2 Kings Chapter Twenty-one
New King James Version (NKJV)
INTRODUCTION TO 2 CHRONICLES 21
This chapter relates Jehoram's succession to the throne of Judah, and the murders and idolatries committed by him, 2 Chronicles 21:1, the revolt of the Edomites from him, and some of his own people, 2 Chronicles 21:8, a writing of Elijah to him, threatening a great plague to him and his family, 2 Chronicles 21:12, the raising up of several enemies against him, 2 Chronicles 21:16, his sickness, death, and burial, 2 Chronicles 21:18.
2 Chronicles 21:1 And Jehoshaphat rested with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the City of David. Then Jehoram his son reigned in his place.
YLT 1And Jehoshaphat lieth with his fathers, and is buried with his fathers in the city of David, and Jehoram his son reigneth in his stead.
Now Jehoshaphat slept with his fathers,.... See Gill on 1 Kings 22:50.
2 Chronicles 21:2 2 He had brothers, the sons of Jehoshaphat: Azariah, Jehiel, Zechariah, Azaryahu, Michael, and Shephatiah; all these were the sons of Jehoshaphat king of Israel.
YLT 2And he hath brethren, sons of Jehoshaphat, Azariah, and Jehiel, and Zechariah, and Azariah, and Michael, and Shephatiah; all these [are] sons of Jehoshaphat king of Israel,
And he had brethren, the sons of Jehoshaphat,.... That is, Jehoram had, who succeeded him: their names follow:
Azariah, and Jehiel, and Zechariah, and Azariah, and Michael, and Shephatiah; two of them were of the same name; though it may be observed, that in the Hebrew text they are somewhat distinguished, the latter is called Azariah; Jehiel is said, by the JewsF24T. Hieros. Sanhedrin, fol. 29. 4. , to be the same with Hiel that rebuilt Jericho; indeed it was rebuilt in the times of Jehoshaphat, and was a city of the tribe of Benjamin, Joshua 18:21 which was under his jurisdiction; but it can never be thought that he would ever suffer a son of his to rebuild it; besides, he is expressly said to be a Bethelite, 1 Kings 16:34,
all these were the sons of Jehoshaphat king of Israel; which generally, since the division of the kingdom, designs the ten tribes, but cannot be the meaning here, because Jehoshaphat was only king of two tribes, Judah and Benjamin; they were tribes of Israel indeed, and so he was king of a part of Israel; and besides, many out of the ten tribes came and settled in his kingdom, and were under his government; though some think he is so called, because he concerned himself so much for the kingdom of Israel, and more than for his own; but the Vulgate Latin, Septuagint, Syriac, and Arabic versions, all read king of Judah; wherefore some are of opinion that Israel is a mistake of the transcriber; but this need not be supposed, since he was of right king of Israel, and was in fact king of two tribes that belonged to Israel.
2 Chronicles 21:3 3 Their father gave them great gifts of silver and gold and precious things, with fortified cities in Judah; but he gave the kingdom to Jehoram, because he was the firstborn.
YLT 3and their father giveth to them many gifts of silver and of gold, and of precious things, with fenced cities in Judah, and the kingdom he hath given to Jehoram, for He [is] the first-born.
And their father gave them great gifts of silver, and of gold, and of precious things,.... As jewels and precious stones; or precious garments, as the Targum, in like manner as Abraham gave to his sons, when he sent them from Isaac:
with fenced cities in Judah; not as their own property, but he appointed them governors in them, to defend them against an enemy, and as a mark of honour to them:
but the kingdom gave he to Jehoram, because he was the firstborn; strictly observing the law in Deuteronomy 21:16, which was not always done; though it was reckoned by the Heathens contrary to the law of nations to give the kingdom to the youngerF25Justin. e Trogo, l. 16. c. 2. .
2 Chronicles 21:4 4 Now when Jehoram was established over the kingdom of his father, he strengthened himself and killed all his brothers with the sword, and also others of the princes of Israel.
