evil words, but they ask others to do or to speak, thinking that they can escape the judgment of God in this way. They are even worse than the Pharaoh!


III. Outlines of the Spiritual Lessons


Purposes of God’s Electing Abram

A.  To a land that God will show him (v.1) ---- get the possession;

B.  To make him a great nation (v.2) ---- be the people of God;

C.  All the families of the earth shall be blessed in him (v.3) ---- achieve the counsel of God;


Seven Aspects of Promises of God to Abram

A.  Make you a great nation (v.2);

B.  Bless you (v.2);

C.  Make your name great (v.2);

D.  You shall be a blessing (v.2);

E.  I will bless those who bless you (v.3);

F.   I will curse him who curses you (v.3);

G.  In you all the families of the earth shall be blessed (v.3);


Examples of the Life by Faith

A.  Keep the word of God by faith (v.4);

B.  Follow the guidance of God step by step (v.5);

C.  Know God more and know that God will take all the responsibilities (v.6);

D.  Obtain manifestation and word of God more and have closer fellowship with God (v.7);

E.  Devote oneself as a living sacrifice and be a sojourner on the earth (v.7-8);

F.  Forsake the natural self-life and bear the witness of glory in the life of Christ (v.8);


Four Aspects of Trials of Abram

A.  The Canaanites were then in the land (v.6);

B.  He had no son yet (v.7);

C.  There was a famine in the land (v.10);

D.  The land was not able to support Abram and Lot (13:6);


Lessons of the Life by Faith

A.  A power makes man on the downward path unconsciously (v.9);

B.  Temptations may appear suddenly when the need of the flesh can not be satisfied (v.10);

C.  If man cannot overcome the first temptation, he may lie to protect himself (v.11-13);

D.  Since one has experienced by failure that God is the stronghold of those who are of him, he will learn that everything is in the hands of God (v.14-20);


── Caleb HuangChristian Digest Bible Commentary Series

Translated by Mary Zhou