2 Chronicles Chapter Twenty-five
New King James Version (NKJV)
INTRODUCTION TO 2 CHRONICLES 25
This chapter begins with the reign of Amaziah, and some of the first acts of it, slaying those that killed his father, 2 Chronicles 25:1, raising a large army in his own kingdom, to which he added 100,000 more he hired out of Israel, whom yet he sent home by the advice of a prophet, 2 Chronicles 25:5, and with his own army marched against the Edomites, and obtained a victory over them, 2 Chronicles 25:11, but the Israelites being displeased with him for dismissing them, fell on some of his cities, and slew many in them, 2 Chronicles 25:13, and such was his stupidity, as to worship the gods of the Edomites he had conquered, for which he was reproved by a prophet, 2 Chronicles 25:14 and being elated with his victory, he sent a challenge to the king of Israel, who accepting of it, a battle ensued, in which Judah was worsted, their king taken, and treasuries spoiled, 2 Chronicles 25:17, and the chapter is closed with the death and burial of Amaziah, 2 Chronicles 25:25.
2 Chronicles 25:1 Amaziah was twenty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Jehoaddan of Jerusalem.
YLT 1A son of twenty and five years hath Amaziah reigned, and twenty and nine years he hath reigned in Jerusalem, and the name of his mother [is] Jehoaddan of Jerusalem,
2 Chronicles 25:2 2 And he did what was right in the sight of the Lord, but not with a loyal heart.
YLT 2and he doth that which is right in the eyes of Jehovah -- only, not with a perfect heart.
2 Chronicles 25:3 3 Now it happened, as soon as the kingdom was established for him, that he executed his servants who had murdered his father the king.
YLT 3And it cometh to pass, when the kingdom hath been strong upon him, that he slayeth his servants, those smiting the king his father,
2 Chronicles 25:4 4 However he did not execute their children, but did as it is written in the Law in the Book of Moses, where the Lord commanded, saying, “The fathers shall not be put to death for their children, nor shall the children be put to death for their fathers; but a person shall die for his own sin.”[a]
YLT 4and their sons he hath not put to death, but [did] as is written in the law, in the book of Moses, whom Jehovah commanded, saying, `Fathers do not die for sons, and sons die not for fathers, but each for his own sin they die.'
2 Chronicles 25:5 5 Moreover Amaziah gathered Judah together and set over them captains of thousands and captains of hundreds, according to their fathers’ houses, throughout all Judah and Benjamin; and he numbered them from twenty years old and above, and found them to be three hundred thousand choice men, able to go to war, who could handle spear and shield.
YLT 5And Amaziah gathereth Judah, and appointeth them, according to the house of the fathers, for heads of the thousands, and for heads of the hundreds, for all Judah and Benjamin; and he inspecteth them from a son of twenty years and upward, and findeth them three hundred thousand chosen ones, going forth to the host, holding spear and target.
Moreover Amaziah gathered Judah together,.... The inhabitants thereof:
and made them captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds, according to the houses of their fathers, throughout all Judah and Benjamin; he divided the people, according to their families throughout his kingdom, into thousands and hundreds, and out of their respective families appointed captains over them:
and he numbered them from twenty years old and above; the usual age men were numbered at for war, to the fiftieth, according to Josephus; the Roman lawF1Seneca de Brevitate Vitae, c. 20. obliged none to be soldiers after fifty, nor might any be dismissed beforeF2Liv. Hist. l. 42. c. 33. ; the age of military men with the Romans was from seventeen to forty six, or, as some, forty five; but with the Persians from twenty as here to fiftyF3Alex. ab. Alex. Genial. Dier. l. 1. c. 20. :
and found them three hundred thousand choice men, able to go forth to war, that could handle spear and shield; which shows that their number was greatly decreased since the times of Jehoshaphat, 2 Chronicles 17:14, occasioned by the wars under Jehoram, Ahaziah, and Joash; some copies of the Vulgate LatinF4Ed. of Sixtus V. the Lovain and MSS. in James's Corruption of the Fathers, p. 295. have only 30,000.
