Ezra Chapter Ten
New King James Version (NKJV)
Ezra 10:1 Now while Ezra was praying, and while he was confessing, weeping, and bowing down before the house of God, a very large assembly of men, women, and children gathered to him from Israel; for the people wept very bitterly.
YLT And at Ezra's praying, and at his making confession, weeping and casting himself down before the house of God, there have been gathered unto him out of Israel an assembly very great -- men and women and children -- for the people have wept, multiplying weeping.
Now when Ezra had prayed,
and when he had confessed, weeping,
&c.] Had confessed the sins of the people in prayer and supplication, with many tears:
and casting himself down
before the house of God;
in the outward court before the temple, his face turned towards it, where he lay prostrate:
there assembled to him out
of Israel a very great congregation of men, and women, and children;
it was quickly spread abroad, both in Jerusalem and places adjacent, that such a great man, a commissioner from the king of Persia, and a priest of the Jews, was in the utmost distress, rending his garments, and plucking off his hair, and was crying and praying in a vehement manner; which brought a great concourse of people, who concluded some great sins were committed, and sore judgments were coming upon them:
for the people wept very
being affected with his confessions, cries, and tears, and fearing wrath would come upon them for their sins.
Ezra 10:2 And Shechaniah the son of Jehiel, one of the sons of Elam, spoke up and said to Ezra, “We have trespassed against our God, and have taken pagan wives from the peoples of the land; yet now there is hope in Israel in spite of this.
YLT And Shechaniah son of Jehiel, of the sons of Elam, answereth and saith to Ezra, `We -- we have trespassed against our God, and we settle strange women of the peoples of the land; and now there is hope for Israel concerning this,
we have trespassed against
our God, and have taken strange wives of the people of the land;
not that he had taken any himself, being but just come into the land, nor is his name in the list of those that had; but inasmuch as many of the nation, of which he was a part, and his own father, and several of his uncles had, ( Ezra 10:26 ) , he expresses himself in this manner:
yet now there is hope in
Israel concerning this thing;
of a reformation of this evil, and of pardon for it.
Ezra 10:3 Now therefore, let us make a covenant with our God to put away all these wives and those who have been born to them, according to the advice of my master and of those who tremble at the commandment of our God; and let it be done according to the law.
YLT and now, let us make a covenant with our God, to cause all the women to go out, and that which is born of them, by the counsel of the Lord, and of those trembling at the command of our God, and according to law it is done;
Now therefore let us make
a covenant with our God
Renew our covenant with him, and lay ourselves under fresh obligation by promise and oath, and unanimously agree
to put away all the wives,
and such as are born of them;
he means all the strange wives, such marriages being unlawful; and such wives might the more easily be put away, since bills of divorce were in frequent use with the Jews, and the children of such also being illegitimate; and the rather they were to be put away, lest they should corrupt other children, or get into the affections of their fathers, which might lead on to receive their mothers again, and especially this was to be done as a punishment of their sin: though no doubt but a provision was to be made, and was made, for the maintenance both of wives and children:
according to the counsel
of my Lord;
either of Ezra, whom he honours with this title, being a ruler under the king of Persia; or of the Lord God, according to his will declared in his words, which is his counsel:
and of those that tremble
at the commandment of our God;
feared to break it, and dreaded the effect of such a breach; and who no doubt would follow the counsel of the Lord, and join in their advice to act according to the proposal made:
and let it be done
according to the law;
as that directs in such cases.
Ezra 10:4 Arise, for this matter is your responsibility. We also are with you. Be of good courage, and do it.”
YLT rise, for on thee [is] the matter, and we [are] with thee; be strong, and do.'
From the ground, where he lay prostrate:
for this matter belongeth
as a priest and scribe of the law, well versed in it, and therefore could direct what was to be done according to it; and as a ruler under the king of Persia, and a commissioner of his, to inquire whether the law of God was observed by the Jews, ( Ezra 7:14 ) and so had authority to put the law in execution:
we also will be with thee;
to help and assist in the reformation of this evil:
be of good courage, and do
do not despair of going through it, though there may be some opposition to it; begin, and doubt not of succeeding.
Ezra 10:5 Then Ezra arose, and made the leaders of the priests, the Levites, and all Israel swear an oath that they would do according to this word. So they swore an oath.
YLT And Ezra riseth, and causeth the heads of the priests, the Levites, and all Israel, to swear to do according to this word -- and they swear.
Then arose Ezra
From the ground where he lay:
and made the chief
priests, and the Levites, and all Israel, to swear that they should do
according to this word:
he took an oath of all that were present to do what was proposed, namely, to put away strange wives and their children:
and they sware;
by means of which they were kept to their word of promise, an oath being a solemn, sacred, thing.
