2 Chronicles Chapter Thirty-three
New King James Version (NKJV)
INTRODUCTION TO 2 CHRONICLES 33
This chapter gives an account of the reign of Manasseh, of his idolatries and impieties, 2 Chronicles 33:1, of his captivity, humiliation, repentance, and reformation, 2 Chronicles 33:11 of his last end, death, and burial, 2 Chronicles 33:18 and of the wicked reign of Amon his son, and of his death by his servants, 2 Chronicles 33:21.
2 Chronicles 33:1 Manasseh was twelve years old when he became king, and he reigned fifty-five years in Jerusalem.
YLT 1A son of twelve years is Manasseh in his reigning, and fifty and five years he hath reigned in Jerusalem;
2 Chronicles 33:2 2 But he did evil in the sight of the Lord, according to the abominations of the nations whom the Lord had cast out before the children of Israel.
YLT 2and he doth the evil thing in the eyes of Jehovah, like the abominations of the nations that Jehovah dispossessed from the presence of the sons of Israel,
2 Chronicles 33:3 3 For he rebuilt the high places which Hezekiah his father had broken down; he raised up altars for the Baals, and made wooden images; and he worshiped all the host of heaven[a] and served them.
YLT 3and he turneth and buildeth the high places that Hezekiah his father hath broken down, and raiseth altars for Baalim, and maketh shrines, and boweth himself to all the host of the heavens, and serveth them.
2 Chronicles 33:4 4 He also built altars in the house of the Lord, of which the Lord had said, “In Jerusalem shall My name be forever.”
YLT 4And he hath built altars in the house of Jehovah of which Jehovah had said, `In Jerusalem is My name to the age.'
2 Chronicles 33:5 5 And he built altars for all the host of heaven in the two courts of the house of the Lord.
YLT 5And he buildeth altars to all the host of the heavens in the two courts of the house of Jehovah.
2 Chronicles 33:6 6 Also he caused his sons to pass through the fire in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom; he practiced soothsaying, used witchcraft and sorcery, and consulted mediums and spiritists. He did much evil in the sight of the Lord, to provoke Him to anger.
YLT 6And he hath caused his sons to pass over through fire in the valley of the son of Hinnom, and observed clouds and used enchantments and witchcraft, and dealt with a familiar spirit, and a wizard; he hath multiplied to do the evil thing in the eyes of Jehovah, to provoke him to anger.
2 Chronicles 33:7 7 He even set a carved image, the idol which he had made, in the house of God, of which God had said to David and to Solomon his son, “In this house and in Jerusalem, which I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel, I will put My name forever;
YLT 7And he placeth the graven image of the idol that he made in the house of God, of which God said unto David, and unto Solomon his son, `In this house, and in Jerusalem that I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel, I put My name to the age,
2 Chronicles 33:8 8 and I will not again remove the foot of Israel from the land which I have appointed for your fathers—only if they are careful to do all that I have commanded them, according to the whole law and the statutes and the ordinances by the hand of Moses.”
YLT 8and I add not to turn aside the foot of Israel from off the ground that I appointed to your fathers, only, if they watch to do all that I have commanded them -- to all the law, and the statutes, and the ordinances by the hand of Moses.'
2 Chronicles 33:9 9 So Manasseh seduced Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem to do more evil than the nations whom the Lord had destroyed before the children of Israel.
YLT 9And Manasseh maketh Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem to err, to do evil above the nations that Jehovah destroyed from the presence of the sons of Israel.
2 Chronicles 33:10 10 And the Lord spoke to Manasseh and his people, but they would not listen.
YLT 10And Jehovah speaketh unto Manasseh and unto his people, and they have not attended,
And the Lord spake to Manasseh, and to his people,.... By his servants the prophets, see 2 Kings 21:10, where what was said to them is recorded:
but they would not hearken; to what was said, to reproofs, admonitions, and exhortations to repent and reform.
2 Chronicles 33:11 11 Therefore the Lord brought upon them the captains of the army of the king of Assyria, who took Manasseh with hooks,[b] bound him with bronze fetters, and carried him off to Babylon.
