2 Chronicles Chapter Thirteen
2 Chronicles 13
Abijah overcomes Jeroboam.
Jeroboam and his people, by apostacy and idolatry, merited the severe punishment Abijah was permitted to execute upon them. It appears from the character of Abijah, 1 Kings 15:3, that he was not himself truly religious, yet he encouraged himself from the religion of his people. It is common for those that deny the power of godliness, to boast of the form of it. Many that have little religion themselves, value it in others. But it was true that there were numbers of pious worshippers in Judah, and that theirs was the more righteous cause. In their distress, when danger was on every side, which way should they look for deliverance unless upward? It is an unspeakable comfort, that our way thither is always open. They cried unto the Lord. Earnest prayer is crying. To the cry of prayer they added the shout of faith, and became more than conquerors. Jeroboam escaped the sword of Abijah, but God struck him; there is no escaping his sword.
── Matthew Henry《Concise Commentary on 2 Chronicles》
2 Chronicles 13
 Ought ye not to know that the LORD God of Israel gave the kingdom over Israel to David for ever, even to him and to his sons by a covenant of salt?
Of salt — By a perpetual covenant.
 And now ye think to withstand the kingdom of the LORD in the hand of the sons of David; and ye be a great multitude, and there are with you golden calves, which Jeroboam made you for gods.
Golden calves — There is that among you which may damp your confidence: you worship those images which God abhors.
 Have ye not cast out the priests of the LORD, the sons of Aaron, and the Levites, and have made you priests after the manner of the nations of other lands? so that whosoever cometh to consecrate himself with a young bullock and seven rams, the same may be a priest of them that are no gods.
Consecrate — To make himself a priest.
 But as for us, the LORD is our God, and we have not forsaken him; and the priests, which minister unto the LORD, are the sons of Aaron, and the Levites wait upon their business:
The Lord — Heb. Jehovah, the only true God.
We — Maintain his worship which you have rejected.
 And they burn unto the LORD every morning and every evening burnt sacrifices and sweet incense: the shewbread also set they in order upon the pure table; and the candlestick of gold with the lamps thereof, to burn every evening: for we keep the charge of the LORD our God; but ye have forsaken him.
Pure table — Made of pure gold, Exodus 25:23,24, he saith table and candlestick, though there were ten of each, because ordinarily there was but one of each used at a time for those uses.
We keep — Perhaps he flattered himself, that his keeping up the external worship of God would make satisfaction for the errors of his life.
 And, behold, God himself is with us for our captain, and his priests with sounding trumpets to cry alarm against you. O children of Israel, fight ye not against the LORD God of your fathers; for ye shall not prosper.
Trumpets — Upon the sounding whereof God hath solemnly promised to assist his people, Numbers 10:9.
The Lord — You have not only us for your enemies, but God, even the God whom your fathers served. It is folly to fight against the God of almighty power: but it is treachery and base ingratitude, to fight against your father's God.
 But Jeroboam caused an ambushment to come about behind them: so they were before Judah, and the ambushment was behind them.
Jeroboam — While Abijah was discoursing, Jeroboam takes the advantage of it to lay an ambush. It does not appear that he made any answer to all that Abijah said. The longest sword he thinks will determine the matter, not the better cause.
 Then the men of Judah gave a shout: and as the men of Judah shouted, it came to pass, that God smote Jeroboam and all Israel before Abijah and Judah.
Gave a shout — It is unspeakable comfort, that no stratagem or ambush can cut off our communication with heaven. To the cry of prayer they added the shout of faith, and so became more than conquerors.
 Neither did Jeroboam recover strength again in the days of Abijah: and the LORD struck him, and he died.
The Lord struck him — He escaped the sword of Abijah: but God struck him: there is no escaping his sword.
 But Abijah waxed mighty, and married fourteen wives, and begat twenty and two sons, and sixteen daughters.
Married — Not after this victory, for he died presently after it, but in the whole time of his life.
── John Wesley《Explanatory Notes on 2 Chronicles》
13 Chapter 13
And Abijah stood up upon mount Zemaraim.
