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Genesis Chapter Eighteen


I. Content of the Chapter


The Friend of God, Abraham

A.  Abraham received God and the angels (v.1-8);

B.  God promised Sarah the son (v.9-15);

C.  Abraham walked with God and knew the will of God (v.16-21);

D.  Abraham prayed to God for Lot (v.22-23);


II. Verse by Verse Commentary


Gen. 18:1 “Then the LORD appeared to him by the terebinth trees of Mamre, as he was sitting in the tent door in the heat of the day.”

YLT: “And Jehovah appeareth unto him among the oaks of Mamre, and he is sitting at the opening of the tent, about the heat of the day;”

Spiritual Meaning: this was a symbolic picture: “the terebinth trees of Mamre” were in Hebron (Gen. 13:18), which typified the sweet “fellowship” with God (the meaning of “Hebron”), and therefore rest was found (“terebinth”) in the full life (“Mamre”). 

  “He was sitting in the tent door”, it typified that he had kept the position of a sojourner on the earth and sought a better and heavenly country (Heb. 11:9, 16). In such a condition, God manifested to him and became his friend and had fellowship with him.

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) The truthfulness will be more realized in the fellowship with Him. The more we have sweet fellowship with God, the more we enjoy His presence.

  2) “In the heat of the day” ---- was not our heart burning in us as he spoke to us on the way (Luke 24:32)?

  3) If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him (1John 2:15). Whoever wants to be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God (James 4:4).

  4) If we keep ourselves as sojourners in the world, we will be friends of God and have intimate fellowship with God.

  5) The God of glory even humbles Himself and manifests to us as a common man. Therefore, God is so ready to have fellowship with those who are of Him! let us more cherish the fellowship with God.


Gen. 18:2 “So he lifted his eyes and looked, and behold, three men were standing by him; and when he saw them, he ran from the tent door to meet them, and bowed himself to the ground,”

YLT: “and he lifteth up his eyes and looketh, and lo, three men standing by him, and he seeth, and runneth to meet them from the opening of the tent, and boweth himself towards the earth,”

Literal Meaning: three men”, one of them is God (see v.13). Jehovah had personally manifested to Abram in a figure of man with two angels (Gen. 19:1). At that time, Abram might have not recognized that they were God and angels.

  The word in the New Testament ---- “by entertaining strangers some have unwittingly entertained angels” (Heb. 13:2) ---- is just in allusion to the record of the hospitality of Abram here from verse one to three.

  “Ran from the tent door to meet them”, it showed his hospitality.

  “Bowed himself to the ground”, it unveiled his humility.

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) The God of glory humbled himself and was found in appearance as a man and stood on the equal position with man, because he loves to be a friend of man and have fellowship with man.

  2) Let us often learn to “life our eyes and look” in fellowship.

  3) God resists the proud but gives grace to the humble (James 4:6; 1Pet. 5:5).

  4) He who often lives in the fellowship with God is so kind and humble to both God and men.


Gen. 18:3 “and said, "My Lord, if I have now found favor in Your sight, do not pass on by Your servant.”

YLT: “And he saith, `My Lord, if, I pray thee, I have found grace in thine eyes, do not, I pray thee, pass on from thy servant;”

Literal Meaning: My Lordservant …”, it is a respective tone to elders.

“If I have now found favor in Your sight”, it revealed that he received them, for he found favor in their sight, not they found favor in his sight.

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) Let believers seize each chance to serve others.

  2) Apparently, he who serves others gives a favor to those whom he serves. Actually, it is those who are serves that have presented us a chance to find favor. E.g. the more we preach the gospel, the more will we be blessed by God.

  3) In the church, we have to serve in the mind of “entreating”, thinking that it is the Lord’s graciousness that we are enabled to serve.


Gen. 18:4 “Please let a little water be brought, and wash your feet, and rest yourselves under the tree.”

YLT: “let, I pray thee, a little water be accepted, and wash your feet, and recline under the tree;”

The Background: in the old times, people in the areas of the Middle East wore a kind of sandal without upper. Their feet were often begrimed with dust when they were walking. And therefore they often needed to wash their feet to refresh them and release tiredness.