YLT 11and Jehovah bringeth in against them the heads of the host that the king of Asshur hath, and they capture Manasseh among the thickets, and bind him with brazen fetters, and cause him to go to Babylon.
Wherefore the Lord brought upon them the captains of the host of the king of Assyria,.... Who was Esarhaddon, the son and successor of Sennacherib; this, according to the Jewish chronologyF6Seder Olam Rabba, c. 24. p. 67. , was in the twenty second year of Manasseh's reign:
which took Manasseh among the thorns; in a thicket of briers and thorns, where, upon his defeat, he had hid himself; a fit emblem of the afflictions and troubles his sins brought him into:
and bound him with fetters; hands and feet; with chains of brass, as the Targum, such as Zedekiah was bound with, 2 Kings 25:7, not chains of gold, with which Mark Antony bound a king of Armenia, for the sake of honourF7Vell. Patercul. Hist. Roman. l. 2. :
and carried him to Babylon; for now the king of Assyria was become master of that city, and added it to his monarchy, and made it the seat of his residence; at least some times that and sometimes Nineveh, Merodachbaladan being dead, or conquered; though, according to SuidasF8In voce μανασσης. , it was he that took Manasseh; and by an Arabic writerF9Abulpharag. Hist. Dynast. Dyn. 3. p. 67. So Suidas, ib. , he is said to be carried to Nineveh.
2 Chronicles 33:12 12 Now when he was in affliction, he implored the Lord his God, and humbled himself greatly before the God of his fathers,
YLT 12And when he is in distress he hath appeased the face of Jehovah his God, and is humbled exceedingly before the God of his fathers,
And when he was in affliction,.... In prison; however, in fetters; according to the Targum, the Chaldeans made an instrument of brass with holes in it, and put him in it, and fire about it, something like the brasen bull of Perillus; and the above Arabian writerF11Abulph. & Suidas, ib. (Hist. Dynast. Dyn. 3. p. 67.) calls it a tower of brass:
he besought the Lord his God; by prayer and supplication:
and humbled himself greatly before the Lord God of his fathers; confessing his sins, expressing great sorrow and repentance for them.
2 Chronicles 33:13 13 and prayed to Him; and He received his entreaty, heard his supplication, and brought him back to Jerusalem into his kingdom. Then Manasseh knew that the Lord was God.
YLT 13and prayeth unto Him, and He is entreated of him, and heareth his supplication, and bringeth him back to Jerusalem, to his kingdom, and Manasseh knoweth that Jehovah -- He [is] God.
And prayed unto him,.... To have mercy on him, and forgive him his sins:
and he was entreated of him, and heard his supplication; and granted his request, showed favour to him, and forgave him his sins:
and brought him again to Jerusalem into his kingdom; so wrought upon the heart of the king of Assyria, as to give him his liberty, and restore him to his dominions; it is very probable his captivity was not long; for, being soon brought by his affliction to a sense and confession of his sins, by the overruling providence of God, he was quickly released:
then Manasseh knew that the Lord he was God; and not the idols he had served; that he was a holy God, and hated sin, and a just God in afflicting him for it, and gracious and merciful in forgiving his sins, and bringing him out of his troubles.
2 Chronicles 33:14 14 After this he built a wall outside the City of David on the west side of Gihon, in the valley, as far as the entrance of the Fish Gate; and it enclosed Ophel, and he raised it to a very great height. Then he put military captains in all the fortified cities of Judah.
YLT 14And after this he hath built an outer wall to the city of David, on the west of Gihon, in the valley, and at the entering in at the fish-gate, and it hath gone round to the tower, and he maketh it exceeding high, and he putteth heads of the force in all the cities of the bulwarks in Judah.