A great speech
its claims concerning Judah. God recognised--
1. In the gift of the kingdom.
2. In the worship and services of the temple.
3. In the warfare of life.
II. In its accusations against Israel.
III. Its passionate appeal to the people.
1. Religion is appealed to.
2. History is appealed to.
3. Humanity is appealed to. (J. Wolfendale.)
Abijah’s speech is unique. There have been other instances where commanders have tried to make oratory take the place of arms. Sennacherib’s envoys. When Octavian was at war with his fellow-triumvir Lepidus he made a daring attempt to run over his enemy’s army. Riding openly into the hostile camp, he appealed to the soldiers by motives as lofty as those urged by Abijah, and called upon them to save their country from civil war by deserting Lepidus. At the moment his appeal failed, and he only escaped with a wound in his breast; but after a while his enemy’s soldiers came over to him in detachments, and eventually Lepidus was compelled to surrender to his rival. Another instance of a successful appeal to a hostile force is found in the history of the first Napoleon, when he was marching on Paris after his return from Elba. Near Grenoble he was met by a body of royal troops. He at once advanced to the front, and, exposing his breast, exclaimed to the opposing ranks, “Here is your emperor; if any one would kill me let him fire.” The detachment, which had been sent to arrest his progress, at once deserted to their old commander. (W. H. Bennett, M.A.)
The lessons of Abijah’s speech
These are two.
I. The importance of an official and duly accredited ministry. Every Church has in practice some official ministry, even those Churches that profess to owe their separate existence to the necessity of protesting against an official ministry. Men whose chief occupation is to denounce priestcraft may themselves be saturated with the sacerdotal spirit.
II. The importance of a suitable and authoritative ritual. Every Church, too, has its ritual. The silence of a Friends’ meeting is as much a rite as the most elaborate genuflexion before a highly ornamented altar. To regard either the absence or presence of rites as essential is equally ritualistic. The man who leaves his wonted place of worship because “Amen “ is sung at the end of a hymn is as bigoted a ritualist as his brother who dare not pass an altar without crossing himself. (W. H. Bennett, M. A.)
And behold, God Himself is with us for our captain
God with us
We have here--
A mysterious doctrine.
II. A comforting truth.
III. A solemn fact. (Bp. Montagu Villiers.)
Man’s extremity and God’s power to help
I. God’s people are often brought into extremities.
1. By their own foolish enterprises.
2. By the temptations of their enemies.
3. By the providence of God leading them, to test and train them.
II. God’s people are delivered by him in extremities.
1. By prayer: “They cried unto the Lord.”
2. By super-natural power. (J. Wolfendale.)
The Holy War
It is not my intention to discuss the merits of the quarrel between Judah and Israel. That is interesting history; but I am now to speak to you concerning our work and warfare for Christ our King. That we are engaged in a fierce struggle, with a powerful foe, must be admitted. Oh, let us understand at the outset that our warfare is real, earnest, desperate; that we are not playing at soldiering.
I. Let us reconnoitre the enemy. It is a great mistake, all too frequently made, to ignore the strength of our opponents, to fail to investigate their position and their practices. No general would think of conducting a campaign without the due precaution of reconnoitring. We shall do well in our war against error and iniquity, and all that is not of our God, to make all investigations, to send some forth to spy out the country to discover, if possible, what the enemy is designing against us.
1. Turning to this chapter we shall find that the enemy in this case consisted of rebels against the God-appointed authority. They were, in fact, insurgents, of whom the children of Judah said truly, “We keep the charge of the Lord of God; but ye have forsaken Him.” So the men of Judah had this to help them in their struggle--they knew that their position was one that God approved. They had not forsaken Him; they were by no means perfect, but they still held to David’s throne and to his rightful successor. They had the strength that always comes of the consciousness of right. “Right is might,” though some will have it that might is right. No, no! “He is thrice armed who hath his quarrel just” and I want to encourage my own heart and yours by saying: We are by no means all we should be, but by the grace of God we are what we are. The enemy has rebelled against God. These things with which we do battle are doomed to destruction, and we are authorised to help to hasten the coming of that doom.
2. I find, further, that these men of Israel were idolaters. They worshipped golden calves, and almost any man who wished could become a priest to those that were no gods. Our struggle also is against idolatry. I am speaking on behalf of foreign missions. Believe me, there is idolatry both here and there.
3. I find here again, that the children of Israel are spoken of as vain men, and children of Belial. There had gathered in that north country men of no repute, ne’er-do-wells, and those who had come to grief, empty-headed men--for such is the real meaning of the word “vain.” The children of Belial were utterly unprincipled, many of them were doubtless renegades, the castaways of society. We do not fight against those who have lost their reputation, who have sinned against the laws of our land, as well as against high heaven; we go out to try to save them, we do battle against unholiness, uncleanness, debauchery, and insobriety.
4. Further, if you look at this chapter, you will notice that the men of Israel were determined characters, o| whom it is written that “they strengthened themselves.” They were very numerous, but they did not trust to numbers, they took every precaution to ensure success. We may learn some lessons from our foes. How diligent they are, how active, how united. How earnestly they combine to defeat, if possible, the purposes of God, and our attempts to do His will. Oh, that we were as earnest as they! With a Master infinitely better, why should we not serve Him with twice as much zeal as they who serve the devil?