Literal Meaning: this verse indicated that Abraham was considerate towards the wayfarers who were tired and weary.

Spiritual Meaning: and wash your feet”, it typifies the washing away of the defilement of the world by the living water of life.

  “And rest yourselves under the tree”, it typifies the rest in the shadow of the Lord.

  Verse three to verse five can be regarded as Abraham’s prayer, expressing the willing of devotion to God and hoping to present what he has to God for His satisfaction and joy.

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) The Lord commands us to wash the feet of one another and wash away the worldly constitutions of others by the divine life. Through such love, all will know that we are the Lord’s disciples (John 13:14, 35).

  2) We may be exposed to sun when we run on the way, so let us often rest under the shadow of the Lord.

  3) Let believers have the willingness of devotion, and let us not pray for the blessing of God only, and yet ignore the expectation and need of God.


Gen. 18:5 “And I will bring a morsel of bread, that you may refresh your hearts. After that you may pass by, inasmuch as you have come to your servant." They said, "Do as you have said."”

YLT: “and I bring a piece of bread, and support ye your heart; afterwards pass on, for therefore have ye passed over unto your servant;' and they say, `So mayest thou do as thou has spoken.'”

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) Christ is the bread of life (John 6:48), which strengthens us to walk the way before us.

  2) The prayer of Abraham was granted by God ---- “do as you have said” ---- (2Cor. 8:12).


Gen. 18:6 “So Abraham hurried into the tent to Sarah and said, "Quickly, make ready three measures of fine meal; knead it and make cakes."”

YLT: “And Abraham hasteth towards the tent, unto Sarah, and saith, `Hasten three measures of flour-meal, knead, and make cakes;'”

Literal Meaning: hurried into …quickly”, it showed his swift action.

Spiritual Meaning: three measures of fine meal; knead it and make cakes”, it typifies that the holy Trinity has become the provision of life. How even and how gentle! And here it also typifies that we can only offer the Christ whom we have partaken of to God to be a meat-offering (Lev. 2:4-9).

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) Let us seize the opportunity to serve God diligently (“hurried into …quickly”).

  2) Working with fellow workers excels in working alone. It is better to encourage others to work together (“hurried into the tent to Sarah”).


Gen. 18:7 “And Abraham ran to the herd, took a tender and good calf, gave it to a young man, and he hastened to prepare it.”

YLT: “and Abraham ran unto the herd, and taketh a son of the herd, tender and good, and giveth unto the young man, and he hasteth to prepare it;”

Literal Meaning: Abraham ran tohe hastened to prepare”, the state of those who were around him was also influenced.

  “A tender and good calf”, he entertained the guests with the best.

Spiritual Meaning: a tender and good calf”, it typifies that Christ is the “fat calf”, (Luke 15:23).

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) Whatever is given to God and to man should be the best.

  2) When the saints work together, let them work harmoniously ---- neither one is fast and the other is slow, nor one is zealous and the other is indifferent.


Gen. 18:8 “So he took butter and milk and the calf which he had prepared, and set it before them; and he stood by them under the tree as they ate.”

YLT: “and Abraham ran unto the herd, and taketh a son of the herd, tender and good, and giveth unto the young man, and he hasteth to prepare it;”

Literal Meaning: he stood by them under the tree”, “stood” indicated that he served them in a spirit of servant (Luke 17:8-10).

Spiritual Meaning: butter and milk” symbolize the essence of Christ we have experienced.

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) Service shall be perfect with no shortness of whatever is ought to be presented.

  2) In our service, let us keep the position of a servant before God and be humble to men.

  3) The best thing we can present before God is the Christ we have experienced in us. Christ is the joint satisfaction and joy of both God and men.


Gen. 18:9 “Then they said to him, "Where is Sarah your wife?" So he said, "Here, in the tent."”

YLT: “And they say unto him, `Where Sarah thy wife?' and he saith, `Lo -- in the tent;'”

Literal Meaning: God manifested to Abraham with His purposes. And the first purpose was to reveal him the birth of Isaac by Sarah. What was worthy of observation was that God did not give his revelation the moment he manifested, but mentioned it at this moment.