YLT 4And Jehoram riseth up over the kingdom of his father, and strengtheneth himself, and slayeth all his brethren with the sword, and also -- of the heads of Israel.
Now when Jehoram was risen up to the kingdom of his father,.... Succeeded him in it, and reigned alone, for he had reigned with his father some years before his death; see Gill on 2 Kings 8:16,
he strengthened himself; in the kingdom, by some means or another closely attaching the greater part of the princes, and people of the land, unto him, when he thought himself well settled and established on the throne; though some understand it of making strong, or hardening his heart to do what is next mentioned:
and slew all his brethren with the sword; either to get their riches into his hands, or lest, being religious princes, they should oppose his restoring idolatry, and for that reason the people should depose him, and set up one of them; and therefore he dispatched them out of the way to secure himself, and carry his point:
and divers also of the princes of Israel; such who had removed out of the ten tribes, for the sake of religion, and therefore would never agree to the introduction of idolatry among them, for which reason Jehoram slew them; and perhaps they might express their disapprobation and abhorrence of his murder of his brethren.
2 Chronicles 21:5 5 Jehoram was thirty-two years old when he became king, and he reigned eight years in Jerusalem.
YLT 5A son of thirty and two years [is] Jehoram in his reigning, and eight years he hath reigned in Jerusalem,
2 Chronicles 21:6 6 And he walked in the way of the kings of Israel, just as the house of Ahab had done, for he had the daughter of Ahab as a wife; and he did evil in the sight of the Lord.
YLT 6and he walketh in the way of the kings of Israel, as did the house of Ahab, for a daughter of Ahab hath been to him for a wife, and he doth the evil thing in the eyes of Jehovah,
2 Chronicles 21:7 7 Yet the Lord would not destroy the house of David, because of the covenant that He had made with David, and since He had promised to give a lamp to him and to his sons forever.
YLT 7and Jehovah hath not been willing to destroy the house of David, for the sake of the covenant that He made with David, and as He had said to give to him a lamp, and to his sons -- all the days.
2 Chronicles 21:8 8 In his days Edom revolted against Judah’s authority, and made a king over themselves.
YLT 8In his days hath Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah, and cause a king to reign over them;
2 Chronicles 21:9 9 So Jehoram went out with his officers, and all his chariots with him. And he rose by night and attacked the Edomites who had surrounded him and the captains of the chariots.
YLT 9and Jehoram passeth over with his heads, and all the chariots with him, and it cometh to pass, he hath risen by night and smiteth the Edomites who are coming round against him, and the princes of the chariots,
2 Chronicles 21:10 10 Thus Edom has been in revolt against Judah’s authority to this day. At that time Libnah revolted against his rule, because he had forsaken the Lord God of his fathers.
YLT 10and Edom revolteth from under the hand of Judah unto this day; then doth Libnah revolt at that time from under his hand, because he hath forsaken Jehovah, God of his fathers,
2 Chronicles 21:11 11 Moreover he made high places in the mountains of Judah, and caused the inhabitants of Jerusalem to commit harlotry, and led Judah astray.
YLT 11also, he hath made high places in the mountains of Judah, and causeth the inhabitants of Jerusalem to commit whoredom, and compelleth Judah.
Moreover, he made high places in the mountains of Judah,.... Temples and altars for idols, which, being built on mountains, had the name of high places; and these Jehoram made or rebuilt were those which had been pulled down by Asa and Jehoshaphat:
and caused the inhabitants of Jerusalem to commit fornication; that is, idolatry, drawing them by his own example to worship Baal, for he did what Ahab and his family did, 2 Chronicles 21:6, and compelled Judah thereto; the inhabitants of Jerusalem falling into the same idolatrous practice with him, he forced the inhabitants of the cities, and in the country, to do the same, who it seems were not so willing and ready to comply therewith.