Ezra 10:6 Then Ezra rose up from before the house of God, and went into the chamber of Jehohanan the son of Eliashib; and when he came there, he ate no bread and drank no water, for he mourned because of the guilt of those from the captivity.
YLT And Ezra riseth from before the house of God, and goeth unto the chamber of Jehohanan son of Eliashib; yea, he goeth there, bread he hath not eaten, and water he hath not drunk, for he is mourning because of the trespass of the removal.
Then Ezra rose up from
before the house of God
Departed from thence:
and went into the chamber
of Johanan the son of Eliashib;
who was of the family of the high priest. Eliashib was grandson of Joshua the high priest, and succeeded his father Joiakim as such; but though Johanan was never high priest, being a younger son, however he was a person of note, and had a chamber in the temple, whither Ezra went, either to advise with the princes and elders in it, ( Ezra 10:8 ) or to refresh himself with food:
and when he came thither,
he did eat no bread, nor drink water;
or rather "not yet had he ate bread" F15, as some render it; that is, not till he came thither, from the time he first heard of the evil the people had committed; which very probably was early in the morning, and it was now evening:
for he mourned for the
transgression of them that had been carried away;
into captivity, but were now returned from it, and it grieved him the more, that, after such kindness shown them, they should be guilty of such an evil.
F15 (lka al) "nondum comederat", Junius & Tremellius, Piscator.
Ezra 10:7 And they issued a proclamation throughout Judah and Jerusalem to all the descendants of the captivity, that they must gather at Jerusalem,
YLT And they cause a voice to pass over into Judah and Jerusalem, to all sons of the removal, to be gathered to Jerusalem,
And they made proclamation
By the voice of an herald:
throughout Judah and
Jerusalem, unto all the children of the captivity;
who were returned from it:
that they should gather
themselves together unto Jerusalem;
within a time after mentioned.
Ezra 10:8 and that whoever would not come within three days, according to the instructions of the leaders and elders, all his property would be confiscated, and he himself would be separated from the assembly of those from the captivity.
YLT and every one who cometh not in by the third day, according to the counsel of the heads and of the elders, all his substance is devoted, and himself separated from the assembly of the removal.
And that whosoever would
not come within three days
Or at the end of three days, as Jarchi, this was the space of time allowed, and which was decided upon for the quick dispatch of this affair, to prevent any schemes that might be formed to obstruct it, and lest those who had agreed to it, and promised to assist in it, should repent and go from their word:
according to the counsel
of the princes, and of the elders;
for though Ezra had a commission at large from the king of Persia, to inquire into and reform all abuses, he chose not to act of himself, but to have the opinion and consent of the senate of the nation; this he prudently did to avoid their envy, and that he might have less opposition, and better success:
his substance should be
or "devoted" F16 to sacred uses, to be put into the treasury of the temple, and used in the service of it, and therefore never to be returned:
and himself separated from
the congregation of those that had been carried away;
into captivity, but now returned from it; that is, should be excommunicated from them as a church, and be no more reckoned of the body politic, or a freeman of Israel, and so deprived of all privileges both in church and state.
F16 (Mrxy) "anathema erit [vel] fore", Montanus, Junius & Tremellius, Piscator; "devoveretur", Michaelis.
Ezra 10:9 So all the men of Judah and Benjamin gathered at Jerusalem within three days. It was the ninth month, on the twentieth of the month; and all the people sat in the open square of the house of God, trembling because of this matter and because of heavy rain.
YLT And gathered are all the men of Judah and Benjamin to Jerusalem by the third day, it [is] the ninth month, on the twentieth of the month, and all the people sit in the broad place of the house of God, trembling on account of the matter and of the showers.
Then all the men of Judah
And such of the ten tribes that returned and dwelt among them:
together unto Jerusalem within three days;
the time fixed: which they were the more careful to observe, since it was enjoined by the authority of princes and elders, and the punishment in case of disobedience very severe:
it was the ninth month, on
the twentieth day of the month;
the month Chisleu, which answers to part of November and part of December, so that the twentieth day must be in the beginning of December; this was almost five months after Ezra came to Jerusalem:
and all the people sat in
the street of the house of God:
the street which led to the temple, the east street, ( 2 Chronicles 29:4 ) though some think this was the court of the people, called a street, because it lay open, not yet walled in; and, according to Josephus F17, it was in an upper room of the temple in which Ezra was, perhaps the same with the chamber of Johanan, ( Ezra 10:6 ) ,
trembling because of this
they were met about; some that were guilty, not knowing what punishment would be inflicted on them, and others that were not, yet dreaded the wrath of God, lest that should break out upon the whole congregation for it:
and for the great rain;
which now fell, and which they interpreted as a token of the divine displeasure: for though it was in winter time, yet not with them a time of rain, for the former rain had fallen a month before; so that this being unusual and unexpected, they understood it as betokening evil to them.