Now after this he built a wall without the city of David,.... Which perhaps had been broken down by the Assyrian army, when it came and took him; VitringaF12Comment. in Jesaiam, c. 22. 9. thinks this is the wall of the pool of Siloah, Nehemiah 3:15 which seems to be the first and oldest wall, as JosephusF13De Bello Jud. l. 5. c. 4. sect. 9. ; for that turning to the north bent towards the pool of Siloam; an Arabic writerF14Abulpharag. Hist. Dynast. Dyn. 3. p. 67. calls it the southern wall:
on the west side of Gihon; on the west side of the city, towards Gihon; for that was to the west of it, 2 Chronicles 32:30,
in the valley, even to the entering in at the fish gate; through which the fish were brought from Joppa, and where, according to the Targum, they were sold:
and compassed about Ophel; the eastern part of Mount Zion; some say it was the holy of holies, 2 Chronicles 27:3,
and raised it up a very great height; built the wall very high there:
and put captains of war in all the fenced cities of Judah; this he did to put his kingdom in a posture of defence, should it be attacked by the Assyrian army again.
2 Chronicles 33:15 15 He took away the foreign gods and the idol from the house of the Lord, and all the altars that he had built in the mount of the house of the Lord and in Jerusalem; and he cast them out of the city.
YLT 15And he turneth aside the gods of the stranger, and the idol, out of the house of Jehovah, and all the altars that he had built in the mount of the house of Jehovah and in Jerusalem, and casteth [them] to the outside of the city.
And he took away the strange gods, and the idol out of the house of the Lord,.... Which he had set there, 2 Chronicles 33:7.
and all the altars that he had built in the mount of the house of the Lord, and in Jerusalem; see 2 Chronicles 33:4,
and cast them out of the city; perhaps into the brook Kidron; all this he did to show the sincerity of his repentance for his idolatry, and his abhorrence of it.
2 Chronicles 33:16 16 He also repaired the altar of the Lord, sacrificed peace offerings and thank offerings on it, and commanded Judah to serve the Lord God of Israel.
YLT 16And he buildeth the altar of Jehovah, and sacrificeth upon it sacrifices of peace-offerings and thank-offering, and saith to Judah to serve Jehovah, God of Israel;
And he repaired the altar of the Lord,.... Which was fallen to ruin, being neglected and disused in his times of idolatry: or, according to the Keri, or marginal reading, and so the Targum, "he built it"; which perhaps he had before pulled down and destroyed:
and sacrificed thereon peace offerings and thank offerings; to the Lord, for bringing him out of captivity, and restoring him to his kingdom; and especially for converting him from his idolatries, giving him repentance for them, and forgiveness of sins:
and commanded Judah to serve the Lord God of Israel; and him only; another instance of the truth of his repentance, in endeavouring to reform those whom he had misled, and restore the true worship of God among them, and bring them back to that.
2 Chronicles 33:17 17 Nevertheless the people still sacrificed on the high places, but only to the Lord their God.
YLT 17but still the people are sacrificing in high places, only -- to Jehovah their God.
Nevertheless, the people did sacrifice still in the high places,.... Not in those that were built for idols, at least did not sacrifice to them; for it follows:
yet unto the Lord their God only; the Targum is,"to the name of the Word of the Lord their God.'
2 Chronicles 33:18 18 Now the rest of the acts of Manasseh, his prayer to his God, and the words of the seers who spoke to him in the name of the Lord God of Israel, indeed they are written in the book[c] of the kings of Israel.
YLT 18And the rest of the matters of Manasseh, and his prayer unto his God, and the matters of the seers, those speaking unto him in the name of Jehovah, God of Israel, lo, they are [on the book of] the matters of the kings of Israel;
Now the rest of the acts of Manasseh,.... Good and bad, what were done by him both before and after his conversion:
and his prayer unto his God; which it seems was taken and recorded, but now lost; for as for that which is among the apocryphal writings, there is no reason to believe it to be his, though it is thought to be so by manyF15Vid. Fabritii Bibliothec. Graec. l. 3. c. 31. p. 738,739. :
and the words of the seers; or the prophets, as the Targum; and the prophets in his days, according to the Jewish chronologyF16Seder Olam Rabba, c. 20. , were Joel, Nahum, and Habakkuk:
that spake to him in the name of the Lord God of Israel; words of admonition and reproof before his humiliation, and words of comfort, advice, and instruction, after it; the Targum is,"that spake to him in the name of the Word of the Lord God of Israel:"
behold, they are written in the book of the kings of Israel; not in the canonical book so called, where none of the above things, namely, his prayer, and the speeches of the prophets, are to be found, at least not all; but in the annals of the kings of Israel, now lost.