2 Chronicles 21:12 12 And a letter came to him from Elijah the prophet, saying, Thus says the Lord God of your father David: Because you have not walked in the ways of Jehoshaphat your father, or in the ways of Asa king of Judah,
YLT 12And there cometh in unto him a writing from Elijah the prophet, saying, `Thus said Jehovah, God of David thy father, Because that thou hast not walked in the ways of Jehoshaphat thy father, and in the ways of Asa king of Judah,
And there came a writing to him from Elijah the prophet,.... Not what was written by him after his ascension to heaven, and from thence came to Jehoram, even seven years after that, as say some Jewish writersF26Seder Olam Rabba, c. 17. Ganz. Tzemach David, par. 1. fol. 12. 1. A. M. 3050. ; nor was it a writing from another person of the same name in those times, since of such an one we nowhere read; nor from Elisha bearing the name of Elijah, having a double portion of his spirit on him, since he is never so called; but this was a writing of Elijah's before his ascension, who, foreseeing by a spirit of prophecy what Jehoram would be guilty of, wrote this, and gave it to one of the prophets, as Kimchi suggests, and most probably to Elisha, to communicate it to him at a proper time; and who might, as the above writer intimates, think it came immediately from heaven:
saying, thus saith the Lord God of David thy father; and from whose God he had departed, and to which ancestor of his he was so much unlike:
because thou hast not walked in the ways of Jehoshaphat thy father, nor in the ways of Asa king of Judah; neither trod in the steps of his father nor grandfather.
2 Chronicles 21:13 13 but have walked in the way of the kings of Israel, and have made Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem to play the harlot like the harlotry of the house of Ahab, and also have killed your brothers, those of your father’s household, who were better than yourself,
YLT 13and thou dost walk in the way of the kings of Israel, and dost cause Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem to commit whoredom like the whoredoms of the house of Ahab, and also thy brethren, the house of thy father, who are better than thyself, thou hast slain;
And hast walked in the way of the kings of Israel,.... Worshipping the calves, and even Baal, with other idols, as they did:
and hast made Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem to go a whoring, like to the whoredoms of the house of Ahab; meaning spiritual whoredoms or idolatries:
and hast also slain thy brethren of thy father's house, which were better than thyself; more religious, more humane, more prudent, and fitter for government.
2 Chronicles 21:14 14 behold, the Lord will strike your people with a serious affliction—your children, your wives, and all your possessions;
YLT 14lo, Jehovah is smiting -- a great smiting -- among thy people, and among thy sons, and among thy wives, and among all thy goods –
Behold, with a great plague will the Lord smite thy people,.... They going into the same idolatry with himself willingly, at least great part of them, and therefore deserved to be smitten, and which would be a punishment to him:
and thy children, and thy wives, and all thy goods; which should be carried captive, as the event shows.
2 Chronicles 21:15 15 and you will become very sick with a disease of your intestines, until your intestines come out by reason of the sickness, day by day.
YLT 15and thou, with many sicknesses, with disease of thy bowels, till thy bowels come out, by the sickness, day by day.'
And thou shalt have great sickness by disease of thy bowels,.... Which was a just retaliation to him, for having no bowels of compassion on his brethren whom he slew:
until thy bowels fall out by reason of the sickness day by day; that continuing day after day, and even year after year, the space of two years, as appears from 2 Chronicles 21:19.
2 Chronicles 21:16 16 Moreover the Lord stirred up against Jehoram the spirit of the Philistines and the Arabians who were near the Ethiopians.
YLT 16And Jehovah waketh up against Jehoram the spirit of the Philistines, and of the Arabians, who [are] beside the Cushim,
Moreover, the Lord stirred up against Jehoram the spirit of the Philistines,.... Which had been depressed in the times of Jehoshaphat, to whom they brought their presents and tribute willingly, 2 Chronicles 17:11.
and of the Arabians that were near the Ethiopians; not the Ethiopians of Africa, as the Targum, for the Arabians were not near them, but the Chusaean Arabs or Midianites, see Numbers 12:1. The Targum is, the Word of the Lord did this.