2 Chronicles 25:6 6 He also hired one hundred thousand mighty men of valor from Israel for one hundred talents of silver.
YLT 6And he hireth out of Israel a hundred thousand mighty ones of valour, with a hundred talents of silver;
He hired also one hundred thousand mighty men of valour out of Israel,.... The ten tribes, judging his own army not sufficient for his expedition against the Edomites he was meditating:
for one hundred talents of silver; which amounted to 35,300 pounds sterling, and according to BeckiusF5Not. in Targum in loc. were about five florins and a half to each soldier.
2 Chronicles 25:7 7 But a man of God came to him, saying, “O king, do not let the army of Israel go with you, for the Lord is not with Israel—not with any of the children of Ephraim.
YLT 7and a man of God hath come in unto him, saying, `O king, the host of Israel doth not go with thee; for Jehovah is not with Israel -- all the sons of Ephraim;
But there came a man of God to him,.... Who the Jews sayF6Seder Olam Rabba, c. 20. Shalshalet Hakabala, fol. 11. 2. was the brother of the king, Amos, the father of Isaiah, but without foundation:
saying, O king, let not the army of Israel go with thee; to war against Edom; meaning the 100,000 men he had hired, and suggesting that to have them with him would not be to his advantage, but his detriment, for the following reason:
for the Lord is not with Israel, to wit:
with all the children of Ephraim; they being idolaters, worshippers of the calves; and as they had forsaken the Lord, he had forsaken them; therefore no help could be expected from them; the Targum is,"the Word of the Lord is not their help.'
2 Chronicles 25:8 8 But if you go, be gone! Be strong in battle! Even so, God shall make you fall before the enemy; for God has power to help and to overthrow.”
YLT 8but if thou art going -- do [it], be strong for battle, God doth cause thee to stumble before an enemy, for there is power in God to help, and to cause to stumble.'
But if thou wilt go, do it, be strong for the battle,.... An ironical expression; if thou wilt not be advised, take them with thee, and try what thou canst do; exert all thy courage, and use thy military skill, and mark the issue:
God shall make thee fall before the enemy; notwithstanding the number of thy troops, and those of thy auxiliaries; though some take them to be spoken seriously, and read the words, "but go thou"; that is, alone, without the hired troops, and fight boldly and courageously; or otherwise "God shall make thee fall", &c.
for God hath power to help and to cast down; to help with a few, and to cast down with many; to help without the hired Israelites, and to cast down with them.
2 Chronicles 25:9 9 Then Amaziah said to the man of God, “But what shall we do about the hundred talents which I have given to the troops of Israel?” And the man of God answered, “The Lord is able to give you much more than this.”
YLT 9And Amaziah saith to the man of God, `And what -- to do for the hundred talents that I have given to the troop of Israel?' And the man of God saith, `Jehovah hath more to give to thee than this.'
And Amaziah said to the man of God, but what shall we do for the one hundred talents which I have given to the army of Israel?.... They will be lost, there is no demanding them back again; this he spake with some concern, as loath to lose so much money:
and the man of God answered, the Lord is able to give thee much more than this; whose is the earth, and the fulness thereof, the gold and silver, and all the riches of it; and therefore he had no need to trouble himself about the loss of his money, which, if obedient to the will of God, he might expect it would be abundantly repaid him.
2 Chronicles 25:10 10 So Amaziah discharged the troops that had come to him from Ephraim, to go back home. Therefore their anger was greatly aroused against Judah, and they returned home in great anger.
YLT 10And Amaziah separateth them -- for the troop that hath come in unto him from Ephraim to go to their own place, and their anger doth burn mightily against Judah, and they turn back to their place in the heat of anger.
Then Amaziah separated them,.... From his army, among whom they were incorporated and ranked, to wit:
the army that was come to him out of Ephraim; which he had hired of the ten tribes, these he singled out:
to go home again; to their own country:
wherefore their anger was greatly kindled against Judah, and they returned home in great anger; it being a great slight put upon them, and a reproach to them, to be thus dismissed, as they thought; and especially if they understood that it was because they were idolaters; and the rather as they might have hoped to have had their share in the plunder of the Edomites.