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) If we desire to obtain the divine revelation, we have to first have sweet fellowship with God and let God find satisfaction in us.

  2) When God find more satisfaction in us, He will take us as His friends and are ready to share His secret with us. .

  3) Draw near to God and He will draw near to you (James 4:8).


Gen. 18:10 “And He said, "I will certainly return to you according to the time of life, and behold, Sarah your wife shall have a son." (Sarah was listening in the tent door which was behind him.)”

YLT: “and he saith, `returning I return unto thee, about the time of life, and lo, to Sarah thy wife a son. And Sarah is hearkening at the opening of the tent, which is behind him;'”

Literal Meaning: “I” refers to God.

  “According to the time of life”, it was the same as the second promise of God to Abraham (Gen. 17:21). Probably, it was because Sarah was not on the spot. 

Spiritual Meaning: have a son”, it refers to Isaac, which typifies “living out Christ in daily life”.

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) When God comes, the son is begotten. God is the origin of life. The efficacious way of preaching the gospel and spreading the divine life is to look upon the presence of God.

  2) That “Sarah has a son” is the will of God. However, the fulfillment of this will should be according to the time of life. Therefore, God fulfills His will by Himself. He personally fulfills what is initiated by Him. The fulfillment of God’s will does not need human help.

  3) God has His appointed time, so let us wait with patience.

  4) The will of God is that we shall live out Christ in daily life. The more one has obtained the manifestation of God and the more one has intimate fellowship with God, the more can he live out Christ.


Gen. 18:11 “Now Abraham and Sarah were old, well advanced in age; and Sarah had passed the age of childbearing.”

YLT: “and Abraham and Sarah aged, entering into days -- the way of women hath ceased to be to Sarah;”

Literal Meaning: this verse meant that they had no hope of bearing a son from this perspective. Man’s hope often lies in his own strength and condition. However, the works of God do not need human strength, so He often starts to work when man gives himself up. 

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) Man’s extremity is the opportunity of God.

  2) We may not be used by God when we feel confident of ourselves.

  3) The more our natural strength decreases, the more the divine strength will be manifested.


Gen. 18:12 “Therefore Sarah laughed within herself, saying, "After I have grown old, shall I have pleasure, my lord being old also?"”

YLT: “and Sarah laugheth in her heart, saying, `After I have waxed old I have had pleasure! -- my lord also old!'”

Literal Meaning: note the word “I” in this verse, which is the origin of unbelief. Sarah inferred that it was impossible from the natural perspective, so she laughed. 

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) The infidel sees only his own difficulty. However, believers trust in the Almighty God in spite of the difficulties.

  2) Whenever the constitution of “I” decreases, the works of God will be manifested.


Gen. 18:13 “And the LORD said to Abraham, "Why did Sarah laugh, saying, "Shall I surely bear a child, since I am old?'”

YLT: “And Jehovah saith unto Abraham, `Why this? Sarah hath laughed, saying, Is it true really -- I bear -- and I am aged?”

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) God is a God who searches the minds and hearts (Rev. 2:23; Jer. 20:12). Our mind is naked and open to Him (Heb. 4:12-13).

  2) The Lord tries our hearts (Ps. 26:2) so that our thoughts shall be accepted by Him (Ps. 19:14).


Gen. 18:14 “Is anything too hard for the LORD? At the appointed time I will return to you, according to the time of life, and Sarah shall have a son."”

YLT: “Is any thing too wonderful for Jehovah? at the appointed time I return unto thee, about the time of life, and Sarah hath a son.' “”

Literal Meaning: is anything too hard for the LORD?” When Sarah saw herself, she uttered the questions that “it is true?...can I really beget a son?” (see v.12-13), but he did not consider God. However, with men this is impossible, but with God all things are impossible (Matt. 19:26).

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) Whatever difficulties we have met, let us discern everything according to God and believe “is anything too hard for the LORD?” (Job. 42:2; Jer. 32:17).

  2) The success of a thing depends on whether God has spoken of it, not the difficulty level, for with God nothing will be impossible (Luke 1:37).

  3) It is fully amazing that believers can even manifest Christ, for it is out of the wonderful works of God, not human works.