2 Chronicles 21:17 17 And they came up into Judah and invaded it, and carried away all the possessions that were found in the king’s house, and also his sons and his wives, so that there was not a son left to him except Jehoahaz,[a] the youngest of his sons.
YLT 17and they come up into Judah, and rend it, and take captive all the substance that is found at the house of the king, and also his sons, and his wives, and there hath not been left to him a son except Jehoahaz the youngest of his sons.
And they came up into Judah, and brake into it, &c. l In an hostile manner:
and carried away all the substance that was found in the king's house, his gold, silver, and precious things, the rich furniture of his palace; no mention is made of any other plunder in the city, or the country; so that they seem to have had their principal eye to the king's palace, and the spoil of that; being so directed by the providence of God, who had stirred them up to do this as a punishment of Jehoram:
and his sons also, and his wives; these they also carried away, all but Athaliah, who hid herself; he through his disease not being able to make any opposition, or to get any forces together to withstand them:
2 Chronicles 21:18 18 After all this the Lord struck him in his intestines with an incurable disease.
YLT 18And after all this hath Jehovah plagued him in his bowels by a disease for which there is no healing,
After all this the Lord smote him in his bowels with an incurable disease. What it was is not agreed upon; some take it be an "hernia", or rupture; others, the falling of the "anus", or a fistula in it; others, the colic, or iliac passion; but generally it is thought to be a dysentery, or bloody flux; the Targum is,"the Word of the Lord broke him.'
2 Chronicles 21:19 19 Then it happened in the course of time, after the end of two years, that his intestines came out because of his sickness; so he died in severe pain. And his people made no burning for him, like the burning for his fathers.
YLT 19and it cometh to pass, from days to days, and at the time of the going out of the end of two years, his bowels have gone out with his sickness, and he dieth of sore diseases, and his people have not made for him a burning like the burning of his fathers.
And it came to pass that in process of time, after the end of two years,.... So long he was afflicted and tortured with the above disease:
his bowels fell out by reason of his sickness; either in like manner as Judas's did, Acts 1:18 or as in the manner the bowels of Arius are said to do, while sitting on the seat of the vaultF1Sozomen. Eccl. Hist. l. 2. c. 29, 30. ; or perhaps only what was contained in the bowels is meant, if it was the colic:
so he died of sore diseases; he seems to have had a complication of them, and these very painful and distressing:
and the people made no burning for him, like the burnings of his fathers; as they did for his grandfather Asa, 2 Chronicles 16:14, they did not burn spices or odoriferous wood, as the Targum; though his body, because of the stench of it, needed it, as Jarchi observes.
2 Chronicles 21:20 20 He was thirty-two years old when he became king. He reigned in Jerusalem eight years and, to no one’s sorrow, departed. However they buried him in the City of David, but not in the tombs of the kings.
YLT 20A son of thirty and two [years] was he in his reigning, and eight years he hath reigned in Jerusalem, and he goeth without desire, and they bury him in the city of David, and not in the graves of the kings.
Thirty and two years old was he when he began to reign, and he reigned in Jerusalem eight years,.... See 2 Kings 8:17,
and departed without being desired; to live, either by himself, being weary of life through the pain he endured; or by his people, he being so wicked a prince, and so ill beloved by them, that nobody wished to have him live, but were glad to hear of his death; the meaning is, he died unlamented; his death is expressed by a departing out of this world into another, a phrase more than once used for death in the New Testament, see John 13:1,
howbeit, they buried him in the city of David, but not in the sepulchres of the kings; they showed him some respect for the sake of his father, by burying him in the city of David, but denied him the honour of lying in the royal sepulchres, see 2 Kings 8:24.
──《John Gill’s Exposition of the Bible》
New King James Version (NKJV)