2 Chronicles 25:11 11 Then Amaziah strengthened himself, and leading his people, he went to the Valley of Salt and killed ten thousand of the people of Seir.
YLT 11And Amaziah hath strengthened himself, and leadeth his people, and goeth to the Valley of Salt, and smiteth the sons of Seir -- ten thousand.
And Amaziah strengthened himself, and led forth his people,.... To go to war with the Edomites; not discouraged by the dismission of the hired troops, but trusting in the promise and power of God, he went forth with boldness and intrepidity:
and went to the valley of salt, and smote of the children of Seir, ten thousand; the Edomites; so called, not because they were the posterity of Seir, but because they dwelt in Seir, from whence they drove the descendants of Seir, and dwelt in their stead; see 2 Kings 14:7.
2 Chronicles 25:12 12 Also the children of Judah took captive ten thousand alive, brought them to the top of the rock, and cast them down from the top of the rock, so that they all were dashed in pieces.
YLT 12And ten thousand alive have the sons of Judah taken captive, and they bring them to the top of the rock, and cast them from the top of the rock, and all of them have been broken.
And other ten thousand left alive did the children of Judah carry away captive,.... The rest of the army of the Edomites, which amounted to the same number, fell into their hands, and they took them, and carried them off:
and brought them unto the top of the rock; very probably the same on which the city Petra, the metropolis of Edom, was built, called also Selah, 2 Kings 14:7 both which names signify a rock. JosephusF7Antiqu. l. 9. c. 9. sect. 1. calls it the great rock in Arabia; that is, Arabia Petraea:
and cast them down from the top of the rock, that they were broken all in pieces; burst asunder, bones broken, and limb from limb separated. This sort of punishment was inflicted by the Romans on various malefactors, by casting them down from the Tarpeian rockF8Liv. Hist. l. 6. c. 20. Patercul. Hist. Roman. l. 2. Aurel. Victor. de Vir. Illustr. c. 27, 70. Vid, Rycquium de Capitol. Roman. c. 4. p. 45, &c. ; and in Greece, according to the Delphian law, such as were guilty of sacrilege were led to a rock, and cast down headlong from thenceF9Aelian. Var. Hist. l. 11. c. 5. : and now in Turkey, at a place called Constantine, a town situated on the top of a great rock, the usual way of executing great criminals is by pushing them from off the cliffF11Pitt's Account of the Mahometans, ch. 1. p. 10. ; see Luke 4:29, but to use captives taken in war after this manner seems cruel and barbarous; and what should be the reason of such treatment of them is not easy to say.
2 Chronicles 25:13 13 But as for the soldiers of the army which Amaziah had discharged, so that they would not go with him to battle, they raided the cities of Judah from Samaria to Beth Horon, killed three thousand in them, and took much spoil.
YLT 13And the sons of the troop that Amaziah hath sent back from going with him to battle -- they rush against cities of Judah, from Samaria even unto Beth-Horon, and smite of them three thousand, and seize much prey.
But the soldiers of the army which Amaziah sent back, that they should not go with him to battle, The 100,000 men hired out of Israel, whom he dismissed before he went against Edom:
fell upon the cities of Judah, from Samaria even unto Bethhoron; which, though it formerly belonged to Ephraim, had been taken by the men of Judah; they did not fall on these as they returned home, for then it would have been said from Bethhoron to Samaria: but after they had returned home, they meditated this piece of revenge for the ill treatment of them, as they reckoned it:
and smote three thousand of them; of the inhabitants of the cities, who rose up and opposed them:
and took much spoil; out of them, and went their way with it.
2 Chronicles 25:14 14 Now it was so, after Amaziah came from the slaughter of the Edomites, that he brought the gods of the people of Seir, set them up to be his gods, and bowed down before them and burned incense to them.
YLT 14And it cometh to pass, after the coming in of Amaziah from smiting the Edomites, that he bringeth in the gods of the sons of Seir, and establisheth them to him for gods, and before them doth bow himself, and to them he maketh perfume.