Gen. 18:15 “But Sarah denied it, saying, "I did not laugh," for she was afraid. And He said, "No, but you did laugh!"”

YLT: “And Sarah denieth, saying, `I did not laugh;' for she hath been afraid; and He saith, `Nay, but thou didst laugh.'”

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) Since we believers have the sincerity of Christ (2Cor. 11:10) in us, let us speak truth in love (Eph. 4:25). 

  2) If we have fault, let us not dare not to confess it because of fear. Whoever confesses and forsakes them will have mercy (Pro. 28:13).


Gen. 18:16 “Then the men rose from there and looked toward Sodom, and Abraham went with them to send them on the way.”

YLT: “And the men rise from thence, and look on the face of Sodom, and Abraham is going with them to send them away;”

Literal Meaning: looked toward Sodom”, here it suggests that God visited Abraham for another purpose ---- He revealed His will of destroying Sodom to Abraham so that He would pray for the whole family of his nephew Lot (Gen. 19:29).

  To see someone off shows the reluctance to leave. Man often sees off the common friends at that door, but intimate friends a further distance. Here that Abraham send them on the way indicated his close friendship with God.

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) He who has fellowship with God shall walk with God. If we have fellowship with God in the tent, we will go forth to Him outside the camp (Heb. 13:13) and walk with Him in our daily life.

  2) Only when we believers walk with God, can we have thorough and clear knowledge of the sinful world (“Sodom”) and pray for others according to God.

  3) Every time when we have sweet fellowship with God, we will feel reluctant to leave.

  4) In the gatherings of the church, the climax of both God’s revelation and the corporate joy is often found in the final section ---- “went with them to send them on the way”.


Gen. 18:17 “And the LORD said, "Shall I hide from Abraham what I am doing,”

YLT: “and Jehovah said, `Am I concealing from Abraham that which I am doing,”

Literal Meaning: since Abraham expressed close friendship to God here, God was also moved to tell him what He was doing (Ps. 25:14).

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) God pleases to reveal His will to us (Gal. 1:16). And the problem is whether we have prepared to know the will of God.

  2) The more one draws near to God, the more can he share the secreta in God’s heart.


Gen. 18:18 “since Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him?”

YLT: “and Abraham certainly becometh a nation great and mighty, and blessed in him have been all nations of the earth?”

Literal Meaning: “all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him”, Christ is the seed of Abraham (Matt. 1:1), which means Abraham brings Christ, so all nations are blessed in him.

Enlightenment in the Word: God plans to build a kingdom of God on the earth so that all those who walk by faith shall be blessed with the father of faith Abraham in the kingdom of God (Gal. 3:8-9).


Gen. 18:19 “For I have known him, in order that he may command his children and his household after him, that they keep the way of the LORD, to do righteousness and justice, that the LORD may bring to Abraham what He has spoken to him."”

YLT: “for I have known him, that he commandeth his children, and his house after him (and they have kept the way of Jehovah), to do righteousness and judgment, that Jehovah may bring on Abraham that which He hath spoken concerning him.'”

Literal Meaning: I have known him”: “I have taken him as a friend” (Is. 41:8).

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) God knows us in order to make us know His will and teach all those who are around us (including our children, relatives, colleagues, etc.) to fear God (Jos. 24:15).

  2) He who has been saved by grace shall not sin but keep his word and manifest the righteousness of God.


Gen. 18:20 “And the LORD said, "Because the outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is great, and because their sin is very grave,”

YLT: “And Jehovah saith, `The cry of Sodom and Gomorrah -- because great; and their sin -- because exceeding grievous:”


Gen. 18:21 “I will go down now and see whether they have done altogether according to the outcry against it that has come to Me; and if not, I will know."”

YLT: “I go down now, and see whether according to its cry which is coming unto Me they have done completely -- and if not -- I know;'”

Literal Meaning: “I will go down now and see”, it does not mean God has to really come down to the earth to obtain the true fact, for God is omnipresent (Jer. 23:24) and omniscient (Is. 46:9).

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) God condescends to us to lead us into His will so that we shall be partakers of His works by prayer.

  2) Every time when God reveals His will to us, it shows that He cherishes us and wants us to become fellow-workers of Him.