2 Chronicles 33:19 19 Also his prayer and how God received his entreaty, and all his sin and trespass, and the sites where he built high places and set up wooden images and carved images, before he was humbled, indeed they are written among the sayings of Hozai.[d]
YLT 19and his prayer, and his entreaty, and all his sin, and his trespass, and the places in which he had built high places, and established the shrines and the graven images before his being humbled, lo, they are written beside the matters of Hozai.
His prayer also,.... Was not only recorded in the above annals, but in the writings of another person after mentioned:
and how God was entreated of him; heard his prayer, and showed him favour both in a temporal and spiritual way; for though the Jews would not allow that he was saved, or had a part in the world to come, eternal lifeF17Misn. Sanhedrin, c. 11. sect. 2. , yet there appears no just reason why it should be so thought:
and all his sin, and his trespass; his impieties, idolatries, and murders: and the places wherein he built high places; see 2 Chronicles 33:3.
and set up groves; statues in groves:
and graven images, before he was humbled; see 2 Chronicles 33:7,
behold, they are written among the sayings of the seers; or of Hosea, the name of a prophet who wrote the history of his own times; so the Targrim and Vulgate Latin version; and, according to the Jewish chronologyF18Seder Olam Zuta, p. 105. Ed. Meyer. , there was a prophet of this name in the times of Amon the son of Manasseh.
2 Chronicles 33:20 20 So Manasseh rested with his fathers, and they buried him in his own house. Then his son Amon reigned in his place.
YLT 20And Manasseh lieth with his fathers, and they bury him in his own house, and reign doth Amon his son in his stead.
So Manasseh slept with his fathers, and they buried him in his own house,.... That is, in the garden of his house; see Gill on 2 Kings 21:18; there; to which may be added, that the JewsF19Cippi Heb. p. 43. in later times buried in a garden; though it was the custom of the ancients, both GreeksF20Plato in Minoe. and RomansF21Servius in Virgil. Aeneid. 5. "praeterea si nova", & in l. 6. "sedibus hunc refer", &c. , to bury the dead in their own houses; hence sprung the worship of the Lares and Penates, the household gods: from hence to the end of the chapter is the same with 2 Kings 21:18.
2 Chronicles 33:21 21 Amon was twenty-two years old when he became king, and he reigned two years in Jerusalem.
YLT 21A son of twenty and two years [is] Amon in his reigning, and two years he hath reigned in Jerusalem,
2 Chronicles 33:22 22 But he did evil in the sight of the Lord, as his father Manasseh had done; for Amon sacrificed to all the carved images which his father Manasseh had made, and served them.
YLT 22and he doth the evil thing in the eyes of Jehovah, as did Manasseh his father, and to all the graven images that Manasseh his father had made hath Amon sacrificed, and serveth them,
2 Chronicles 33:23 23 And he did not humble himself before the Lord, as his father Manasseh had humbled himself; but Amon trespassed more and more.
YLT 23and hath not been humbled before Jehovah, like the humbling of Manasseh his father, for Amon himself hath multiplied guilt.
2 Chronicles 33:24 24 Then his servants conspired against him, and killed him in his own house.
YLT 24And his servants conspire against him, and put him to death in his own house,
2 Chronicles 33:25 25 But the people of the land executed all those who had conspired against King Amon. Then the people of the land made his son Josiah king in his place.
YLT 25and the people of the land smite all those conspiring against king
Amon, and the people of the land cause Josiah his son to reign in his stead.
──《John Gill’s Exposition of the Bible》
New King James Version (NKJV)