F17 Antiqu. l. 11. c. 5. sect. 4.
Ezra 10:10 Then Ezra the priest stood up and said to them, “You have transgressed and have taken pagan wives, adding to the guilt of Israel.
YLT And Ezra the priest riseth, and saith unto them, `Ye -- ye have trespassed, and ye settle strange women, to add to the guilt of Israel;
And Ezra the priest stood
In the midst of the assembly to make his speech, acquainting them with the reason of their meeting together:
and said unto them, ye
the law of God in the following instance:
and have taken strange
of the people of the land and others, idolatrous persons:
to increase the trespass
to add to former iniquities, which had been the cause of the captivity.
Ezra 10:11 Now therefore, make confession to the Lord God of your fathers, and do His will; separate yourselves from the peoples of the land, and from the pagan wives.”
YLT and, now, make confession to Jehovah, God of your fathers, and do His good pleasure, and be separated from the peoples of the land, and from the strange women.'
Now therefore make
confession to the Lord God of your fathers,
&c.] Of their sin, and express their detestation of it, and repentance for it:
and do his pleasure;
obey his will, and particularly in this case:
and separate yourselves
from the people of the land;
the Canaanites, &c. have no fellowship with them, make no covenants, contracts, and alliances with them for the future;
and from the strange wives;
they had taken; put them away.
Ezra 10:12 Then all the assembly answered and said with a loud voice, “Yes! As you have said, so we must do.
YLT And all the assembly answer and say [with] a great voice, `Right; according to thy word -- on us to do;
Then all the congregation
answered and said with a loud voice,
&c.] That they might be heard, and to show that they were willing and ready to comply with what was proposed:
as thou host said, so must
being convinced of their sin, they saw it was a duty incumbent on them to put away their strange wives, and that there was a necessity of it, to avert the wrath of God from them.
Ezra 10:13 But there are many people; it is the season for heavy rain, and we are not able to stand outside. Nor is this the work of one or two days, for there are many of us who have transgressed in this matter.
YLT but the people [are] many, and [it is] the time of showers, and there is no power to stand without, and the work [is] not for one day, nor for two, for we have multiplied to transgress in this thing.
But the people are many
Who have been guilty of this evil:
and it is a time of much
rain, and we are not able to stand without:
in the street, because of the rain:
neither is this a work of
one day or two;
to inquire into this affair, who they are that have taken strange wives, and to persuade or oblige them to put them away:
for we are many that have
transgressed in this thing;
in marrying strange wives.
Ezra 10:14 Please, let the leaders of our entire assembly stand; and let all those in our cities who have taken pagan wives come at appointed times, together with the elders and judges of their cities, until the fierce wrath of our God is turned away from us in this matter.”
YLT `Let, we pray thee, our heads of all the assembly stand, and all who [are] in our cities, who have settled strange wives, do come in at the times appointed, and with them the elders of city and city, and its judges, till the turning back of the fury of the wrath of our God from us, for this thing.'
Let now our rulers of all
the congregations stand
Let the great sanhedrim, or court of judicature at Jerusalem, be fixed and continued, and others:
and let all them which
have taken strange wives in our cities come at appointed times;
to the court at Jerusalem, at certain and fixed known times of their sittings there for this purpose:
and with the elders of
every city and the judges thereof;
the principal magistrates of it, who were to testify that upon search and inquiry those were the men and all the men in their city, that had taken strange wives, and that they had put them away according to the order of the princes and elders; and this they proposed to be done in every city, and the account to be brought to the sanhedrim at Jerusalem, who were to sit at certain times till this affair was finished:
until the fierce wrath of
our God for this matter be turned from us:
which it seems had broke out in some instances, and they feared would do yet more, unless this step was taken, whereby they hoped it would be averted.
Ezra 10:15 Only Jonathan the son of Asahel and Jahaziah the son of Tikvah opposed this, and Meshullam and Shabbethai the Levite gave them support.
YLT Only Jonathan son of Asahel, and Jahaziah son of Tikvah, stood against this, and Meshullam, and Shabbethai the Levite, helped them.