Gen. 18:22 “Then the men turned away from there and went toward Sodom, but Abraham still stood before the LORD.”

YLT: “and the men turn from thence, and go towards Sodom; and Abraham is yet standing before Jehovah.”

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) It is a blessed way of standing before God all the time.

  2) Through the grace of God, we are enabled to come to God with boldness (Heb. 4:16).


Gen. 18:23 “And Abraham came near and said, "Would You also destroy the righteous with the wicked?”

YLT: “And Abraham draweth nigh and saith, `Dost Thou also consume righteous with wicked?”

Literal Meaning: Abraham came near”, since Abraham had known the will of God of destroying the city of Sodom in which his nephew Lot lived (Gen. 13:12), he made supplication to God for he cared for the whole family of Lot.

  Would You also destroy the righteous with the wicked?” It goes against the righteousness of God if the righteous is destroyed with the wicked. Therefore, Abraham prayed according to the righteousness of God.

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) Abraham prayed with a burden of interceding for Lot. Many believers pray to God without any burden as though it never matters whether God hears the prayer or not.

  2) The best prayer of believers is to stand on the side of God and think of God’s righteousness. However, the majority of our prayers are thinking of ourselves and asking God to answer our unrighteous requests.


Gen. 18:24 “Suppose there were fifty righteous within the city; would You also destroy the place and not spare it for the fifty righteous that were in it?”

YLT: “peradventure there are fifty righteous in the midst of the city; dost Thou also consume, and not bear with the place for the sake of the fifty -- the righteous who in its midst?”

Literal Meaning: Abraham asked God according to the principle of God’s work. In fact, God said, by the prophet Jeremiah, “If you can find a man, if there is anyone who executes judgment, who seeks the truth, I will pardon her” (Jer. 5:1). 

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) Many times, God does not hear our prayer, for we have not seized the principle of God’ work.

  2) God is righteous, so He must judge sins (Heb. 1:9). However if we confess our sins, He will surely forgive our sins (1John 1:9).


Gen. 18:25 “Far be it from You to do such a thing as this, to slay the righteous with the wicked, so that the righteous should be as the wicked; far be it from You! Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?"”

YLT: “Far be it from Thee to do according to this thing, to put to death the righteous with the wicked; that it hath been -- as the righteous so the wicked -- far be it from Thee; doth the Judge of all the earth not do justice?'”

Literal Meaning: Abraham emphasized that God would not do unrighteousness ---- “to slay the righteous with the wicked so that the righteous should be as the wicked” ---- it is not allowed in the light of God’s righteousness.

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) The most efficacious prayer is the prayer according to the knowledge of God, for God cannot deny Himself (2Tim. 2:13).

  2) Many people beg hardly and plead desperately in prayers, intending to move God to sympathize with them.


Gen. 18:26 “So the LORD said, "If I find in Sodom fifty righteous within the city, then I will spare all the place for their sakes."”

YLT: “And Jehovah saith, `If I find in Sodom fifty righteous in the midst of the city, then have I borne with all the place for their sake.'”

Literal Meaning: in Abraham’s prayer, he firstly established the foundation of speaking with God, and then negotiated with God to regulate His requirements. Here Abraham confirmed the principle that “God would not destroy that city as long as there were fifty righteous men within the city”.


Gen. 18:27 “Then Abraham answered and said, "Indeed now, I who am but dust and ashes have taken it upon myself to speak to the Lord:”

YLT: “And Abraham answereth and saith, `Lo, I pray thee, I have willed to speak unto the Lord, and I -- dust and ashes;”


Gen. 18:28 “Suppose there were five less than the fifty righteous; would You destroy all of the city for lack of five?" So He said, "If I find there forty-five, I will not destroy it."”

YLT: “peradventure there are lacking five of the fifty righteous -- dost Thou destroy for five the whole of the city?' and He saith, `I destroy not, if I find there forty and five.'”

Literal Meaning: here Abraham meant that though he was unworthy of reasoning with God, since God had approved the principle of “sparing the city for the sake of the fifty righteous”, he wondered “the least number of the righteous men” that would make the city spared”.