5. The numbers of Israel were very large, twice as many as Judah possessed; and oh, how many are the forces and principles of evil with which we have to contend! Ah! but let us remember that numbers are not everything. We shall have to remind one another presently that God is with us. How many count you Jehovah for? Yet we must not under-estimate the foe; they are numberless. Oh, that our forces were increased!
6. And, moreover, they are wily. Did you notice, as we read, how the king of Israel set an ambush against Abijah and his men? It was hardly a brave thing to do. Well, our enemy is not very particular how he goes to work. The serpent is still the most subtle of all the beasts of the field, but we are not ignorant of his devices.
II. What about our own forces? We must not sing our own praises, but to the glory of God, as we review our troops, we will declare, first, that we are His.
1. Moreover, we are well commanded. Did you notice what the king said in the 12th verse? “And behold God Himself is with us for our Captain.” When Napoleon went up and down among his troops on the eve of battle, he used to assure them that he was himself directing their battalions. That it was which nerved them for the fray. I think I hear my blessed Master saying, “Lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the age.” We bow before Thee, glorious Captain! Lead Thou us on! For Thou alone canst lead to victory.
2. Moreover, the priestly service, with the people of Judah, had never ceased. Morning and evening the lamb was slain, and the lamp was lighted, and the incensed waved. This was a sign that God was still honoured and obeyed. Ah, think of it! We are going forth to battle day by day, but our great High Priest before the Throne still pleads. “He ever liveth to make intercession for us.”
III. And now about the battle. We must not wonder, if, when beginning to fight for God, we find ourselves in a difficulty. These men did. They had not got to the battlefield before they were caught in an ambushment. There were foes behind them as well as in front of them. It is not the easiest thing in the world to fight those who attack us from behind. I know some who go out to serve the Lord, either in the home or in the foreign field, who, as soon as they find the battle wax hot against them, or discover themselves caught in a trap, begin to imagine that the battle is lost already, that they have made a mistake in taking up arms for God, and are like to turn tail forthwith, only the enemy is behind them, and they cannot! Ah! what a mistake is this! If God brings us into a crisis, it is that we may trust Christ. What is the best thing to do when we get into such a state? Why, just what these did. “They cried unto the Lord.” Was there time to pray, when there were enemies on either hand? Yes, yes, there is always time to pray. Praying time is not lost time. Let us cry unto the Lord of Hosts.
2. Then the priests sounded the trumpets to animate the people, to call them to their duty, to stir up within them their slumbering energies and dying courage. I warrant you they gave no uncertain sound. Those silver trumpets were made all of one piece, for God will have all His work united, symmetrical, and complete. Those silver trumpets sounded out their sweetest and their loudest at this critical juncture. Be it ours, leaders of the hosts of God, so to sound forth the Word of God that there shall be no mistake as to the meaning, and by our brave demeanour to encourage all the people.
3. Did you notice, next, that the rank and file commenced to shout? “The men of Judah shouted.” No, no! let us cry and shout, for great is the Holy One of Israel in the midst of us. The cry of prayer should be attended with the shout of faith, and if we shout not audibly in our services and meetings, let there be shoutings in the soul which the Lord our God can hear. The secret and gist of it all is here.
4. “They relied upon the Lord.” There was perfect confidence in heaven. Even in the midst of the clash of arms, even when they saw they had apparently been bested by this ambushment, they still trusted. Father, I will trust thee, for the work is Thine.
5. “They relied upon the Lord God of their fathers.” Oh! I like that word. “The God of Abraham!” The history of the patriarch flashes through their minds at the mention of his name. “The God of Isaac, and of Jacob,” and of David, with whom He had made a covenant of salt! This was the God they relied on, and this God is our God, the God of our fathers. Did He not treat our fathers well? Did He not glorify His name through them? Did He not make them pillars in the house of the Lord? What God has done, God can do. Let us trust Him.
6. As soon as they fully trusted Him, He began to work, and delivered Jeroboam into the hand of Abijah. Yes, the rule always holds good, “Them that honour Me I will honour.” If you trust Him in that little work you have in hand for God, He will use you.
7. Then we must follow up the work that God does. Abijah and his people slew their routed adversaries. “Abijah pursued them.”
8. And what about the spoils? When the work is done and the victory won, what about the booty? Ah! it belongs to Him who gave the power. All must be cast at Jesus’ feet. Have we not been often mistaken just here? We asked Him for power to serve, and thank God we got it; but when the victory was ours, we wanted to share the honour with the King. (T. Spurgeon.)
──《The Biblical Illustrator》