Only Jonathan the son of
Asahel, and Jahaziah the son of Tikvah, were employed about the matter
To see that this affair was conducted in the manner proposed; that the magistrates of every city brought the persons that had been delinquents, in their turns, of which they gave them notice, and took the account of them as they came:
and Meshullam and
Shabbethai the Levite helped them;
assisted them in this work; the other two perhaps were priests, and both these Levites; and these four were the only persons appointed over this matter, as the phrase in the preceding clause may signify; though Jarchi interprets it to a quite contrary sense, that they were the only persons that opposed and objected to it; and so Dr. Lightfoot F18 understands it, and renders it, "stood against this matter"; in which they were seconded by the two Levites, and the sense is very probable.
F18 Works, vol. 1. p. 144.
Ezra 10:16 Then the descendants of the captivity did so. And Ezra the priest, with certain heads of the fathers’ households, were set apart by the fathers’ households, each of them by name; and they sat down on the first day of the tenth month to examine the matter.
YLT And the sons of the removal do so, and Ezra the priest, [and] men, heads of the fathers, for the house of their fathers, are separated, even all of them by name, and they sit on the first day of the tenth month, to examine the matter;
And the children of the
captivity did so
Put away their strange wives:
and Ezra the priest, with
certain chief of the fathers, after the house of their fathers, and all of them
by their names, were separated;
from all their other business, and gave themselves up to attend to this wholly:
and sat down in the first
day of the tenth month;
the month Tebeth, which answers to part of December and January; this was ten days after the assembly of all the people met and broke up: these took their places in the great court, and there sat
to examine the matter;
the accounts brought in from the several cities by the magistrates thereof, and recorded them.
Ezra 10:17 By the first day of the first month they finished questioning all the men who had taken pagan wives.
YLT and they finish with all the men who have settled strange women unto the first day of the first month.
And they made an end with
all the men that had taken strange wives
Finished their inquiry and examination of them:
by the first day of the
the month Nisan, answering to part of March and April; so that they were three months about this work.
YLT And there are found of the sons of the priests that have settled strange women: of the sons of Jeshua son of Jozadak, and his brethren, Maaseiah, and Eliezer, and Jarib, and Gedaliah;
And among the sons of the
priests there were found that had taken strange wives
So that it need not be wondered at that this evil should spread among the people, when those who understood the law, and should have instructed the people in it, set such an example: namely,
of the sons of Jeshua the
son of Jozadak;
who was the high priest; and perhaps for this fault of his, in not restraining his sons from such unlawful marriages, is he represented in filthy garments, ( Zechariah 3:3 ) ,
and his brethren,
Maaseiah, and Eliezer, and Jarib, and Gedaliah;
these were the brethren of Jeshua.
Ezra 10:19 And they gave their promise that they would put away their wives; and being guilty, they presented a ram of the flock as their trespass offering.
YLT and they give their hand to send out their wives, and, being guilty, a ram of the flock, for their guilt.
Ezra 10:19~43Ver. 19-43. And they
gave their hands that they would put away their wives
They proposed to do it, and actually did it:
and being guilty;
of which they were fully convinced:
they offered a ram of the
flock for their trespass;
to make atonement for it, and thereby set an example to others to do the like. Aben Ezra observes, that we do not find that the trespass offering was a mulct to such who married strange wives, and conjectures, that it was the advice of the chief men to do it. From hence, to the end of ( Ezra 10:43 ) , is a list of the men that had married strange wives, and put them away; those in ( Ezra 10:20-22 ) , were priests; in ( Ezra 10:23 Ezra 10:24 ) , Levites, and those of them who were singers or porters; the rest were Israelites: and it is a very common distinction, in rabbinical writers, to distinguish the Jews into priests, Levites, and Israelites; of these we know no more than their names; some of the heads of the families may be observed in ( Ezra 2:1 ) .
Ezra 10:20 Also of the sons of Immer: Hanani and Zebadiah;
YLT And of the sons of Immer: Hanani and Zebadiah;
Ezra 10:21 of the sons of Harim: Maaseiah, Elijah, Shemaiah, Jehiel, and Uzziah;
YLT and of the sons of Harim: Masseiah, and Elijah, and Shemaiah, and Jehiel, and Uzziah;
Ezra 10:22 of the sons of Pashhur: Elioenai, Maaseiah, Ishmael, Nethanel, Jozabad, and Elasah.
YLT and of the sons of Pashhur: Elioenai, Maaseiah, Ishmael, Nethaneel, Jozabad, and Elasah.
Ezra 10:23 Also of the Levites: Jozabad, Shimei, Kelaiah (the same is Kelita), Pethahiah, Judah, and Eliezer.
YLT And of the Levites: Jozabad, and Shimei, and Kelaiah -- he [is] Kelita, -- Pethahiah, Judah, and Eliezer.