Now it came to pass, after that Amaziah was come from the slaughter of the Edomites,.... Instead of returning thanks to God for the victory obtained, and giving him the glory of it:
that he brought the gods of the children of Seir, and set them up to be his gods; what were the gods of the Edomites is nowhere said in Scripture; only JosephusF12Antiqu. l. l5. c. 7. sect. 9. speaks of the priests of Coze, which he says was a god of the Idumaeans:
and bowed himself before them, and burned incense unto them; which was the greatest piece of sottishhess and stupidity imaginable, to worship the gods of a nation conquered by him; for since they could not save them, what help could he expect from them?
2 Chronicles 25:15 15 Therefore the anger of the Lord was aroused against Amaziah, and He sent him a prophet who said to him, “Why have you sought the gods of the people, which could not rescue their own people from your hand?”
YLT 15And the anger of Jehovah burneth against Amaziah, and He sendeth unto him a prophet, and he saith unto him, `Why hast thou sought the gods of the people that have not delivered their people out of thy hand?'
Wherefore the anger of the Lord was kindled against Amaziah,.... Idolatry being always highly displeasing to the Lord; and this was a most provoking instance of it, that when the Lord had given him victory over his enemies, that he should forsake him, and worship their gods:
and he sent unto him a prophet; whether the same as before, is not certain:
which said unto him, why hast thou sought after the gods of the people which could not deliver their own people out of thine hand? and therefore it was madness in him to seek after them, and worship them.
2 Chronicles 25:16 16 So it was, as he talked with him, that the king said to him, “Have we made you the king’s counselor? Cease! Why should you be killed?” Then the prophet ceased, and said, “I know that God has determined to destroy you, because you have done this and have not heeded my advice.”
YLT 16And it cometh to pass, in his speaking unto him, that he saith to him, `For a counsellor to the king have we appointed thee? cease for thee; why do they smite thee?' And the prophet ceaseth, and saith, `I have known that God hath counselled to destroy thee, because thou hast done this, and hast not hearkened to my counsel.'
And it came to pass, as he talked with him, that the king said unto him, art thou made of the king's council?.... He was not indeed one of his privy council, made so by him, but he was appointed a counsellor to him by the Lord, the King of kings, to expostulate with him about his idolatry, and to advise him to relinquish it, to whose counsel he ought to have hearkened:
forbear, why shouldest thou be smitten? bidding him hold his peace, and threatening him, that if he did not, he must expect to be smitten; that is, with death, as Zechariah the prophet was by the order of his father:
then the prophet forbore; left off speaking, only added this at parting:
and said, I know that God hath determined to destroy thee; being given up to hardness of heart, so as to pay no regard to the Lord and his prophets, which was a sure presage of destruction:
because thou hast done this; committed such idolatry, and persisted in it:
and hast not hearkened to my counsel; to reform from it.
2 Chronicles 25:17 17 Now Amaziah king of Judah asked advice and sent to Joash[b] the son of Jehoahaz, the son of Jehu, king of Israel, saying, “Come, let us face one another in battle.”
YLT 17And Amaziah king of Judah taketh counsel, and sendeth unto Joash son of Jehoahaz, son of Jehu, king of Israel, saying,
Then Amaziah king of Judah took advice,.... Not of God, nor of his prophets, but of some of his nobles like himself:
and sent to Joash--king of Israel; of his message to him here, and his answer in the two following verses, see the following notes: See Gill on 2 Kings 14:8. See Gill on 2 Kings 14:9. See Gill on 2 Kings 14:10.
2 Chronicles 25:18 18 And Joash king of Israel sent to Amaziah king of Judah, saying, “The thistle that was in Lebanon sent to the cedar that was in Lebanon, saying, ‘Give your daughter to my son as wife’; and a wild beast that was in Lebanon passed by and trampled the thistle.
YLT 18`Come, we look one another in the face.' And Joash king of Israel sendeth unto Amaziah king of Judah, saying, `The thorn that [is] in Lebanon hath sent unto the cedar that [is] in Lebanon, saying, Give thy daughter to my son for a wife; and pass by doth a beast of the field that [is] in Lebanon, and treadeth down the thorn.