Gen. 18:29 “And he spoke to Him yet again and said, "Suppose there should be forty found there?" So He said, "I will not do it for the sake of forty."”

YLT: “And he addeth again to speak unto Him and saith, `Peradventure there are found there forty?' and He saith, `I do not, because of the forty.'”


Gen. 18:30 “Then he said, "Let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak: Suppose thirty should be found there?" So He said, "I will not do it if I find thirty there."”

YLT: “And he saith, `Let it not be, I Pray thee, displeasing to the Lord, and I speak: peradventure there are found there thirty?' and He saith, `I do not, if I find there thirty.'”


Gen. 18:31 “And he said, "Indeed now, I have taken it upon myself to speak to the Lord: Suppose twenty should be found there?" So He said, "I will not destroy it for the sake of twenty."”

YLT: “And he saith, `Lo, I pray thee, I have willed to speak unto the Lord: peradventure there are found there twenty?' and He saith, `I do not destroy , because of the twenty.'”


Gen. 18:32 “Then he said, "Let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak but once more: Suppose ten should be found there?" And He said, "I will not destroy it for the sake of ten."”

YLT: “And he saith, `Let it not be, I pray Thee, displeasing to the Lord, and I speak only this time: peradventure there are found there ten?' and He saith, `I do not destroy , because of the ten.'”

Literal Meaning: from verse twenty-seven to thirty-two, Abraham decreased the number of the righteous to ten. Probably, it was because he had not known God enough that he dared not to mention “ten” directly in fear of offending God. Abraham might think there were at least ten among Lot and his family that did not associate with the evil tide of Sodomites, so he did not entreat God more. In fact, he had over-estimated the condition of Lot’s family, for there were only three saved in the end (Gen. 19:15, 26).

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) Abraham “asked” rather than “spoke” in his prayer. To ask God is truly a good way of prayer (Ps. 27:14).

  2) Believers may know the will of God step by step in the process of asking and entreating.


Gen. 18:33 “So the LORD went His way as soon as He had finished speaking with Abraham; and Abraham returned to his place.”

YLT: “And Jehovah goeth on, when He hath finished speaking unto Abraham, and Abraham hath turned back to his place.”

Enlightenment in the Word:

  1) Prayer involves believers’ uttering as well as hearing.

  2) We may utter some word in prayer and then rise up and go away without hearing God. However, a normal prayer is a dialogue with God. And after God’s speaking, we return to our place.


III. Outlines of the Spiritual Lessons


The Virtues Abraham Have Manifested When He Entertained the Angels

A.  Zealous and not unwilling ---- ran from the door to meet them (v.2);

B.  Humble ---- bow himself to the ground (v.2);

C.  Regard entertainment as a favor instead of a cost (v.3);

D.  Respectful ---- call him “my LORD” (v.3);

E.  Great hospitality ---- washing your feet and preparing the feast (v.4-5);

F.   Present the best swiftly ---- quickly, tender and good (v.6-7);

G.  Careful service ---- he stood by them (v.8);


Examples of Abraham’s Prayer

A.  He had close fellowship with God first (v.1-8);

B.  He walked with God and was the friend of God (v.16);

C.  He obtained the revelation of God and knew the will of God (v.17-21);

D.  He received the burden of prayer from the revelation of God (v.22);

E.  He knew God according to the fellowship of God and the walking with God, and thus held the principles of God’s working (v.23);

F.   He interceded with God for others according to the principles of God’s works (v.24-26);

G.  He asked God for the limit of God’s tolerance step by step (v.27-32);

H.  He stood before God as soon as He had finishing speaking with him (v.33);


Characteristics Abraham Have Manifested in Prayer

A.  Boldness (v.23, 25);

B.  Perseverant prayer (v.24, 29-32);

C.  Godliness (v.30, 32);

D.  Earnest Prayer (because of seeing the danger of sinners);

E.  Be granted by the Lord (see Gen. 19:29);


Two Key Revelations of God

A.  The positive revelation ---- beget Isaac (v.9-14) ---- manifest Christ in daily life;

B.  The passive revelation ---- destroy Sodom (v.20-32) ---- remove sins;


── Caleb HuangChristian Digest Bible Commentary Series

Translated by Mary Zhou