Ezra 10:24 Also of the singers: Eliashib; and of the gatekeepers: Shallum, Telem, and Uri.
YLT And of the singers: Eliashib. And of the gatekeepers: Shallum, and Telem, and Uri.
Ezra 10:25 And others of Israel: of the sons of Parosh: Ramiah, Jeziah, Malchiah, Mijamin, Eleazar, Malchijah, and Benaiah;
YLT And of Israel: of the sons of Parosh: Ramiah, and Jeziah, and Malchijah, and Miamin, and Eleazar, and Malchijah, and Benaiah.
Ezra 10:26 of the sons of Elam: Mattaniah, Zechariah, Jehiel, Abdi, Jeremoth, and Eliah;
YLT And of the sons of Elam: Mattaniah, Zechariah, and Jehiel, and Abdi, and Jeremoth, and Elijah.
Ezra 10:27 of the sons of Zattu: Elioenai, Eliashib, Mattaniah, Jeremoth, Zabad, and Aziza;
YLT And of the sons of Zattu: Elioenai, Eliashib, Mattaniah, and Jeremoth, and Zabad, and Aziza.
Ezra 10:28 of the sons of Bebai: Jehohanan, Hananiah, Zabbai, and Athlai;
YLT And of the sons of Bebai: Jehohanan, Hananiah, Zabbai, Athlai.
YLT And of the sons of Bani: Meshullam, Malluch, and Adaiah, Jashub, and Sheal, and Ramoth.
Ezra 10:30 of the sons of Pahath-Moab: Adna, Chelal, Benaiah, Maaseiah, Mattaniah, Bezalel, Binnui, and Manasseh;
YLT And of the sons of Pahath-Moab: Adna, and Chelal, Benaiah, Maaseiah, Mattaniah, Bezaleel, and Binnui, and Manasseh.
Ezra 10:31 of the sons of Harim: Eliezer, Ishijah, Malchijah, Shemaiah, Shimeon,
YLT And of the sons of Harim: Eliezer, Ishijah, Malchiah, Shemaiah, Shimeon,
Ezra 10:32 Benjamin, Malluch, and Shemariah;
YLT Benjamin, Malluch, Shemariah.
Ezra 10:33 of the sons of Hashum: Mattenai, Mattattah, Zabad, Eliphelet, Jeremai, Manasseh, and Shimei;
YLT Of the sons of Hashum: Mattenai, Mattathah, Zabad, Eliphelet, Jeremai, Manasseh, Shimei.
Ezra 10:34 of the sons of Bani: Maadai, Amram, Uel,
YLT Of the sons of Bani: Maadai, Amram, and Uel,
YLT Benaiah, Bedeiah, Cheluhu,
Ezra 10:36 Vaniah, Meremoth, Eliashib,
YLT Vaniah, Meremoth, Eliashib,
YLT Mattaniah, Mattenai, and Jaasau,
Ezra 10:38 Bani, Binnui, Shimei,
YLT and Bani, and Binnui, Shimei,
Ezra 10:39 Shelemiah, Nathan, Adaiah,
YLT and Shelemiah, and Nathan, and Adaiah,
Ezra 10:40 Machnadebai, Shashai, Sharai,
YLT Machnadbai, Shashai, Sharai,
Ezra 10:41 Azarel, Shelemiah, Shemariah,
YLT Azareel, and Shelemiah, Shemariah,
Ezra 10:42 Shallum, Amariah, and Joseph;
YLT Shallum, Amariah, Joseph.
YLT Of the sons of Nebo: Jeiel, Mattithiah, Zabad, Zebina, Jadau, and Joel, Benaiah;
Ezra 10:44 All these had taken pagan wives, and some of them had wives by whom they had children.
YLT all these have taken strange women, and there are of them women -- who adopt sons.
All these had taken
In all about one hundred and thirteen:
and some of them had wives
by whom they had children;
and yet they put them away, which made it the more difficult for them to do; and those that had none, it is thought to be a mark of God's displeasure at such marriages. No mention being made of the children being put away, as Shechaniah proposed, ( Ezra 10:3 ) , it may be concluded they were not, but were taken care of, to be educated in the true religion, and entered proselytes at a proper time; and the rather, as Ezra gave no orders about their putting away, ( Ezra 10:11 ) .
──《John Gill’s Exposition of the Bible》
New King James Version (NKJV)
b. Ezra 10:29 Or Jeremoth
c.Ezra 10:35 Or Cheluhi, or Cheluhu
d. Ezra 10:37 Or Jaasu
e. Ezra 10:43 Or Jaddu