2 Chronicles 25:19 19 Indeed you say that you have defeated the Edomites, and your heart is lifted up to boast. Stay at home now; why should you meddle with trouble, that you should fall—you and Judah with you?”
YLT 19Thou hast said, Lo, I have smitten Edom; and thy heart hath lifted thee up to boast; now, abide in thy house, why dost thou stir thyself up in evil, that thou hast fallen, thou, and Judah with thee?'
2 Chronicles 25:20 20 But Amaziah would not heed, for it came from God, that He might give them into the hand of their enemies, because they sought the gods of Edom.
YLT 20And Amaziah hath not hearkened, for from God it [is] in order to give them into hand, because they have sought the gods of Edom;
But Amaziah would not hear,.... What the king of Israel advised him to, not to meddle to his hurt:
for it came of God, that he might deliver them into the hand of their enemies; Amaziah and his army into the hands of Joash and his; this was the will of God, and was brought about by his providence; and that it might be, Amaziah was given up to blindness and hardness of heart, as a punishment of his idolatry:
because they sought after the gods of Edom; he and his nobles, and many of the people following his example; from hence to the end of the chapter the same things are recorded as in 2 Kings 14:11, see the notes there; see Gill on 2 Kings 14:11, 2 Kings 14:12, 2 Kings 14:13, 2 Kings 14:14, 2 Kings 14:15, 2 Kings 14:16, 2 Kings 14:17, 2 Kings 14:18, 2 Kings 14:19, 2 Kings 14:20
2 Chronicles 25:21 21 So Joash king of Israel went out; and he and Amaziah king of Judah faced one another at Beth Shemesh, which belongs to Judah.
YLT 21and go up doth Joash king of Israel, and they look one another in the face, he and Amaziah king of Judah, in Beth-Shemesh, that [is] Judah's,
2 Chronicles 25:22 22 And Judah was defeated by Israel, and every man fled to his tent.
YLT 22and Judah is smitten before Israel, and they flee -- each to his tents.
2 Chronicles 25:23 23 Then Joash the king of Israel captured Amaziah king of Judah, the son of Joash, the son of Jehoahaz, at Beth Shemesh; and he brought him to Jerusalem, and broke down the wall of Jerusalem from the Gate of Ephraim to the Corner Gate—four hundred cubits.
YLT 23And Amaziah king of Judah, son of Joash, son of Jehoahaz, hath Joash king of Israel caught in Beth-Shemesh, and bringeth him in to Jerusalem, and breaketh down in the wall of Jerusalem from the gate of Ephraim unto the gate of the corner, four hundred cubits,
2 Chronicles 25:24 24 And he took all the gold and silver, all the articles that were found in the house of God with Obed-Edom, the treasures of the king’s house, and hostages, and returned to Samaria.
YLT 24and [taketh] all the gold, and the silver, and all the vessels that are found in the house of God with Obed-Edom, and the treasures of the house of the king, and the sons of the pledges, and turneth back to Samaria.
2 Chronicles 25:25 25 Amaziah the son of Joash, king of Judah, lived fifteen years after the death of Joash the son of Jehoahaz, king of Israel.
YLT 25And Amaziah son of Joash, king of Judah, liveth after the death of Joash son of Jehoahaz, king of Israel, fifteen years;
2 Chronicles 25:26 26 Now the rest of the acts of Amaziah, from first to last, indeed are they not written in the book of the kings of Judah and Israel?
YLT 26and the rest of the matters of Amaziah, the first and the last, lo, are they not written on the books of the kings of Judah and Israel?
2 Chronicles 25:27 27 After the time that Amaziah turned away from following the Lord, they made a conspiracy against him in Jerusalem, and he fled to Lachish; but they sent after him to Lachish and killed him there.
YLT 27And from the time that Amaziah hath turned aside from after Jehovah -- they make a conspiracy against him in Jerusalem, and he fleeth to Lachish, and they send after him to Lachish, and put him to death there,
2 Chronicles 25:28 28 Then they brought him on horses and buried him with his fathers in the City of Judah.
YLT 28and lift him up on the horses, and bury him with his fathers in the city of Judah.
──《John Gill’s Exposition of the Bible》
New King James Version (NKJV)